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SAILS AND SAILMAKING 



WITH DRAUGHTING, AND THE CENTRE OF EFFORT 
OF THE SAILS 



ALSO, WEIGHTS AND SIZES OF BOFES ; MASTING, RIGGING, AND 
SAILS OF STEAM VESSELS, ETO. 



ILLUSTRATED WITH NUMBB0U8 WOODCUTS 

By ROBERT KIPPING, N.A. 

SAILMAKBB, QUATSIDB, NBWOASTLB 
AUTHOR OF "KASTZNG, MASTMAKING, AND RIOOINO OP SHIPS " 

jfawcUmt^ etftton 




^apw^puner. 



LONDON 

CROSBY LOCKWOOD AND SON 

7, STATIONERS* HALL COURT, LUDGATE HILL 
1898 
1^ N n f A .• ' r> digitized by CiOOgle 



E 

y 



-w-^ S3or. ^X 



HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY 
FROM THE LIBRARY OF 

FRANCIS PEABODY MAGOUN 

THE GIFT OF HIS SON 

MAY £11929 



B 



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PREFACE. 



TfLK Author is much gratified by the fEtvoiirable 
reception which has been accorded to previous editions 
of his work, and by the sale of the last edition in so 
short a time. With an earnest desire to render each 
new edition more deserving of such public patronage, 
he has taken care to careftiUy revise the whole, making 
the corrections which he found to be necessary ; and 
h^s, he hopes, improved the work by incorporating 
with it the most recent information afforded by modern 
practice and study. He has struck out some plans 
that have been totally abandoned, and has filled up 
the portions of vacant space, lefb by these omissions, 
with new matter, such as the recent Invention of 
Self-reefing and FurUng Sails, by Colling and Pink- 
ney; Rules for Measuring a Mizen or Spanker, with 
gaff fixed and boom unshipped; a Jib upon a new 
formation or construction of the canvass ; a Table of 
Squares (which will be found very useful for deter- 
mining the foot-gore of any fore and aft mainsail); 
and a Cutting-Board, or Table, by Charles Pit^ard, by 
the use of which the foreman or master sailmaker, who 
may avail himself of it, will be enabled, easily y to keep 

, Digitized by CjOOQIC 



[y P&EFACS. 

twenty or thirty men employed without the assistance 
of a boy to hold up, or of going down upon his knees 
to mark his gores on the floor. The cost, complete, of 
one of these tables, made in London, is £5. The 
utility of such an invention is well worthy the atten- 
tion of practical men. 

The arrangement of the present work, as in previous 
editions, is such that everything is treated in a con- 
secutive manner, with distinctive heads under each 
chapter. The Author would refer, in illustration, to 
his Table of Cloths, which has been found of great 
service to the working saUmaker, and which dispenses 
with calculation as to the number of inches the seams 
and tablings eat-in ; also, to the Table of the Givings 
of Gores, as being the groundwork of the whole 
practice of cutting out sails ; and, also, to numerous 
other tables, calculations, and examples, which are 
given copiously throughout the work. Also, additional 
illustrations in carefully-executed engravings. 

The Appendix contains new and important matter; 
and, as the whole work is applicable to all descriptions 
of. vessels, whether sailing or steam — including gun- 
boats and screw-colliers, Ac. — the Author believes that 
his work will be of service to a numerous class, and at 
a price within the reach of all. 

R. K. 



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CONTENTS. 

PART I— SECTION FIRST. 

CHAPTER I, 

OK DBSCBimOK AND USE OF SAILS. 

Ibe Description and Use of Sails. — The Combination of TrianeuUr 
and Qoadrangalar Sails. — Eveiy System of Sails contains [DiTee 
or Four Sides — Sails extended by Yards, or by Yards, Booms, 
and Stays. — Principal Sails of a Ship. — The Courses, what they 
are. — ^Names of the different parts of Sails. — Extending SaUs to 
the Yards, &o. — Sails derive their Names from the Mast, Yard, 
or Stay on which they are extended.— Ropes employed for Expand- 
ing Sails. — The use of the Jib and Flying-Jib. —The Head Sails 
and After Sails, to counteract each other.— When the Courses are 
. used.— The most important Evolutions made by a Ship under the 
Topsails ^ 1 

OHAFTEB n. 

OK MEASUBIKO. 

On Measuring Masts, Yards, Booms, &o., on board.— The full Extent 
is Measured. — Measuring for Topsails, Topgallant-Sails, and Boyals, 
with Remarks thereon. — Measuring Courses: — Fore -Course, 
Boom-Foresail, Main-Course, Staysails. — Fore and Aft Mainsails, 
TrysaUs, Gaff-Topsails, Studding -Sails — Awnings : — Forecastle 
.Awning, Maindeck Awning, Quarter-Deck Awning, Poop or After- 
Awning, and Curtains to Awnings 

CHAPTER UL 

RULES FOR FDTDIKG THE NUMBER OF CLOTHS, 

The Seams and Tablings vaiy in the Breadth, according to the &ze of 
the Sail. — Heads of Topsails and Courses : what gives the Kumber 
of Cloths. — Heads of Topgallant Sails : what gives the Kumber of 
Cloths. —Table showing the Number of Cloths. — The Foot of 
Trysails and Mizens: what gives the Number of Cloths. — For the 
Heads of Mizens. — For the Foot of a Jib. — Given the Number of 
Cloths in the Head and Foot, and the Length of the Beef, to find 
the Hollow In the Two Leeches m ^ 



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VI CONTENTS. 

OHAPTEBiy, 

ON FINDING THE QUANTITY OF YABDS IN SAILS. 

the Qeaenl Practice among SaUmakers.— Bulea nsefal in Making out 
Estimates. — ^Bules for Finding the Qxiantity of Yards in the Main 
«nd Fore Courses, Topsails, &o, « 958 

SECTION SEOONB. 

OHAFTEB I. 

ON CUTTING-OXTT SAILS. 

All SaUs are Oat-ont Cloth by doth.—Sqnare-headed Sails, the Cloths 
in the Centre are out Square to the Depth. — The Cloths whidi 
are cat Slopewise, or Goring, onght to oe Nimibered 1, 2, 3, &c , 
to prevent mistakes when bringing the Cloths together. — How to 
cat the Leeches of Courses, Topstols, &c. — Bule for finding the 
Depth of the Leech-Gores, when the Leeches are cut straight. — 
When the Leeches of Topsails are cut Hollow, how to Calculate 
the Gores. — ^Fore-and-Aft Sails, where to commence to cut them. — 
Sails that have Bonnets. —Table showing the Length of the Gores, 
corresponding to the Depth of the Selvage, with the £ating-in of 
Seams. — Use of the Table.— Practical Examples 30 

CHAPTER n. 

GENERAL RULES AND INSTRUCTIONS FOR MAKING SAILS. 

The Materials used :— Canvass— the best Canvass— the different Sorts, 
distinguished by numbers. — Selecting Canvass — ^Twine, spun of the 
best Flax. — Making of Sails : — Seams, Tablings, &c.— linings.— 
Holes and Grommets. — Bolt-Bope, the Method by which it ought 
to be made. — Bolt-Bope Table. — Bules for finding the number 
of Threads or Yams that go to make a Bope.— To find the Wdght 
of One Fathom of any sized Bope. — To find what Length Cbe 
Fathom of Bope stretches, as it comes down in size. — ^Table of the 
Circumference, in inches, of Bolt-Bope, for Sails for Ships, Barques, 
&c. — ^Bolt-Bope, Sewing it on. — Clues :— Iron Clues.— The advan- 
tages of Cringles over turned Clues. — Cringles : — Earing Cringles, 
Beef and Beef -Tackle Cringles, Points, Bowline (Angles. — 
Splices '.—Lengthening a Bope with One Strand 3S 

CHAPTER in. 

PRACTICAL OPERATIONS IN SAILMAKING. 

Courses :— Main-Course : Bule for determiningthe Depth of the Leech 
and Head — ^Dimensions for Cutting-Out— ^o detennine the Size of 
a Square-Mainsail for a Brig — Dimensions for Cutting-Out. — 
ilTote-^Bule for finding the Gore at the Top of BuntHne Cloths, 
inclined inwards.^Beefing Courses to Jack-Stays. — Fore-Course : — 
Dimensions for Cutting-Out— Boom Foresail— Ship's Gross-Jack- 
sail- TopsaUs— Main, Fore, and Mizen— Bule for determining the 
Hoist, Head, Close-Beef, and Foot. — Topgallant Sails : — Main, 
Fore, and Mizen — Bule for determining the Hoist, Head, and 
Foot. — Boyals :— Main, Fore, and Mizen— Bule for determining the 
SuHBt, Head, and Foj^t,,.. r..nM,M m <9 



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OOKCTNTB. vi)' 

OHAFTEB lY. 

ON rOBE-ANI> AFT SAILS. 

OfD flat Sails in general —How the Wind strikes the Sail in Tandag 
r to "Windward.-— The way to make Flat Fore-and-Aft Sails —Jibs :— 
Hying Jib^-Standing Jio — ^Angulated Jibs. — Spanker. — ^Trysails. — 
Ga£f-Tm)6ail8. — Staysails : — Fore-Topmast-Stavsails — Fore-Stay- 
sails — Main-Staysail — A Collier^s Mam-Staysail — Main-Topmast- 
Staysail— Main-Topgallant-Staysail —Royal-Staysail — Mizen-Stay- 
sail— Misen-Topmast-Staysail— Mizen-Topgallant-St^ysail, &o 19 

PABT n.— SECTION FIRST. 

CHAPTEB I. 

MASTING, BIGGma, AND SAILS OF STEAM-YESSEIA 

Remarks on the Anxiliary Application of the Sorew-PropeUer to Sailing 
Vessels in the Armed and Commercial Navies of this Conntzy. — 
Mastuu^ Steam Vessels. — Dimensions of Masts and Spars tor a 
Three-Decker, 131 Gnns.— Description of the Armament of Gnn* 
Boats. — Dimensions of the Masts and Sails for a Steam Screw 
Chm-Boai of 232 tons— DimensiaiiB of the Masts, Sails, &c., for a 
Steam Screw Collier 105 

CHAPTER U. 
ON BOAT SAIL& 

Deseription of Boats :— Boats' Spritsails.— Cntter, with Sprit-tf aansall 
and Jib— Boats' Lngsails.— 2S-feet Cntter, with Fore and Mizen 
liogsails. — 18-f eet Gig, with Chie Lugsail. — Bermnda Schooner 
Biflged, with Short Gami. — Common Schooner Bigged — Settee- 
Sails.— Lateen Sails.— Xebeo.—Slid5ng-Gmiter Sails.— Herring Boat 

SEOnON SECOND. 

OHAPTEB L 
ON DBAUGHTING AND CENTRE OF EFFORT OF THE SAILS. 

Pvactical Geometry. — Fraoiical Methods of Constnioting Sails: — 
Main-Course :— to Draw the Plan.— Main-TopsaiL — Main-Topgal- 
lantsftil. — Main-BoyaL— The Sails on the Fore and Mizen Masts. — 
Jib.— Driver 129 

CHAPTER n. 
ON THE CENTRE OF EFFORT. 

To find the Positions of the Centre of Gravity of the Sails, according to 
their form.— To find the Centre of Effort of the Sails.— The Place 
ci the Centre of Effort to produce the best Effect.— The Situation 
of the Point of Sail, as to Height, made by comparison with 
other Ships. — ^The Effect produced on the Sails, best determined 
by Expenments. — Balancing the Ship in a Wind. — The correct 
Bdation of tiie Fore and After Moments of Sail. — Estimating the 
Power of a Sail to Kaise or Depress a Ship's Head. — To find 
ProportionB for Placing Masts in Vessels 131 



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yiU 00KTBHT8. 

TABLES. 

Of the Dimeiudons of Jibs, MaiiuailB, &o., relative to evenr GlaM of 
YeiBels 146 

APPENDIX 

Full Details and Practical Working^ of Cunningham's Patent System 
of Self-Beefing Top8ail8.-*Howe'8 Patent iUg.--Golling and Hnk- 
ney's Patent Self-Beefing and Furling Saiu. — ^Pittard's Cutting 
Board or Table.— PittardTs Angulated Jib.— Pittard's Method of 
Measuring for a Mizen, with gaff fixed and boom unshipped. — 
Direetions for Cutting Triangulw Lower Studding-sails. — ^Tabla of 
Squares.— Sails of Tachts .••,. t6l 



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ON 

SAILS AND SAILMAKING. 



PART I. 



SECTION FIRST. 

CHAPTER I. 

ON DESCRIPTION AND USE OF SAILS. 

The description and use of Sails.— The combination of triangular &n4 
quadrangular sails.— Every system of sails contains three or foul 
sides.— Sails extended by yards, or by yards, booms, and stays.^ 
Principal sails of a ship —The courses, what they are.— Names of the 
difliprent parts of sails.— Extending sails to the yards, &c.— Sails 
derire their names from the mast, yard, or stay on which they are 
extended.— Ropes employed for expanding sails. — ^The use of the jib 
and flying-jib.— The head sails and after sails, to counteract each 
other.— When the courses are used.— The most important evolutions 
made by a ship under the topsails. 

Sails are an assemblage of several breadths of canvass, or 
other texture, sewed together, and extended on or between the 
masts, to receive the wind and impel the vessel through the water. 
The edges of the cloths, or pieces, of which a sail is composed 
are generally sewed together with a double seam, and the whole 
is skirted round at the edges with a cord called the bolt-rope. 

It would appear from writers on the ancient navies that the 
earliest known sails for propelling vessels were made square, and 
could be shifted so as to receive the wind in whatever its direc- 
tion might be. They were attached to a yard, and transversely 
erected on a single mast, which was fixed in the middle of the 
ship, the hole in which it was inserted being called by the Greeks 
fueo^firj, which in English means the step. To the advantage 
gained by the quadrangular sails we find added, at a very early 
period, the triangular 8£uls. These seem to be the prevailing forms 
of all sails up to the present time ; and these two forms of sails 



% TBEATISB ON SAILS AND SAILMAKINO. 

were used at very early periods, by the Oarthaginiam^ Egyptians, 
Greeks, and PhoeniciuuB, who were, without doubt, the earliest 
navigators that passed the Pillars of Hercules. 

The Ancients, as they increased the size of their vesselB, found 
it necessary to give them more than one mast and a sul This 
we find was the case in the vessels of great magnitude built by 
Ammon, 1030 years B.C., for we are informed that he built long 
and high ships impelled by sails, on the Mediterranean. The 
fleets which were sent against Syracuse, about 208 years B.C., 
had three, and even four masts. With regard to the Modems, 
all ships, properly so called, are, as already observed^ furnished 
with three masts. Those which have only one mast, or two, are 
not called ships by seamen, but vary their names according to 
the method of rigging. 

In every system, whatever may be the number or shape of the 
sails, they all contain either three or four sides — that is, are 
either triangular or quadrilateral The former of these, or 
three-sided, are sometimes spread by a yard, as lateen sails, or 
by a stay, as staysails, or by a mast, as shoulder-of-mutton sails ; 
in all which cases the foremost leech or edge is attached to the 
yard, mast, or stay, throughout its whole length. 

The latter, or those which are four-sided, are either extended 
by yards, as the principal sails of a ship, or by yards and 
booms, as the studding sails,. drivers, ringtails, and all those 
sails which are set occasionally ; or by gaffii and booms, as the 
mainsails of sloops and brigantines. 

The priincipal sails of a ship are : — ^The courses, or lower sails ; 
the topsails, which are next in order above the courses ; and 
the top-gallant-sails, which are extended above the topsails. 

The courses are : — ^The mainsail and foresail, main-staysail, 
fore-staysail, and mizen-staysaiL The main-staysail is rarely 
used, except in small vessels. 

In all quadrilateral sails, the upper edge is called the head ; 
the sides, or skirts, are called the leeches ; and the bottom, or 
lower edge, is termed the foot If the head is parallel to the 
foot, the lower comers are denominated clues, and the upper 
comers earings. 

In ail triangular sails, and in those four-sided sails in which 
the head is not parallel to the foot, the foremost comer at the 
foot is called the tack, and the after-lower comer the clue. The 
foremost head is called the fore-leech, or luff, and the hind- 
most tho after-leech. 

The heads of most four-sided sails, and fore-leeches of lateen 



ON DESCRIPTION AND USB OP SAILS. 8 

MiLa^ are attached to their respective yards, or gaiis, by rope- 
yams, called stoppers, or by a lacing ; and the upper extremi- 
ties are made fast by earings. 

The staysails are extended upon stays between the masts, 
whereon they are drawn up or down ; and their lower parts ar<3 
stretched out by a tack and sheet 

The mainsAil and foresail have a rope, and a large single 
block, or chain, made fast to each clue. The ropes or chains, 
called tacks, lead forward to the chess-trees and bumkins; and 
the block receives a thick rope from afb, which is termed the 
sheet 

The clues of the topsails are drawn out to the extremities of 
the sheave-holes, on the lower yards, by two chains called top- 
sail-sheets; and the clues of the topgallant sails are in like 
maimer extended upon the topsail-yards, close home to the 
sheave-holes, by chains called topgallant sheets. The royals 
are set above the topgallant-sails, and skysails above the royals; 
and above them are sometimes sails called moonsails, and star- 
gazers; and the dues of the royalsails have sheets leading 
through sheaves, or holes, of the top-gallant yard-arms. 

Studding-sails are set beyond the leeches, or skirts, of the 
foresail, topsail, topgallant-sail, and royal, their upper and 
lower edges being extended by yards, and booms run out be- 
yond the extremities of the yards for this purpose. These sails 
are, however, only used in favourable winds and moderate 
weather. 

All sails derive their names from the mast, yard, or stay upon 
which they are extended, or to which they are attached. Thus, 
the principal sail extended upon the mainmast is called the 
mainsail, or maincourse ; the next above, which stands upon the 
main-topmast, is termed the main-topsail ; that which spreads 
upon the main-topgallant-mast, is named the main-top^dlant- 
sail ; and the sails above it are called the main-royal and main- 
skysaiL 

In the same maimer there are the foresail, or fore-course, 
fore-topsail, fore-topgallant-sail, and fore-royal; the mizen, or 
driver, mizen-topsaO, mizen-topgallant-sail, and mizen-royaL 
Thus, also, there are the fore-trysail, main-trysail, and mizen- 
trysail ; or, as they are sometimes called, the fore-spencer, Duke 
of York, or main-spencer, and storm-mizen, or storm-driver, or 
spanker ; the main-staysail, main-topmast-staysail, main-top- 
^dlant-staysail, and a middle-staysail, which stands between the 
two last All these staysails are between the main and fore-maete. 



i TBEA.TISE ON SAILS AND SAILMaSINO. 

The staysails are denommated from the stays ; '^ *^d there are 
the mken-staysail, the mizen-topmast-staysaily t. miz^-top- 
gallant-staysail, and sometiines a iniz6n-rqyul-stays& and main- 
spilling-fitaysaiL 

The sails between the foremast and the bowsprit are tht 
foroHstaysail^ the fore-topmast-staysail, the jib, and the flyin^jib, 
and even a middle-jib. 

The studding-sails being extended upon the different yards of 
the mainmast and foremast, are also named according ta their 
stations, as the lower-studdingsail, topmast-studdingsail, t^ 
gallant-studdingsail, and royal studdingsaiL 

The ropes by which the lower yards of a ship are hoisted to 
their proper height on the masts, are called purchaser The 
sails are expanded by halliards, tacks, sheets, and bowlines, and 
are drawn up together, or trussed up, by buntlines, clue-garnets, 
leech-lines, reef-tackles, slab-lines, and spilling-lines. The 
studding-sails, and the jibs and staysails, are drawn down, so as 
to be ti^en in or reefed, by down-hauls ; and the courses, top- 
sails, and topgallant-sails hauled about the mast or the yardis, 
so as to suit the various directions of the wind, by braces or 
the yards. 

Tbe ^ is a sail of great command with any side wind, but 
especially when the sMp is close-hauled, or has the wind upon 
her beam ; and its effect in casting the ship, or turning her 
head to leeward, is veiy powerful, and of great utility, parti- 
cularly when the ship is working through a narrow channel 

TheJ^ng-jib is a sail much used in fine light winds, set upon 
a boom, and rigged out b^ond the jib-boom ; and several ships 
have got an inner-jib, a similar sail, set between the fore- 
topmast-staysail and standing-jib, the tack of which is made 
&8t near half-way down on the jib-boom. 

The qfter-^ailsy which are those that belong to the mainmast 
and mizenmast, keep the ship to windward ; on which account^ 
ships sailing on a quarterly wind require a head-sail and an 
after-sail — one to counteract the other. 

When a ship sails with a side wind, the dues of the fore and 
main courses are fastened by a tack and sheet, the tack being to 
windward and the sheet to leeward. The tack is, however, only 
disused with a stem wind, whereas the sail is never spread 
without the assistance of one or both of the sheets. 

It is under the topsails that many important evolutions are 
made, espedally in time of emergency ; and they are justly 
aocounted the principal sails in a ship. 



OK MEAStmiNa 



CHAPTER IL 
ON MEASURING. 

()& mMBariog masts, yards, booms, &e., on board. —The ftill estent la 
measured.— Measuring for topsails, topgallant-sails, and royals, with 
remarks thereon. — Measuring courses : ->Fore-eourse, booiii-foresail, 
main-course, staysails. — Fore and aft mainsails, trysails, gaff-topsails, 
studding-sails. —Awnings:— Forecastle awning, maindeek awning, 
quarter-deck awning, poop or after^awning. and curtains to awnings. 

The width of all sails is governed by the length of the yard, 
gafl^ boom, and stay : the depth by the height of the mast 
The total extent of either is always taken, and the allowances 
for the sails stretching are left to the judgment of the sail-maker. 

TOPSAILS. 

Heads, — The top- 
fail-yards are measured 
from cleat to cleat on 
the yard-arms^ as 
toO. 

Thismeasurement is 
essential for determin- 
ing the length of the 
dose-ree^ when it is to 
be within the lifts. 

^ee^. — The fore, 
main, and cross-jack 
yards are measured 
from pin to pin of the 
sheave-holes for the sheets, as P to P. 

Hoists, — ^The topmasts are measured from the hounds dowu 
to the heel, and small vessels, from 250 to 300 tons, from the 
pinholes down to the heel of the topmast 

The greatest care is necessary in measuring the hoist of top- 
sails for some vessels, and especially foreigners, as their lower 
yards hang much below the ordinary distance from the heel 
of the topmast 

It is to be observed, however, that the meaaure from the iron 
spidct* hoop H (round the hounds of the topmast, with eyes for 




6 TBEATISB ON SAILS AND SAILMAKING. 

the topgallant rigging to set up), down to the centre of the 
lower yard, equals the full drop of the topsails to the lower 
yards, when their own yards are hoisted as far as the spider 
hoop, where they cannot go higher up ; and allowance mustbe 
made for stretclung, for the sail to set taut up : — Suppose the 
measure of a topmast, from the heel to the pinhole, 25 feet 
6 inches, and the band for the truss of lower yard 3 feet 
4 inches below the hounds of lower mast ; the distance from 
the spider hoop down to the centre of main yard, 27 feet ; then 
the allowance for the sail stretching would be 1 foot 6 inches — 
that is, 2 inches to the yard in hoist 

The gore in the foot should be deducted from this hoist, for 
the depth of the middle of the sail 

Some sailmakers cut the hoist of their topsails diflfcrent from 
what is directed here : they measure from the heel of the top- 
mast to the lower part of the sheave-hole to cut the middle by, 
and put a three-feet gore in the foot, because they fancy it will 
not give hoist enough otherwise; afterwards, in roping the 
leeches, they take in most of the slack canvass to shorten the 
hoist, not considering that they are making the sail to 5<i^, and 
by so doing lessening the effect of the sail ; moreover, unless 
the slack in the leeches is stretched ^^ out, the sail will never 
stand against a wind. 

TOPGALLANT SAILS. 

Heads, — The topgallant-yards are measured from cleat to 
cleat on the yard-arms. 

Feet, — The topsail-yards are measured from pin to pin of 
the sheaves. 

Hoists. — The topgallant-masts are measured from the hounds 
down to the heel. 

To this measurement one foot is added, on account of the 
topsail-yard not hoisting higher than the spider hoop, and in 
order to allow for the topsail stretching upwards. 

BOYALS. 

Heads, — The royal yards are measured from cleat to cleat 
on the yard-arms. 

Feet, — The topgallant-yards are measured from pin to piu 
of the sheaves. 

Hoists, — The royal masts are measured fix)m the hounds 
down to the houn Is of the topgallant-mast. ^ t 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



OK XEASUBSrO. 7 

COURSES. — ^FOKB-COTJBSE. 

Head. — The fore-yard is measured from cleat to cleat on 
the yard-arms. 

Depth, — The height of the centre of the yard from the deck, 
and of the cat-head ahove the deck ; or, if the yard be sharply 
braced forward, measure the distance between the ^lace of the 
earing and the bumkin end. 

Should it happen that the yard is taken down, measure 
from the band or truss-hoop to the deck, and from the cat- 
head to the deck, for the length of the leeches. 

Feot. — ^Measure from the cat-head, or bumkin* end, to two 
feet distance from the fore-part of the foremast, for half the 
spread of the foot : the allowance for the tack blocks and 
stretching of the foot must be taken off this measurement. 

The twofiet before the mast, here allowed, is on account of 
the yard projecting from the mast by the truss for bracing 
the yard. 

When the half-spread of the foot is found to be less than 
the half-length of the yard, the foot requires to be narrowed. 
Thus, in some cases, one cloth on each side less than the 
cloths in the head is required to bring the tack to the cat- 
head; while in other ships, which have the foremast far 
forward, two goring cloths on each side are required ; that is, 
there should be four cloths less in the foot than in the head. 
This difference in quantity, however, can be obviated by 
having bumkins fixed sufficiently forward to bring the tack 
properly down, because it vnll be better to lessen the nar- 
rowing of the foot (not only on account of gaining sail, and 
for appearance), but the sail will, in general, stand closer to 
the wind with parallel leeches. 

BOOM-VOEBSAIL. 

Ifead. — Measure the length of the fore-yard between cleat 
and cleat. 

Foot. — Measure the length of the boom between the two 
holes. N.B. The foot is in general narrower than the head.. 

Depth. — The height of the centre of the yard from the 
mainstay ; or, if the boom is hanging in its place, measure 
the distance between it and the centre of the yard. 

^ Bumkin^ or Boomkm^ is a short boom, or beam of timber, projecting 
from each side of the bow of a ship, to extend the clue or lower corner of the 
foresail to windward ; for which purpose there is a large block fixed on its 
oater end, through which the tack is passed, which being drawn tight down^ 
the tack is said to be aboard. 



6 TBEATISB ON SAILS AlTD SAILVAimre. 

UAJS'COTJBSK, 

Head. — ^The main-yard is measured from cleat to cleat on 
the yard-arms. 

Depth, — ^The height of the centre of the yard from tho 
deck ; or, if the yard be sharply braced forward, the distance 
from the place of the earing to the chess-tree. 

Foot. — ^From two feet distance from the main-mast, or as 
much as the centre of the yard stands from the mast, measure 
in a line to the chess-tree* and parallel to the deck ; deduct 
the allowance for the extension of the tack, which is from 
3 to 6 feet, for half the spread of the foot. 

There are seldom more than two goring cloths in the leeches 
of oiam-courses. By making the leeches to run nearly in a 
line with the leeches of the topsails, they have a better 
appearance than otherwise : this plan, however, cannot always 
be accomplished, on account of the limits prescribed for the 
spread between the tack and sheet blocks, and for the sail to 
stand well. That the sail may stand well, there must be an 
equal pull on both the foot and leech-ropes ; for, if the sail is 
acted on too much on the leech, the foot will become slack, 
or, if too much on the foot, the leech will become slack; 
consequently, too much care cannot be taken in measuring and 
cutting the sail to fit, since the action of the sail as weU as 
the working of the ship depend on these points. 

STAYSAILS. 

MAIN-STAYSAIL. 

Sta/g. — The length of the main-stay between the mouse 
and the foremast. 

Depth. — ^Measure from the place of the peek plumb down, 
so that the foot will dear the boat, &c. 

FOBE-TOPMAST STAYSAIL. 

Exile. — The length of the leech = the hounded length of the 
fore-topmast. The foot contains as many cloths as there are 
yards in the leech. Thus — a fore-topmast, hounded, = 27 
ft. 3 in. ; or if the leech be 9 yards, the foot wHl require 
9 cloths. 

^ Chest'treSy is a piece of timber witli a sheave in it, secared to the sides of 
a ship, for extending the tack of the main-course to windward : — ^the dieet 
is then haaUd aft to leeward. Small vessels have the tacks of their main- 
coorses extended to a kind of stout thimble fitted in the top part of the rail, 
or through an eye-bolt, about a foot b^low the rail, into a stanchion ; or 
sometimes, through an eye-bolt into the water-ways and beam (^oocjle 

^ igi ize y ^ 



FOSS-STATHAIL. 

RoLB.— The foot of this sail should hare two doths more 
than half the ntunber of cloths in the head of the fore-course, 
cut straight. The d^pth of the leech is the same as that of the 
fore-course. _^_ o„.^«.„ 

lOZEK-STATSAIL. 

ExTLE. — The foot should be equal to one-half the number of 
cloths in the head of the main-course. The depth of the leeeh 
should be seven-eighths of the depth of the main-course. 
When cut with a £iock, the mast c^ould be two-thirds the 
depth of the leech, having two mast-gores. 

MAIN-TOPMAST STAYSAIL 

Stay, — ^The length of the main-topmast stay between the 
collar and the fore-mast ; the luff or stay is nuide 6 to 8 feet 
short of this measure. 

Foot, — Measure from the place of the tack to where the sheet 
is required to be aft 

N.R — ^When this sail is not cut of a triangular form, one to 
two cloths are generally gored on the bunt, so as to make the 
cloths in the stay more than are in the foot, thus : — if there be 
13 cloths in the foot, by putting two goring cloths on the bunt, 
there will be 15 cloths in the stay. 

Leech, — ^The length of the leech is governed by the angle of 
the stay,* the gore on the foot, and the length of the fore-leech 
or knock. (See sketches in another part of the work). 

The shape and size of staysails, it may be observed, is often 
left to the person who has command of the vessel, and wo 
find great difference of opinions about those kinds of sails ; some 
like them with a jib-tack, and others with a long weather-leech, 
and the sheet cut down to the stay undemeatL In the Boyal 
Navy, staysails are all now made triangular, except the main- 
topmast staysail, which has a mast or knock. 

The most correct method for obtaining .the proper shape and 
size of staysails, is to find the angles of the several stays, the 
distances between the masts, and how far the stays are apart ; 
afterwards make a draft of the sails. Staysails are coming into 

* In setting up the main-topmast stay, no general method seems to be 
observed, for we find numerous ships with this stay set up to Tarious 
places, such as the foremast-cap, foremast-head, and, in long ships, to the 
deck, alongside of the main-stay. In the Royal Navy, there are two 
main-topmast stays— one sets up at the fore-mast-head to a collar, which 
is put on under the third pair of shrouds ; the other stay passes through a 
block or over a roller at the foremast-head, either tmder or over the top, and 
coming down close abaft the mast, sets up to an iron-bound heart on deck 



10 



TBEATISi. ON SAILS AND SAILMAKING. 



BO much use now, both in large ships and smaller ones, that 
several captains are doing away with fore and main spencers, 
and supplying instead main-topmast, top-gallant, and royal 
staysails ; mizen, mizen-topmast, and top-gallant staysails, and 
also a fore-staysail^ which are all hoisted on wire stays in several 
ships. One thing is to be observed, a ship will keep much 
better to windward with trysails and a fore-staysail, than under 
the staysails alone. 

FORE-AND-AFT MAINSAILS, MIZENS, ETC. 

Head, — Measure from the inside of the jaws of the gaffs to 
the hounds. 

Foot. — ^Measure the length of the boom from the after-side of 
the mast, or from the jaws to the sheave-hole at the end. 

Fore-leech, — ^Measure from the imder part of the hounds to 
the boom, or from the under part of the gaff, hoisted to its 
proper height^ to the boom. 

Diagonal or Cross-gore, — ^The diagonal length is taken from 

the throat or height of gaff 
on the mast) to the place of 
sheet cringle. This is done 
to get the foot-gore, from the 
draft made of the sail, thus : — 
Make a h equal the length 
of the fore-leecL On a 3, with 
the length oias and h s, con- 
struct the triangle a b s.* In 
a similar way construct the 
triangle? b ;,with the lengths 
of the head b P and leech s P. 
From a and b draw a G and 
ab B. square to P « ; Qt s will 
be the foot ffore, and P H the 
head- ff ore required. 

After-leech.— When with standing tyes to gaffs, have the 
boom topped up to its sailing position, or place where they 
carry it at sea ; then, for the length of the after-leech, measure 

* It is dear that the four sides win not be sii£Bcient for drawing the 
flf^re of this sail, as the figure may be moved out of its position ; we mast, 
therefore, take the diagonal length, to keep the four sides of the figure in 
proper shape. Many blunders are committed by persons who never take 
more than the three or four sides of the sail, when It is evident that it may 
be put out of shape by increasing or decreasing the qoantlty ol gore in 
the bead or foot 




ON MEASURING. 



n 



from the inner part of sheave-hole in the gaflf, down to the inner 
part of sheave-hole in the boom, and make the allowance after, 
which is generally two or three feet — ^the weight of the boom 
and the stretching of the sail, brings the leech to its propei 
length, by the time the ship has made one voyage. 

FORE-TRYSAHi. 

Head, — Measure the length of the gaflf. 

Foot, — Measure from the main-stay, where it crosses the fore- 
mast, to the fore part of the gangway. 

Fore-leech, — ^The height of the gaflf standing above the main- 
stay or place of tack. 

i>ki^ona/.— ^-Measured in the same way as the preceding. 

GAFF-TOPSAIL. 

Mctst, — Measure from the sheave- 
hole of the topmast, or the place the 
throat reaches (when there is a short 
gaflf), down to the gaflf hoisted to its 
proper place. 

Foot, — ^Measure the length of the 
gaflf to the hounds. 

Diagonal. — Let the gaflf be pro- 
perly peeked, and measure the dis- 
tance between the places of the 
head or throat and clue. 

Leech, — The diagonal length be- 
tween the topgalhmtmast-head and 
the hoimds of the gaflf, peeked as 
above, for a jib-headed gaflf-topsaiL 
{See adjoining sketch) 

STUDDINGSAILS. 

LOWER-STUDDINGSAIL, 

Rule.— The number of cloths should be two-thirds of the 
quantity of cloths in the head of the foresail, with two cloths 
more m large ships. The depth of the leech, the same as the 
core-course. 

MAIN-TOPMAST AND TOPGALLANT STUDDINGSAILS. 

Rule.— -The main-top and topgallant studdingsails are one- 
half the respective cloths in the head of fore-topsail and top- 




13 TBEATISB ON BAILS USD SAn.MAKINQ. 

gallanirflailB. Four cloths are gored on the outer-leech of the 
topmast-studdingsails, and three cloths of the topgallant- 
studdingsails. 

FORE-TOPMAST AND TOPGALLANT STUBDINGSAIIA 

Btjle. — One cloth less than the maintop and topgallant 
studdingsails. The dfpth of the inner leeches is 9 inches shortex 
than that ol the leedies of the respective topsails and top* 
gallaDtsails. 

AWNINGS. 
foseoastle awnino. 

Measure the length from the fore-end, or forestay, to the 
afberside of the foremast. 

Breadths. — ^Measure the distances between the two cat-heads, 
middle-way, and fore-part of fore-rigging. The breadth of 
fore-end is generally 3 feet 

MAIN-DECK AWNING. 

The ien^h is taken from the afterside of foremast to afberside 
of mainmast 

The breadths are taken at the forepart of fore-rigging and 
main-rigging. 

QUAETEE-DBOK AWNING. 

The length is taken from the afterside of the mainmast to the 
foreside of the mizen-mast 

The breadths are at the fore-part of main-rigging and mizen- 
rigging. 

POOPf OE AFTEE-AWNING. 

The length is from the foreside of the mizenmast to the rake 
of the stern over the taffraiL 

The breadths are at the fore-part o{ mizen-rigging and at the 
taif-ralL 

CUETAINS TO AWNINGS. 

Their depth is taken from the sides of the awning to the gim- 
wale, supposing the awning to be in its placa ^ i 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



BULBB FOB riHDIIIO TAB NUMBEB Of OL0TH& iS 



CHAPTER IIL 
RULES FOR FINDING THE NUMBER OF OLOTH& 

the seams and tablings wy In the breadth, aooording to the siie of the 
saiL— Heads of topsails and eoones: what gives the nnmber of 
doths.— Heads of topgallant sails : what gives the number of eloths.— 
Tbble showing the number of cloths.— The fbot of tnrsalls and miaens: 
what gives the number of doths. — For the heads or miaens.— For the 
foot of a jib.— Given the number of doths In the head and foot, and 
the length of the reef, to find the hollow In the two leeches. ' 

The usual width of British canyass for the making of sails 
is twenty-four inches; and, when calculating the number of 
cloths required for a limited width, it must be observed that the 
breadth of the seam is to be taken off every doth, except one^ 
as the number of seams is always less than the number of cloths 
by one, thus : — ^if there be 20 cloths in a sail, there will be 19 
seams in it The breadths of seams vary according to the sise 
of the sail, such as the breadth of the seams of courses, topsails, 
and other transverse sail& The breadths vaiy as follows, vis., 
courses and topsails for 500 -ton ships and upwards, one inch 
and three^ighths to one inch and a half; and for 400 ton-ships 
and under, one inch and a quarter at h^ and foot ; all other 
transverse sails one inch and one-eighth to one incL The 
tablings, too, vaiy proportionably to the size of the sail, vis., 
courses from 4 to 6 inches, topsails 3 to 5 inches, and top- 
gallant-sails 3 inches, on the leeches. Whence, if the width of 
any sail is in feet^ or feet and inches, instead of reckoning up 
th^ number of inches the seams and tablings eat in, it may be 
multiplied by a fraction, such as ^ for the finding of the number 
of cloths in the heads for courses and topsails, and ^ for top- 
gaUaat-sails and royals. 

An easy method far finding the number ofChthe. — Take hold 
of your measuring line at the definite width, and apply it at 22 
inches on a scale or a carpenter^s rule ; the number of 22 inches 
contained in the width, will be the number of cloths required 
for the heads of courses and topsails. In a similar way, from 
22^ inches on the rule, and at the width on the line proceed to 
the number of times 22^ inches are contained in the width, 
gives the cloths in the hei^ for topgallant-sails and royals. 



14 TBEATISB ON SAIIS AND 8AlT,MAKfNa 

RULES. 

L For the foot of topsails and topgallant sails : ^ of the 
length of the foot on a square gives the number of dothsL 

EXAMPLES. 

1. Given the length of the foot of a topsail, 39 feel^ to find 
the spread of cloths ? 

rr. 

Here 39 

Multiply by - - - 7 

Kvideby - - - 13)273(21 clotha 
26 

13 
13 



3. Given the foot on a square of a topgallant-sail, 26 feeC^ to 
find the number of cloths the foot spreads ? 

rr. 

Here 26 

Multiply by - - - 7 

Divide by- - - 13)182(14 clotha 
13 



£^2 



II For the foot of topsails and topgallant-sails having cringles 
in lieu of turned dues, ^ of the length of the foot gives the 
requisite number of dotha 

EXAMPLE 

Given the length of the foot of a topsail, 36 feet : to find 
bow many doths are required I 

Ft 

Here 36 

Multiply by - - - 4 



IHvideby - - - 7)144 

20 dotha 30gle 



ON FINDING THE CLOTHS OF FORJi. A!HV AFT fiAUa 15 

THE RULES FOR FINDING THE CLOTHS OF FORE 
AND AFT SAILS. 

The breadths of the seams being made broader on the head 
and foot, or foot only, are to be as follows, viz., trysails, jmieim, 
and driyersy two inches and a half at the head^ and three inches 
on the foot^ except where the gores are stronger towards the 
mast, and the seams are one quarter to one half-inch broader; 
the seams of jibs are three inches at the foot, increased towards 
the due : but the seams ought to be creased, according to the 
roach with which the sail is cat, and thus eat up the irregular 
gores, and form a regular curve on the foot The seams being 
made broader on the head and foot than the remaining part of 
the seam, forms what is called the belly part of the sail^ 
restrained by the slack after-leech, which will be noticed after- 
wards. 

L For the foot of tiysails and mizens, |^ of the length of the 
foot gives the number of clotha 

EXAMPLES. 

1. Given the length of the foot of a tiysail, 29 feet : to find 
the number of cloths f 

FT. 

Here ----- 29 
Multiplyby - - - 24 

116 

58 

i»mdeby - - - 43)696(16 dotba 
43 

260 
25S 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



16 TREATISB ON SAILS AlO) SATLMAKTNQ. 

2. Given the length of the foot of a mizen, 44 feet : to find 
the number of dotl^ 1 ft. 

Here - - ^. . - 44 
Multiply by ... 24 

176 

88 

Divide by - - - 43)1056(24^ clotha 
86 

196 
172 

24 

IL For the heads of mizensy { of the length of the head 
will give the number of cloths. 

1. Given the head of a mizen, 22 feet 6 inches : to find the 
number of cloths ? ft. in. 

Here 22 6 

Multiply by- - - 5 



Divide by - - 9)112 6 

12^ doths. 

m For the foot of a jib, ^ of the length of the foot, wiD 
give the number of dotha 

EXAMPIiE& 

1. Given the length of the foot of a jib 26 feet 6 inches, to 
find the number of cloths ? ft. in. 

Here 26 6 

Multiply by- - - 19 

243 6 

26 

Divide by- - 36)503(14 dotha 
36 

143 

144 Digitized by Google 



ON FINDING THE QUANTITY OP CLOTHS 17 

2. Given the length of the foot of a jib, 32 feet : to find the 
number of cloths f ft. 

Here 32 

Multiply by ... 19 

288 
32 

Divide by. - - 36) 608(17 cloths ncai-)y 
36 

248 
252 

ON FINDING THE NUMBER OF CLOTHS IN THE 
CLOSE REEF, AND THE QUANTITY OF HOLLOW 
IN THE TWO LEECHES OF A TOPSAIL. 

Given the number of cloths in the head and foot and the 
length of the ree^ to find the hollow in the two leeches. 

EXAMPLE. 

Given the head 15 doths, foot 24 cloths, and the length of 
the low reef at 1 foot above half way of the leech, 32 feet ? 



FT. 


Head 15 cloth& 


Here - - Reef 32 


Foot 24 ditto. 


Multiply by 6 


— 





1)39 sum. 


11)192 






19 i mean cloth& 


m 


clotha 17i 



Diff. 2 cloth& 
Hence, the hollow on each leech will be one cloth, or 2 feet 

\* The method of fixing the length od the head of the topsaU, or the 
distance of the head of the sail firom the cleats on the topsail-yard, will 
cause the hollow given to the leeches of the topsails always to be more or 
less, according as the lengths of the lower yards exceed the lengths of the 
topsail-yards, which, in some cases, may give a very considerable hollow, 
as in the example shown above. But topsails stand flatter by having a 
little hollow in the leeches, because they have a tendency to stretch them- 
selves into a straight edge, and draw out the belly of the sail, which straight 
leeches cannot do, though they look better. 

f^ The number of cloths for courses, topsails, &a, can be 
expeditiously found by looking into the following tables, where 
the cloths are placed against the width. 



18 



TBEATISE ON SAILS AND SAILMAKINO. 



TABLE OF CLOTHS.— Showing the number of cloths required for the width, 
from 7 cloths to 41^ cloths, advancing by ^ of a cloth ; and breadths of seami 


Breadths of Seams 1 inch. Tftblings 
2^ to 3^ inches. 


Seams IJin. 
Tablin^B 
4 inches. 


Seams 1^ inches. 
Tabling8 3to44inch68. 


Width, 


BqU 


Width. 


Bql. 


Width. 


Bql. 


Width. 


Eql. 


Width. 


Eql. 


Width. 


BqL 


Ft In. 


Clo. 


Ft. In. 


Clo. 


Ft. In. 


Clo. 


Ft. In. 


Clo. 


Ft. In. 


Clo 


Ft In. 


Clo. 


13 1 


7 


28 9 


m 


44 7 


234 


30 1 


16 


16 8 


9 


32 1 


171 


13 7 


71 


29 3 


164 


45 1 


231 


30 6 


161 


17 


91 


32 7 


174 


14 


7i 


29 9 


16J 


45 7 


24 


31 


164 


17 6 


94 


33 1 


173 


14 6 


71 


30 3 


16 


46 


241 


31 6 


163 


18 


93 


33 7 


18 


15 


8 


30 8 


161 


46 6 


244 


32 


17 


18 6 


10 


34 


181 


15 4 


81 


31 2 


164 


47 


241 


32 6 


171 


18 11 


101 


34 6 


m 


15 10 


H 


31 8 


161 


47 6 


26 


32 11 


174 


19 5 


104 


3*; 


183 


16 4 


8J 


32 2 


17 


47 11 


261 


33 6 


173 


19 11 


103 


35 6 


19 


16 10 


9 


32 7 


171 


48 5 


254 


33 11 


18 


20 5 


11 


35 10 


191 


17 8 


91 


33 1 


174 


48 11 


261 


34 4 


181 


20 10 


111 


36 4 


19^ 


17 9 


n 


33 7 


171 


49 6 


26 


34 10 


184 


21 4 


114 


36 10 


193 


18 3 


9i 


34 1 


18 


49 10 


261 


35 4 


183 


21 10 


113 


37 4 


20 


18 9 


10 


34 6 


181 


60 4 


264 


35 10 


19 


22 4 


12 


37 9 


201 


19 2 


101 


36 


184 


50 10 


261 


36 3 


191 


22 9 


121 


38 3 


20*1 


19 8 


104 


36 6 


183 


61 4 


27 


36 9 


194 


23 3 


124 


38 9 


m 


20 2 


lOf 


36 


19 


51 9 


271 


37 3 


193 


23 9 


123 


39 3 


21 


20 8 


11 


36 6 


19i 


52 3 


274 


37 9 


20 


24 3 


13 


39 8 


211 


21 1 


111 


36 11 


194 


52 9 


2T3 


38 2 


201 


24 8 


131 


40 2 


214 


21 7 


lU 


37 5 


19i 


53 3 


28 


38 8 


204 


26 2 


134 


40 8 


213 


22 1 


iif 


37 11 


20 


63 8 


281 


39 2 


203 


25 8 


131 


41 2 


22 


22 7 


12 


38 4 


201 


54 2 


284 


39 8 


21 


26 2 


14 


41 7 


221 


23 


121 


38 10 


204 


64 8 


283 


40 1 


211 


26 7 


141 


42 1 


224 


23 6 


12.i 


39 4 


20| 


55 2 


29 


40 7 


214 


27 1 


144 


42 7 


223 


24 


12J 


39 10 


21 


55 7 


291 


41 1 


213 


27 7 


143 


43 1 


23 


24 6 


13 


40 3 


211 


56 1 


294 


41 7 


22 


28 1 


16 


43 5 


231 


24 11 


131 


40 9 


214 


66 7 


293 


42 


221 


28 6 


151 


43 11 


23i 


25 5 


13.i 


41 3 


21J 


67 1 


30 


42 6 


224 


29 


164 


44 6 


23i 


25 11 


133 


41 9 


22 


67 6 


301 


43 


223 


29 6 


153 


44 11 


24 


26 6 


14 


42 2 


m 


68 


304 


43 6 


23 


29 9 


16 


45 4 


241 


26 10 


141 


42 8 


224 


68 6 


303 


43 11 


231 


30 2 


16^ 


46 10 


244* 


27 4 


14i 


43 2 


22} 


69 


31 


44 6 


234 


30 8 


164 


46 4 


241} 


27 10 


14J 


43 8 


23 


69 6 


811 


44 11 


283 


31 2 


163 


46 10 


ssl 


^.i 


16 


44 1 


J31 


69 11 


314 


45 6 


24 


31 8 


17 


47 3 


«5i| 



TABLB FOB FINDING THE NUMBEB OF CLOTHa 



19 



from 1 Inch to 1^ ioeh, advancing by | of an inch. The widths are arranged 
lu the first column, and the number of cloths required will be found opposite. 



Seams li in. 
T^blingsS 
to 4 in. 


Seams If inches. Tablings 4 to 


Sea.ns1} inches. 


5 inches. 


TabIing3 5to6inches. 


Width. 


BqL 


Width. 


Bql. 


Width. 


Bql. 


Width. 


Bql. 


Width. 


Eql. 


Width. 


Eqi. 
Clo. 


Ft. In. 


cao. 


Ft. In. 


Clo. 


Ft. In. 


do. 


Ft. In 


Clo. 


Ft. In. 


Clo. 


Ft. In. 


47 9 


25J 


31 6 


17 


46 10 


25i 


68 5 


33.3 


40 6 


22 


55 9 


30* 


48 3 


25J 


31 11 


m 


47 4 


254 


62 11 


33} 


40 11 


22* 


56 3 


30} 


48 9 


86 


32 6 


17J 


47 10 


25} 


63 5 


34 


41 5 


22} 


56 9 


30} 


49 2 


26i 


32 11 


17} 


48 4 


26 


63 10 


34j 


41 11 


22} 


57 3 


31 


49 8 


26i 


33 5 


18 


4S 8 


26i 


64 4 


34} 


42 5 


23 


57 8 


31* 


50 8 


26J 


33 9 


18i 


49 2 


26i 


64 10 


31} 


42 9 


23* 


58 8 


31} 


5e 8 


27 


34 3 


18i 


49 8 


26} 


66 4 


35 


43 3 


23} 


58 8 


31} 


51 


271 


34 9 


18} 


50 2 


27 


66 8 


35* 


43 9 


23} 


59 2 


32 


51 6 


27i 


35 3 


19 


50 7 


27i 


66 2 


35} 


44 3 


24 


59 6 


32* 


62 


27i 


35 6 


m 


51 1 


27) 


66 8 


35} 


44 8 


24* 


60 


32} 


52 6 


28 


36 


m 


51 7 


27} 


67 2 


36 


45 


24} 


60 6 


32} 


52 11 


28i 


36 6 


19} 


52 1 


28 


67 7 


36* 


45 6 


24} 


61 


33 


63 5 


28i 


37 


20 


52 6 


28i 


68 1 


36} 


46 


25 


61 5 


33* 


63 11 


281 


37 4 


20i 


53 


28} 


68 7 


36} 


46 5 


25* 


61 11 


33} 


54 6 


29 


37 10 


20i 


53 6 


28} 


69 1 


37 


46 11 


25} 


62 5 


33} 


54 10 


29i 


38 4 


20} 


54 


29 


69 5 


37* 


47 6 


254 


62 11 


34 


65 4 


29) 


38 10 


21 


54 4 


29i 


69 11 


37} 


47 11 


26 


63 3 


34* 


65 10 


29} 


39 S 


2li 


54 10 


29i 


70 6 


37} 


48 6 


26* 


63 9 


34} 


68 4 


30 


39 9 


21i 


55 4 


29} 


70 11 


38 


48 9 


26} 


64 3 


34} 


56 8 


30i 


40 8 


21} 


55 10 


30 


71 4 


38* 


49 3 


26} 


64 9 


35 


57 2 


30i 


40 9 


22 


56 3 


30* 


71 10 


38} 


49 9 


27 


66 2 


35* 


67 8 


30} 


41 2 


22i 


56 9 


30i 


72 4 


38} 


50 2 


27* 


65 8 


35} 


58 2 


31 


41 8 


22} 


57 3 


30} 


72 10 


39 


50 8 


27} 


66 2 


36} 


6S 6 


3U 


42 2 


22} 


67 9 


31 


73 3 


39* 


51 2 


27} 


66 8 


36 


59 


31^ 


42 8 


23 


58 2 


3U 


73 9 


39} 


51 8 


28 


67 


36* 


59 6 


31} 


43 1 


23i 


58 8 


31.i 


74 3 


39^ 


52 


28* 


67 6 


36} 


80 


32 


43 7 


23i 


59 2 


31} 


74 9 


40 


52 6 


28} 


68 


36} 


60 6 


32i 


44 1 


23} 


59 8 


32 


75 1 


40* 


53 


28} 


68 6 


37 


60 11 


32i 


44 7 


24 


60 


32i 


75 7 


4} 


53 6 


29 


68 11 


37* 


61 6 


32} 


44 11 


24* 


60 6 


32i 


76 1 


40} 


53 11 


29* 


69 5 


37} 


61 11 


33 


46 5 


24i 


61 


32} 


76 7 


41 


54 5 


29} 


69 11 


371 


62 4 


33i 


45 11 


24} 


61 6 


33 


77 


41* 


54 Vi 


29} 


70 5 


38 


62 10 


33i 


46 6 


26 


61 11 


33* 


77 6 


41} 


55 5 


30 


70 9 


38* 



20 



TBEATISB ON SAILS ANB SAILUAKlMa 



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22 TBEATISE ON SAILS AND BAlLMAKTNg 



CHAPTER IV. 

ON FINDING THE QUANTITY OF YARDS IN SAILS. 

Tho gejeral practice amongst sailmakeni. — Rales usefiil in making oat 
estimates. — Kales for finding the qaantity of yards in main and fore 
courses, topsails, &c. 

The general practice is, amongst sailmakers, first to take an 
account of the canvass intended for the sail ; and the canyasa 
left over the sail which is cut, measured and deducted from the 
whole, leaves the quantity of yards in the sail 

It is desirable, however, to know, in making out estimates^ 
the number of yards contained in sails for new ships, having 
their dimensions to go by, for which the following rules will be 
particularly usefdL 

KULES. 

I. To find the quantity of yards in main and fore courses, 
main, fore, and mizen topsails, topgallantsails, royals^ skysails, 
lower-studdingsails, topmast-studdingsails, topgalliEUit-Btudding'- 
sails, awnings, &a 

Add the number of cloths in the head and foot, and half the 
sum for the mean width ; then multiply by the depth of the 
middle-cloth, and add the quantity contained in the foot-gores 
for the yards in the sail ; to this sum add the respective linings, 
which gives the total quantity of yarda 

To find the quantity of yards in the foot^ores, — ^Multiply the 
whole gore of the foot, by the number of cloths gored on oim 
side of the sail, and bring it into yarda 

EXAMPLES : — ^BffAIN-TOPaAII* 

2i cloths in the head. 
36 cloths in the foot 

2)60 sum. 



30 half the sum, 
13^ yards deep. 




90 
30 
10 




400 the product 


Digitized by Google 



OK FINDING THE QUANTITY OF YABBd. 



23 



To find the quantity of yards in maia-topsail (contiuiied) 
To find the quantity in the foot-gores 1 
12 gores on each side 
2 feet gora 

3)24 feet 

8 yards in the foot-gores. 
400 the product of half sum and deptb 

408 yards in the body of the sail 
29 " two leech-linings. 
34^ " four double-reef banda. 
10 « middle-band. 

7 " reef-tackle pieces. 

8 " foot-band. 

6^ ** two buntline-piecea 
58 " top-lining. 



Total, 



561 yards. 

MAIN-COUBSB. 

34 cloths in the head. 
38 cloths in the foot. 



4)72 sum. 

36 half the sum. 
12| yards deep. 

432 
24 



To find the quantity is 
the foot gores ? 
7^ cloths gored on each aide 
3 feet gore. 



3)21i 



56 the product 
7^ yards in the foot-gores- 7^ yarda 

463^ yards in the body of the sail. 

28 " 

24 
7 

11 '• 

12 « 



two leech-liningp. 

four buntline-cloths, 

reef-band — one-third of a cloth. 

middle-band. 

foot-band. 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



Total, 545^ yards for a ship of 1,000 tona 



24 



TBEATISB ON SAIIA AND SAILBfAKJNa 



MIZSl^TOPGALLAKTaAIK 



13} clothB m the head. 
19 cloths in the foot 

i)S2l sum. 

16^ square cloths. 
5 J yards deep. 

If 



To find the quantity in the 

foot gorea 
6 feet the foot-gores. 
9 cloths, gored on one sida 



3)54 



82^ the product. 

18 yards in the foot-gores - 18 yards. 

100^ yards in the body of the sail 
7| " two leech-linings. 
4 " foot-band. 
11 " top-lining 

Total, 122} yarda 



TOFMAST-STUBDINGSAlIi. 



To find the quantity in the graes K 
Foot-gore, 5 inches. 



11 cloths in the head. 
15 cloths in the foot 

4)26 sum. 


Head-gore, 4 inches, 

Difl: . 1 
Foot- . 15 cloths. 


13 square cloth& 
14^ yards deep. 

52 
13 
2 




15 inches. 
T^haLftheclothft 

[in the foot 

105 

7i 


184 the product 
3 yards in the gores 


«. 


36)1124 the product 
3 yardsL 


187 yards in the body of 


the sail 


Digitized by Google 



OK FINDING 9HB QX7ANTITT OF TASDa S0 

FOBEOABTLE AWNXNG. 

FT. IN. Cathead - 20 ftet 

Breadth at foiemaat - 27 6 End - - 3 

25 6 

Oathead to cathead - 20 



8)73 llHeet. 

* 9 cloths. 12 dothfl 

2i 4 = 84 yards. 

3)138 

73 yards. 

46 yards - . -. . 46 

119 yarda 

WINDSAIIb 

4 number of doths. 
8 yards in length. 

32 

Sub. Ij^ the opening. 

30^ yards the tuba 
3 ** two winga 



u 



top. 



If « banda 

Total, 36 yarda 

XL To find the quantity of yards contained in jibs, fore-top. 
maststaysails^ jib-gaff-topsails, and all triangular sails with 
curred edgea 

Set down the depths of the stay and foot gores ; find the 
lengths of the cloths by adding the stay-gorea Take the sum 
of the first stay-gore at the tack, and the length of the leech, 
with the amount of foot-gore added ; then the sum of the second, 
fourth, sixth, or even lengths of the cloths, and multiply it by 
four ; and then take the sum of the remaining odd lengths, as 
third, fifth, &a, and multiply it by two. To the sum of these 
two products, add the sum of the extreme lengtha Subtract 
the quantity in the foot-gores, found in a similar way, and the 
remainder gives the number of yarda Digitized by Google 



26 



TREATISE OK 8AII£ AND 8AILMAKIHQ. 



EXAMPLE : — STANDING-JIB. 

Add the depths of the stay and foot gores of the jib (see page 
37), thus : — Ist gore, 11 feet 6 inches; Ist and 2d, 11 feet 
6 inches + 5 feet 6 inches = 17 feet; 17 added to 3d, or 17 
feet + 4 feet 7 inches = 21 feet 7 inches, &c., and set them 
down as given below, viz. : — 

Even Lengtlis Odd 

of the Clothfl. Lengths. 
FT. IN. FT. IN. 



1st 
2d 
3d 
4th 
5th 
6th 
7th 
8th 
9th 
10th 

nth 

12th 
13th 

14th 
15th 



TheStaj 

Gores added. 

FT. IN. 

. 11 6 
. 17 

- 21 7 

- 25 10 

- 29 10 

- 33 8 

- 37 4 

- 40 10 

- 44 3 

- 47 7 

- 50 11 

- 54 2 

- 57 5 

60 8 
63 11 



- 17 
. 25 10 



- 33 8 . 

- 40 10 . 

- 47 7 - 

- 54 2 . 



The Foot Eren Odd 
Gores added. Lengths. Lengths. 
IN. IN. IN. 

- . . . 4 

. . - - 9 

- 21 7 - 15 
22 
30 
39 
49 
60 
72 

- S5 
-100 
-117 
-136 



29 10 - 
37 4 - 
44 3 - 
50 11 
57 5 



9 

22 
39 
60 
85 
117 



15 
30 
49 
72 
100 



136 



60 8 - 241 4 . 157 157 402 

. - 2-181 2 

279 9 489 

4 482 8 4 804 



1119 
482 8 
11 6 Ist. 

63 11 15th. 



1956 
804 

4 Ist. 
181 15th. 



9)1677 1 



186 yards. 
Subtract 27 - - 



12)2945 
9)245 

27 yards. 



Total, 159 yards in the body. 



*«* This is a very correct method of flndiiig the quantity of yards in any 
lib cut with a round stay and 'got. 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



OS tlNDING THE QUANTITY OF YARDS. 27 

The most simple way of finding the quantity of canvass in a 
jib, or any sail of a triangular form, is to multiply the length 
of the after-leech (in yards), by half the number of cloths in the 
foot, thus : — 16 yards (depth of leech) x 7^ half the number of 
cloths, is equal to 120 yards : this supposes the foot and stay to 
be straight. The difference between the former calculation and 
this quantity is 39 yards, or 32^ per cent., which amounts to the 
increased quantity of canvass in the roimdness of the stay. 

III. To find the quantity of canvass contained in the main 
and fore staysails. 

Multiply half the number of cloths by the depth of the leech, 
and add the quantity in the pieces. 

EXAMPLE : — MATN-3TAY8AIL. 

10 half the number of cloths. 

1 1 yards, depth of the leech. 

110 yards in the body of the sail 
4 « « piecea 

Total, Hi yards. 

IV. To find the quantity of canvass contained in driven^ 
mizens, main-tiysails, fore-trysails^ brigs' mainsails, schooners' 
mainsails, sloops' mainsails, &a 

Add the number of cloths in the head and foot, and half 
the sum to make it square. Add together the depth of the 
mast-gores ; then multiply the number of square cloths by the 
depth of the mast To this product add the quantity contained 
in the head and foot gores^ and the slack cloth held in the sail 
for the yards in the sail The quantity of yards contained in 
the foot, head, and slack doth, is found thus : — ^Add the gores 
in the foot, from the tack to the square doth near the due, and 
multiply 'half the sum by the number of cloths in the foot ; then 
add together the gores from the clue to the square, and multiply 
half the sum by the number of doths gored up the clue, which, 
subtracted from the product of the gores to the tack, gives the 
quantity in the foat^ores. In a similar way, find the quantity 
in the head-gores. Add together the inches of slack cloth there 
are in the seams, and multiply by half the number of cloths : 
the whole of these added will give the answer. CoocjIp 



TREATISE ON SAILS AND SAlT.MAKTNa 

gYAvpnE : — ^barque's MIZEK. 



IN. 



i)102go]:e8totlietack. 



IN. 

I) 6 gores to the dua — 

— 357 
3 51 
3 cloths gored. • — 

— 867 
9 inche& Sab. 9 



51 

17 cloths in the foot. - 



12| cloths in thehead. 
17 cloths in the foot 



36)858 inches 
23f yards 



IN. 



4) 33 slack in the seams. 

164 
6 cloths which have slack. 



3G)99 inchea 
2f yards 

IN. 



i)45 gores to the peak. 

22^ 

12| cloths in tho heal 

270 
11 

36)281 inche& 

7j yards ... 



14| square cloths. 
8| yards the mast 

118 

128^ yards. 
- 23| « foot-gores 



2| « of slacL 



- . • 7f " head-gores. 

[of the sail 

Total, 162f yards in the body 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



ON UNDIKQ THB QUANTITT OF TABDa 29 

y. To find the quantity of canvass contained in mizen and 
main-topmast staysails. 

Add the number of cloths in the stay and foot together, and 
half the sum to make them square ; add the depth of the bunt 
or fore-leech to the depth of the after-leech, and half them for a 
medium depth ; then multiply the number of square cloths by 
fche mean depth, and add the quantity in the linings and pieces. 

BXAMPLB : — ^MIZEN-STAYSAIL, 

Cloths in the stay 16 

Cloths in the foot 18 8 yards, depth of the leech. 

— 2f « « bunt 
4)34 — 

- 4)10f 
17 Bqnareclotha. 

6i - - - - 6i mean depth. 

85 

89^ yards in the body of the sail 
5 << lining and pieces. 

Total, 94^ yards. 

y. To find the quantity of canvass in boats' lugsails. 

Add together the number of cloths in the head and foot, and 
half the sum to make it square ; add the depth of the two 
leeches^ and half the sum for a medium depth ; then multiply 
the number of square cloths by the medium depth. To this 
product add the quantity in the foot-gore and piecea 

EXAMPLE. FT. IN. 

Fore-leech - 9 6 
5 cloths in the head. After-leech - 14 6 
7 cloths in the foot 



4)12 sum. 

6 square cloths. 



i)2^ 
3)12 feet 



4 yard% medium depth 4 yard& 

24 yards, the product 
3 ^ in fne gores and pieoe& 

Total, 27 yards. Digitized by Google 



30 TREATISE ON SAILS AND SAILMAlONa 



SECTION SECOND. 

CHAPTER L 

ON OUTTING-OUT SAILS. 

Ail sails are cut-ont, cloth by cloth.— Square-headed sails, the cloths in the 
centre are cat square to the depth.— The dothti which are cut slope- 
wise, or goring, ought to be numbered 1, 2, 3, &c., for preventing 
mistakes when bringing the cloths tof^ether.— How to cut the leeches 
of courses, topsails, &c.— Rule for finding the depth of the leech-gores, 
when the leeches are cut straight.— When the leeches of topsails are 
cut hollow, how to calculate the gores.— Fore-and-aft oails, where to 
eommence to cut them.— Sails that have bonnets.— Table : showing 
the length of the goreS) corresponding to the depth of the selvage, 
with the eating-in of seams.— Use of the table.— Practical examples. 

Sails are cut out, clotli by cloth, to the respective number of 
cloths in the head, foot, and stay : the depth, to the height of 
the mast, or leech. In sails denominated 

TBANSYEBSE, OB SQUARE-HEADED SAILS, 

such as courses, topsails, topgallant-sails, and other four-sided 
sailsy the cloths in the centre are cut square to the deptL 
The first square cloth cut, is the guide or regulator to cut all 
the other squares by ; and, to prevent any mistake, a mark 
may he put on it, Erom each side of the square cloths cut^ the 
gores are cut to give the roach on the foot. 

Every cloth gored should be numbered from the squares, the 
first gore (1), and the succeeding cloths cut by it (2), (3), (4), 
&c., to avoid confusion and mistake in the sewing of the cloths 
together. 

In cutting the leeches, the foot gore is cut first on the canvass, 
and the length of the longest selvage of the head-earing cloth 
serves to measure the shortest selvage on the canvass ; and the 
first leech-gore is set down from a thread of the weft with the 
opposite selvaga The canvass being cut diagonally, the one 
gore cuts the gore for the other leech, the longest selvage 



ON CUTTING-OUT 8AIIJ9. 31 

Berving to measure its lengthy having the same gore cut on the 
foot The gore left on the canvass is altered (if necessary) to 
meet the increased gore ; and the length of the shortest selvage 
of the first leech-gore serves to measure the shortest selvage on 
the canvass, and the gore set down as before, from the thread 
of the weft with the opposite selvage. The gore cut through, 
the two long gores, or points, are put together, and measured 
both of the same lengthy and having the same foot-gore cut. 
Consequently, one gore cuts the other, for both sides of the sail, 
without waste. 

It is necessary to remember, when cutting the gores, that an 
allowance for the width of seam has to be made, because it is 
evident that the longest gored cloth must be longer than from 
the selvage to which it is sewed to the other selvage, since it 
is doubled at the seam ; and the overshoot from the end oi 
the crease will be according to the depth of the gore. 

The depth of the leech-gores can be calculated, whether they 
require to be hollow or straight, and the sail cut right out, 
without requiring to be spread on the floor, which is the prac- 
tice amongst some sailmakers of the present day. 

The gores on the leeches, or appendages, when straight, 
are found by dividing the depth of the sail by the number of 
cloths gored in the leech, which gives the length of each gore^ 
thus : — 

Given the hoist of a topsail, 32 feet, and three and three- 
quarters cloths on each leech ; that is, half of a cloth at eacli 
earing, and one quarter of a cloth at the clues 1 

FT. 

Fere - Divide by 3|) 32 
4 4 

15)128(8 feet (linchofl. 
120 

8 
12 

15)96(6 
90 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



82 



TREATISE ON BAILS AND SAlLUAEINa 



And 



FT. IK. 

Divide by i) 8 6 



First, half a doth - - 
Second, a whole cloth - 
Third, ditto ditto - 
Fourth, ditto ditto - 
Fifth, a quarter doth - 



4 


3 gore. 


8 


6 « 


8 


6 « 


8 


6 « 


2 


3 « 




Leech - - 32 
The plan of the gored side of a topsail is 
made by first drawinga line BD to represent 
the depth of the sail, taken from a convenient 
scale of equal parts of an inch to a foot, and 
at right angles to B D, draw A B and D 
equal to the widths of the cloths gored. 
Join A and 0, and set down the close-reef at 
18 inches above the centre of A C, and 
between it and the earing A, the other ree£i. 
Through the breadth at the dose reef and 
each extremity, pass the arc of a circle. 
Divide the base D, which is equal to the 
width of the cloths, into as many equal parts 
as there are cloths in the leech ; and at the 
points of division draw lines perpendicular to 
C D to meet the curved leech, (from which the length of every 
gore to the scale of dimensions may be found with precision,) 
as in the perpendiculars of the small right-angled tnangles A, 
B, C, and D, shown on the sketch. 

Sails gored with a sweep on the head and foot, or foot only, 
have received the name of 

FOBE-AND-AFT SAILS, 

such as mainsails, mizens, drivers, jibs, gaff topsails, &a Tlie 
first doth next the mast-leech is cut first. Thus, the foot-gore 
is cut upon the end of the canvass, and the length of the tack- 
gore is measured up the short side on the selvage, and carried 
across by a thread of the weft to the opposite selvage, and cut 
diagonally; then the longest gored side of the first cloth 
measures the length of the shortest side of the next The 
canvass is again taJken across by a thread, and the length of the 
second foot-gore is measured down on the opposite selvage, and 
cut diagonally ; consequently, the first gored cloth being cut, 
the longest selvage of it serves to measure the shortest selvage 



ON CUTTINChOXJT SAILS. 33 

of the next, and so on, until the whole of the cloths in the 
mast-leech are cut to the given number, and its length, when 
care must be taken that the whole of the gores do not exceed 
the depth of the luff; and it is better to repeat the measures, 
to see whether they will make up the length, before proceed- 
ing with cutting the head cloths, even if the gores should all 
be rightly calcidated. 

In cutting all fore-and-aft sails, a long gore and a short gore 
are always brought together, and the breadth of the seams of the 
sail allowed for eating-in seaming. 

The additional parts of sails, made to fasten mth latchings to 
the foot of the sails, and which are exactly similar to the foot of 
the sails they are intended for, constitute 

SAILS THAT HAVE BONNETS, 

such as jibs, drivers, &a, in lieu of having one or two reefs in 
the saiL The bonnets are cut out the whole depth of the sail, 
allowing enough for the tablings on the foot of the sail, and 
head and foot of the bonnet ; then, after the sail is sewed to- 
gether, the bonnet is cut off the depth required, generally 9 feet 
Bonnets have a head tabling, 2^ inches broad, on which a line 
of 12-thread, named Jteel-line, for forming the latchings, is sewed 
in bights. These latches are six inches asunder, and six inches 
long, except the two middle ones, which are eighteen inches 
long, to fasten off witL In fastening it, the loops are alternately 
reeved through holes in the foot of the sail, and through each 
other, and fastened by the two long loops in the middle with 
two half-hitches, by the loosening of which they unreeve 
themselvea The tabling on the foot of the jib, when the bonnet 
is cut off, is six inches wida The holes are wrought up from 
the edge close to the tabling stitches^ the same distances as are 
the length of the latchings. Also, the leech^ foot, and stay 
are tabled, roped, &a, similar to the jib the bonnet is intended 
for. A strengthening band extends from the clue over two 
cloths less than half the number of cloths in the foot Earings are 
made on the head of the bonnet, six inches short of the top part, 
for attaching it to the clue and tack cringles of the sail. 

For the length of gores corresponding to the depth on the 
selvage of canvass, 24 inches wide, observe the table on the 
two following pages, which will be found useful in finding the 
length on the stay of a jib, or the length of the mast-leech of 
a fore-and-aft mainsail ; and, when the gores are cut longer, 
for the eating-up in seaming. 

Digitized by CjO©glC 



34 



TSEATISE ON SAILS AND SAILUAKlKa 



Depth 

down 

the 

Selvage 




Iiencth of the EaUng-ln Seaming on the Sdrage aoeonlliiK to the 


Length 
of the 
Goie. 


Width of the Seama, 


In. 


Ini. ' Ins. 


Itia. ', laq. 1 lEijt. 


Ids. 


Im. 


Im. 


Ina, 


lau 


Ine. 


In*. 






1 


'1 


>i 




a 


2J 


H 


Si 


fl 


84 


H 


»l 


4 


Ft. In. 


Ft In. 


lus. 


loa 


Ids. 


Ins. 


Ins. 


las. 


Ins. 


Ins. 


Ins.! !■">• 


Ins. 


Ins. 


Ins. 


1 


2 




































i 


2 


2 












4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


i 


4 


4 


3 


2 Ok 












4 


* 


i 


8 


i 


8 


4 


4 


4 


2 0^ 












g 


8 


i 


4 


4 


4 


8 


8 


5 


2 Og 












i 


4 


4 


8 


8 


8 


3 


3 


6 


2 0^ 












4 


8 


8 


3 


3 


i 


i 


1 


7 


2 0| 












8 


8 


3 


i 


i 


1 


1 


14 


8 


2 li 












« 


i 


i 


1 


1 


14 


11 


14 


9 


2 li 












3 


i 


I 


14 


14 


14 


li 


14 


10 


2 1* 












i 


1 


14 


14 


14 


li 


14 


18 


11 


2 2k 












1 


14 


U 


li 


14 


14 


18 


13 


1 


2 23 












14 


U 


li 


14 


18 


13 


ij 


2 


1 1 


2 31 












14 


U 


li 


18 


IS 


ij 


2 


24 


1 2 


2 3i 












14 


li 


14 


13 


U 


2 


24 


24 


1 3 


2 4i 












li 


14 


18 


1} 


2 


24 


24 


24 


1 4 


2 4} 












14 


18 


13 


2 


24 


24 


24 


28 


1 5 


2 6i 












14 


If 


H 


24 


24 


28 


28 


23 


1 6 


2 5f 












IS 


li 


2 


24 


24 


28 


23 


3 


1 7 


2 6i 












li 


2 


24 


2i 


24 


23 


3 


34 


1 8 


2 7 












li 


2 


2i 


24 


28 


3 


34 


34 


1 9 


2 71 












2 


24 


2i 


28 


23 


3 


3i 


34 


1 10 


2 8^ 












2 


24 


24 


23 


3 


34 


38 


38 


1 11 


2 9i 










2 


24 


2i 


28 


2i 


3 


38 


34 


33 


2 


2 10 










2 


24 


24 


23 


3 


34 


34 


33 


4 


2 1 


2 101 










2 


28 


24 


24 


34 


3i 


38 


4 


44 


2 2 


2 11^ 










24 


2| 


28 


2i 


34 


34 


33 


4 


44 


2 3 


3 Oi 










2i 


24 


23 


3 


3i 


38 


4 


44 


4J 


2 4 


3 1 










21 


28 


24 


34 


34 


38 


4 


48 


48 


2 6 


3 1} 










2i 


28 


3 


34 


38 


3i 


*i 


4J 


43 


2 6 


3 2i 










24 


2i 


34 


34 


33 


4 


ii 


43 


6 


2 7 


3 3i 










24 


2i 


34 


34 


34 


a 


*i 


43 


64 


2 8 


3 4i 










23 


3 


34 


38 


4 


H 


48 


6 


64 


2 9 


3 5 










23 


3 


34 


33 


ih 


*i 


4i 


64 


64 


2 10 


3 5^ 








2i 


2J 


34 


34 


34 


H 


*i 


4f 


64 


68 


2 11 


3 6| 








24 


21 


34 


38 


4 


<8 


43 


64 


Si 


63 


1 8 


3 n 




li 




28 


3 


38 


33 


<4 


H 


H 


64 




6 




























w^ 





TABLE OF THE GIVINOS Or GOBES. 



it 





lii^nBlIi 


Ungth 


down 


Lpn^h 


JjirnEih of Uw 


Dfpth 

dttvm 


J^wih 


Lwfthof 


Pel- 


of thm 
Gam. 


(Jift 


of the 




Bel- 


iittht> 
Qun. 












i 1 


T«eA. 




IfL 

1 


ItlR. 


fate. 




In. 
1 


Inm. 


Inn, 
I* 


Tige. 




I". 
1 


Ini. 


PL In. 


Ft. In. 


Im 


I lie. 


n. In. 


n.ia. 


Ina. 


Ina. 


IriH. 


Ft, In. 


Ft, In 


IHfl. 


IDS. 


3 1 


3 8} 


n 


1» 


6 1 


6 4J 


3 


31 


44 


9 1 


9 34 


44 


68 


3 2 


3 9fi 


n 


2 


6 2 


6 6J 


3 


3| 


48 


9 2 


9 4^ 


44 


6ft 


3 3 


3 10| 


n 


2 


6 3 


6 6^ 


3 


3i 


48 


9 3 


9 54 


48 


51 


3 4 


3 111 


If 


2 


6 4 


6 78 


31 


31 


4J 


9 4 


9 64 


48 


M 


3 5 


4 


18 


21 


6 6 


6 8g 


31 


4 


4| 


9 5 


9 74 


48 


6| 


3 6 


4 01 


1} 


2* 


6 6 


6 9} 


31 


4 


4| 


9 6 


9 84 


4f 


6J 


3 7 


4 IJ 


11 


2* 


6 7 


6 10^ 


3* 


4 


4J 


9 7 


9 91 


4i 


6 


3 8 


4 2i 


If 


2* 


6 8 


6 11} 


3i 


4| 


5 


9 8 


9 101 


4} 


6 


3 9 


4 3i 


If 


2| 


6 9 


7 Oi 


38 


4| 


5 


9 9 


9 111 


4| 


6 


3 10 


4 4S 


ii 


21 


6 10 


7 n 


31 


4* 


54 


9 10 


10 01 


4| 


6* 


3 11 


4 6i 


ii 


21 


6 11 


7 2g 


3t 


4i 


61 


9 11 


10 11 


4| 


61 


4 


4 61 


2 


24 


7 


7 2i 


34 


4t 


6i 


10 


10 2| 


6 


6i 


4 1 


4 7 


2 


2i 


7 1 


7 4i 


3i 


4t 


6i 


10 1 


10 3i 


6 


61 


4 2 


4 71 


2 


2i 


7 2 


7 6i 


H 


4t 


6t 


10 2 


10 4i 


5 


61 


4 3 


4 8f 


21 


28 


7 3 


7 6i 


38 


44 


61 


10 3 


10 5k 


5J 


61 


4 4 


4 98 


2* 


28 


7 4 


7 71 


38 


4J 


64 


10 4 


10 6k 


61 


61 


4 5 


4 10} 


2* 


2J 


7 6 


7 8i 


38 


48 


54 


10 5 


10 7i 


61 


64 


4 6 


4 Hi 


2* 


2} 


7 6 


7 91 


31 


48 


68 


10 6 


10 Sk 


6i 


64 


4 7 


5 Ok 


2i 


2} 


7 7 


7 10 


31 


41 


68 


10 7 


10 9\ 


61 


68 


4 8 


5 1| 


2i 


2| 


7 8 


7 11 


31 


4} 


6J 


10 8 


10 10} 


6i 


68 


4 9 


6 2 


2i 


3 


7 9 


8 


H 


4J 


6f 


10 9 


10 111 


51 


68 


4 10 


6 2^ 


2i 


3 


7 10 


8 1 


H 


4| 


Bi 


10 10 


11 0| 


51 


61 


4 11 


6 3f 


21 


3 


7 11 


8 2 


31 


6 


6| 


10 11 


11 U 


6t 


61 


fi 


5 4g 


2| 


31 


8 


8 n 


4 


5 


6 


11 


11 24 


64 


61 


6 1 


6 5} 


2^ 


3& 


8 1 


8 3| 


4 


5 


6 


11 1 


11 3 


64 


61 


5 2 


6 6i 


2i 


3i 


8 2 


8 4f 


4 


5 


61 


11 2 


11 4 


64 


7 


5 3 


5 7i 


2i 


3i 


8 3 


8 5} 


4| 


51 


6* 


11 3 


11 6 


68 


7 


5 4 


5 8i 


2S 


3i 


8 4 


8 6f 


44 


64 


6i 


11 4 


11 6 


68 


7 


5 6 


5 9 


2i 


3j| 


8 6 


8 7J 


4* 


5i 


6i 


11 5 


11 7 


68 


71 


5 6 


5 10 


2i 


3| 


8 6 


8 81 


4* 


6* 


61 


11 6 


11 8 


61 


7* 


5 7 


5 11 


2i 


3i 


8 7 


8 91 


H 


61 


61 


11 7 


11 9 


61 


71 


5 8 


6 


25 


^8 


8 8 


8 108 


H 


5J 


64 


11 8 


11 10 


51 


71 


5 9 


6 1 


U 


38 


8 9 


8 118 


41 


f| 


64 


11 9 


11 11 


61 


71 


5 10 


6 2 


n 


38 


8 10 


9 0.i 


4i 


64 


<^8 


11 10 


12 


61 


71 


5 11 


6 3 


2| 


38 


8 11 


9 1 


4f 


64 


68 


11 11 


12 1 


61 


7f 


6 


6 4 


3 


31 


9 


9 2.J 


44 


68 


63 


12 


12 2 


6 


74 



bo TREATISE OK SAILS AND 8AILMAK1N0. 

USE OF THE FOBEGOINQ TABLE. 

The foregoing table being the groundwork of tbe whole 
practice of cutting-out sails, the reader will do well to make 
himself perfectly familiar with it, as, without the calculations 
laid down therein being well obserred, no sails or parts of sails, 
in which there is a large amount of gore, can be properly cut 
Let it be required, for instance, to find the amount of the foot-gores 
in the mizen, as sketched on page 10. If we take the foot- 
gore G S, without making any allowance for the eating-in of 
seaming, the length will not be sufficient to give the proper foot- 
gore, as the seaming will shorten the diagonal and foot-gore, 
thereby making the sail to girt &om the throat to the clue. 
Hence, an augmentation has to be made to the foot-gore G S 
on the drawing for the eating-in of seaming, as indicated by 
the gores in the table. 

In the first column, find the depth ^ven, and the second 
column will show the corresponding length ; and, immediately 
under the width of the seam, and in a line with the gore, is the 
length of the eating-in seaming, or what the gore flies beyond 
the creasing of the seam. Suppose the depth to be 6 feet 4 
inches, and the width of the seam 1| inches, opposite to it and 
under the width of the seam wiU be found 6 feet 7f inches and 
4f inches respectively. 

This table will be found of great use when cutting out a jib, 
beginning at the tack. The breadth of the seam on the foot 
requires to be allowed for before the gore is cut, and the 
quantity of inches corresponding to the gore is found under 
the width of the seam in the table. Thus : — Suppose the foot- 
gore is 1 foot 10 inches, and the seam 3J^ inches broad, then, 
under 3^ inches is found 8 inches, to be measured on the 
canvass before the gore is set up on the opposite selvage. 

It is also well adapted for ascertaining the exact length on 
the stay and leech of a jib, the mast of a driver, and lufP of a 
gaff-topsail. Rules : — 1. Place in parallel columns the depths 
of the gores on the stay and foot, and, opposite to them, the 
lengths of the gores and eating-in of the seaming, found in the 
table in different columns pandlel to the former. — 2. Add np 
the several columns, subtntct the sum of the foot-gores from 
the sum of the depth of the stay-gores, and 18 inches for 
tabling gives the length of the leeeh, — 3. For the length on the 
stay, subtract the sum of the eating-in of the seaming on the 
stay from the mm of the lengths of the stay-gores, and then 



oir curriKO-ocx sails. 



S7 



subtract 18 inches for tabling from the remainder,^. For 
the mast of a driver, subtract the sum of the eating-in of the 
seaming from the sum of the lengths of the mast-gores, and 
8 inches for tabling gives the length on ths wm$L 

The following examples will practically exemplify the use of 
the table : — 



Jib, 16 cloths. 
Leech, 46 feet 6 inches tabled. 
Stay, 67 feet 8 loohes tabled. 



Gaff-topsail, IS cloths. 
Leech, 32 feet 6 inches toUed. 
Mast, 49 feet tobled. 




««* The length of the after^leech of fore and aft mainsails, drivers, &c., is 
found by adding the depths of the mast, foot, and head-gores, and slack 
seams together, and deducting from their sum the eating-in of seapxing oi 
the mast and foot gores ^ I 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



TBEATISB ON SAILS AND SAILMAKINO. 



CHAPTER IL 

GENERAL RULES AND INSTRUCTIONS FOR 
MAKING SAILS. 

The Materials used :— Danvass— the best Oanvass— the different sorts, dis- 
tiDguished by nun tbera.— Selecting Canvass.— Twine, spun of the best 
'flax. — Making of Sails^— Seams, Tablings, &c.— Linings.— Holes and 
Grommets.— Bolt- Rope, the method by which it ought to be made. — 
Bolt-Rope Table.— Rules tor finding the number of Threads or Yarns 
that go to make a Rope. — To find the Weight of One Fathom of any 
sized Hope.- To find what Length one fathom of Rope stretches, as it 
comes down in size. — Table of the Circumference, in inches, of Bolt- 
Bope, for Sails for Ships, Barques, &c. — Bolt-rope, sewing it on. — 
dues.— Iron Clues.— The advantages of Cringles over turned Ones. — 
Cringles: — Earing Cringles, Beef and Reef-Tackle Cringles, Points, 
Bowline Cringles.— Splices.— Lengthening a Rope with One Strand. 

THE MATERTALfl — CANVASS, &0. 

Canvass, — ^To obtain the best canvass ft)r the making of sails is 
of the first importance to the shipowner, not only on account of 
the great expense of sails, but because the safety of a ship, in tem- 
pestuous weather, frequently depends on its quality; and, 
besides, the cost for making is not more for a good article than 
it is for a very bad one. Hence, the best canvass is by far the 
cheapest in the end. The canvass which is generally used in 
the merchant service, is twenty-four inches wide, and it is 
certainly the strongest for all purposes. Sometimes, however, 
jibs and drivers are made of eighteen inches wide canvass, to 
ensure greater strength and fw better appearance. 

There ore six to eight (and some lighrer) sorts of flax canvass, 
viz. : — Nos. 1, 2, 8, 4, 6, 6, 7, and 8, which ought to weigh 
respectively 46 lb., 43 lb., 40 lb., 37 lb., 34 lb., &c., per bolt 
of 40 yards each. The warp or chain of cfvery piece or bolt of 
the first three numbers should be wholly wrought, and made of 
double yam, and contain, in every piece or bolt of 24 inches 
wide, at least 560 double threads of yam ; and both the warp, 
and shoot or weft yam, ought to be made of long flax, without 
any mixture of tow, and this of strong staple, fresh, sound, 
and good of its kind. It should also be well dressed, properly 
deansed, even spun, and well twisted ; and all the weft yarn 
should be fiilly as strong as the warp yam, and close struck. 

Digitized by CnOOg IC 



GEKEEAL BXTLES AND INSIBXTOTIONa 39 

In selecting canvass for making up into sails, considerable 
practice and close observation are required, as well as a general 
acquaintance with the manufacture of canvasa The experienced 
sailmaker forms his opinion of the quality and strength oi 
canvass^ not only from its being even spun and well struck 
together, but he takes two persons' canvass^ of the same No., 
and makes a slit in each, and knots them together ; he then 
hangs weights to the loose parts, and finds which bears the 
most Another trial is by boring a fid through the canvftss, 
when the threads of bad canvass are easily broken ; and the 
workman can tell the difference in this way, when working 
holes in a saiL A testing machine is also an excellent plan. 
Again, for knowing the quality, draw a few threads, and 
examine whether they are composed of long flax, without 
mixture of tow, and try if it be of strong staple, fresh, sound, 
and well cleansed. 

It is of importance for canvass to have a good and even 
selvage, and free from tightness, because of the seaming, which 
it is awkward to have slack in seams unnecessarily. It may, 
however, be observed, that the varieties of canvass differ 
greatly in the amount of their stretch. Generally, canvass 
badly struck together stretches most. 

Twine. — The edges of the cloths or pieces of which a sail is 
composed, are sewed together with a double seam, and should 
be sewed with the best twine (made of flax), of three folds, 
spun from 360 fathoms to 430 fathoms to the pound ; and one 
pound of twine will sew four bolts of canvass, or 160 yards in 
length. The twine for large sails, in the royal navy, is waxed 
by hand, with genuine bees'-wax, mixed with one-sixth part of 
clear turpentine, in sails made of Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4 ; and, for 
No& 5, 6, 7, and 8, twine dipped in a composition of bees'-wax 
41b., tellow 51b., and clear turpentine lib. The roping 
twine is all dipped in the composition. In the merchant 
service, the twine is dipped in tar, softened with a proper pro- 
portion of oil 

MAKING OP SAILS : — ^SEAMS. 

The setvm of sails are generally sewed twice from the foot to 
the head — that is, the selvage of one cloth is sewed to the edge 
of the other, turned in to the required breadth (see page 13) ; 
and, when finished, it must be well pressed down with a 
"rubber," and turned over to sew the second side, and again 
rubbed down. Some prefer sticking or stitching the second 



40 TREATISE ON SAIW AND SAILMAKINCk 

side of the seam, in order to save the stitchea from chafing — th^ 
stitches of a round seam standing high ; but it is to be 
observed, two round scams aie much stronger than a round and 
a flat seam. The distance of the stitches must be regulated 
according to the strength and quality of the canvass. In new 
sails, the stitches are from one hundred and twenty-four to one 
hundred and forty-four stitches in every yard in length ; but 
in repairing old sails, few stitches are required. 

In the royal navy, sails made of canvass Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4 
are middle-stitched; but the other numbers are not. 

The creasing of seams is a very important thing in fore and 
aft sails, and requires good judgment The breadth of the 
seams on the foot of a jib or driver ought to be made according 
to the roach with which the sail is cut, and thus eat up the 
irregular gores, so as to form a regular curve on the foot. Tlie 
length run up from the foot should be for a jib at the clue 
thus — 3^ inches broad by 3 feet up, next 4^ feet, 5 feet, and 6 
feet the rest : the remaining breadths at the foot gradually 
narrowed to 2 inches. Driver seams are thus, viz. — 3^ inches 
bi'oad, and run up 2 feet, 3 feet, 4^ feet, 5^ feet, and 6 feet the 
mast part ; and 3 inches broad, by 2 feet, 4 feet, 5 J feet, and 6 
feet from the foot and the leech, and continued 3 inches broad 
and 6 feet up between the leech and mast ; also, at the head, 
when not cut straight, 2| inches broad, decreasing to the peak 
to 2^ inches, and creased down 4 feet : the remaining part oi 
the seam 1 1 inches broad. 

TABUNGS. 

The mdths of the tablings of all sails are according to the 
size of the sail, and stuck or stitched down on the edge or on 
the top (long-work), with 72 to 110 stitches in a yard. (For 
widths, see page 13.) 

The breadths of the tablings of fore and aft sails, such as jibs 
and drivers, are thus : — Jib, a 3 inches tabling on the leech and 
the stay ; 2 J inches, doubled into the rope or bite of the canvass, 
the foot. The leech tabling is sometimes banded or doubled 
again. Driver. — The leech tabling is made broader at the due 
and peak, to make the leech round, and keep the comers in 
proper form : the remaining part of the leech tabling about 
3^ inches wide. The head and mast tablings are from 4 to 5 
inches wide ; and the foot 2 J inches — like the jib, or rather 
narrower. C^^nin]^ 

Digitized by VjOOQ Ic 



G£N£fiAL EtTLES AND INSTBUOHONS. 41 

LININGS. 

All linings are generally seamed on the sails, except the reef- 
bands, which are tabled on the fore-side, and top-linings, mast- 
cloths, and comer-pieces seamed on the afber-side of the sail ; 
and, when there is not a middle-band on the top-sail, the reef- 
tackle pieces are seamed on the after-side^ and reach the top of 
the top-lining. 

It may be necessary to observe, that linings ought not to be 
put on too taut, or flat ; they require to be put on eas^y as thoy 
are generally of lighter canvass than the sail, and not capable 
of bearing the same strain as the sail ; besides they run up a 
great deal by wet, 

HOLES AND GBOMMETS. 

Holes are cut by a knife, and stretched or rounded up by a 
fid or a marline spike, and are fenced round by stitching the 
edge of the hole to a grommet, made like a ring, of three strands, 
with rope-yams ; when finished, tKey shaald be well stretched. 

The holes in sails have received particular names ; as, head, 
reef, cringle, bowline, due-cringle, clue-gamet, bunt-line, spilling, 
bunt-jigger holes, &a, all of which are hereinafter mentioned. 

Sails have the holes in the heads and reefs of topsails, courses, 
&c., placed thus : — One hole is made near the seam on each side 
of the middle cloth, or two holes in the cloth and one in the 
next, on both sides ; and so on, one and two holes, firom the 
middle ; and in the centre of the head is stuck a small cringle, 
for making the middle fast, and for serving as a guide in 
bending the sail square to the yard. Holes in the stays of 
jibs, staysails, &c., are one yard apart, excepting at the peak, 
when the hole is about 2 feet distant. 

Reefs and head-holes of large sails have grommets of bolt-rope 
yams, made thick in the rim, and worked round with 18 to 21 
stitches. Small sails have grommets of small bolt-rope yams, 
worked with 16 to 18 stitches, or as many as will cover the 
grommet Holes ought not to be larger than what is necessary 
for the points getting through. Clue and buntline holes are the 
largest in the sail, to admit the rope or cringles passing 
through them. 

In the royal navy, the large sails have two holes in each 
cloth in the reefs of courses, and third and fourth reefs of the 
topsails ; and, also, in the trysaila ^.^^^^^^ by Google 



42 



TBSATISB ON SAUA AND 8AILMAKIN0. 



BOLT-BOPR 

Bolt-rope should be well made of fine yam, spun from the best 
Riga Bhiue hemp, well topped, and tarred in the best Stockholm 
tar. It is the erroneous practice of some ropemakers, in the 
dosing of the strands, to have too much tension on the strands, 
which causes the rope to be hard to sew on. There is no neces- 
sity for this. The hard-stranded and flexible rope will last 
longer than the hard-dosed rope, which will generally break 
before it bends, and wears badly. 

The following table shows the weight of one &thom of rope, 
from I of an inch to 8 inches in circumference ; and, also, the 
number of yams in each strand, and number of threads of twine 
for sewing the bolt-rope on to the sails : — 





11 


Weight 

pep 
Fathom. 

lb oz. 


Threads 

to sew 

them on. 


sg- 

ss** 


ll 
|1 


Weight 

per 
Fathom. 

lb oz. 
4 5f 


Threads 

to sew 

them on. 


Or(f 


Ext. 


Ord* 
8 


Ext. 


i 


2 


2 


2 





4i 


56 





1 


3 


3^ 


2 





4* 


62 


4 13} 


8 





u 


6 


6i 


2 





6 


69 


5 6 


8 


2 


14 


7 


n 


2 





6i 


76 


5 15 


8 


2 


li 


9 


10^ 


2 





H 


84 


6 8 


10 





8 


11 


14 


2 


2 


6J 


91 


7 2 


10 





2i 


14 


1 IJ 


2 


2 


6 


100 


7 12 


10 


2 


2J 


17 


1 6i 


4 





«1 


108 


8 6i 


10 


2 


2} 


21 


1 10 


4 





6i 


117 


9 li 


12 





3 


25 


1 151 


4 


2 


61 


126 


9 13 


12 





3i 


29 


2 4 


4 


2 


7 


136 


10 8J 


12 


2 


H 


34 


2 10 


6 





li 


146 


11 5 


12 


2 


31 


39 


3 Oi 


6 





n 


166 


12 IJ 


14 





4 


41 


3 7 


6 


2 


7i 


166 


13 


14 





*i 


50 


3 14 


6 


2 


\ 8 


177 


13 12^ 


14 


2 



* By ordinary and extra is meant roping and seaming twine. 

The table given above is calculated by the usual mode adopted 
by ropemakers, and is termed by them working by the square. 
The following are some of the rules in use for finding the num 
ber of yams in each strand. oiotized.y Google 



WSIQHTS AND SIZES OF BOPES. 43 

Cable-laid: — Sise^ l^thread yarh. 

Rule, — Square the size of the rope proposed to be made, and 
half the product will give the number of threads or yams to work 
per hoo^ in all sizes of three-strand cable-laid corda^^ of 16- 
threadyam. 

Shraud-laid: — Siaef IS-thread yam. 

Bulk — Square the size of the rope, as before, and twice the 
product will give the number of threads to work per hook, in all 
sizes of three-strand shroud-laid of 18-yam. 

Shraud'laid : — Sizcy 25-threadyarn. 

Bulb. — Square the size of the rope, multiply that product by 
25y and divide by 9, the quotient will be the number of threads 
to lay up per hook, which answers to 25-thread yam, in all sizes 
of bolt-rope, as per tabla Thus >: — ^A 5-inch rope ? The square 
of d is 25, which multiplied by 25 is 625, and divided by 9 
gives 69, for the number of threads to work per hook. 

To find the Weight of one Fathom of any sized Rope ? 

BuLE. — Square the size of the rope, multiply that product by 
the weight of one fathom of 3-inch rope, and divide by 9, the 
quotient will give the weight of any sized rope demanded, 
thus : — ^The weight of a 4-inch rope ? The square of 4 is 1 6, and 
16 multiplied by 31 (the weight of one fathom, in ounces, of a 
three-inch rope in the table,) is equal to 496, which, divided by 9, 
gives 55^oz., or 31b. 7oz., the weight of a 4-inch rope. {See table.) 
I\> find what length one fathom of rope stretehes, as H decreases 
in size. 

BxjLB. — Square the size of the rope, multiply that product 
by 6, and divide by the square of the reduced size of the rope, 
the quotient will give what length one fathom has stretched. 
Thus : — Suppose a fathom of 4-inch rope to be stretched until 
its diameter is reduced to SJ inches ; what length is it ? Here 
the square of 4 is 16, which, multiplied by 6, equals 96, and 
divided by the square of 3f , or W^, gives 6 feet 10 inches. 
Hence it will have stretched 10 inches per fathom 

EXAMPLE. 

What slack canvass should be roped in the leech of a topsail, 
27 feet 6 inches, when a Scinch rope is reduced to 3 J-inch ? 

By the foregoing rale : — The square of 3 J, or 3 '6, equals 
12-26, which, multiplied by 27-6, and divided by the square 
of 8i, gives 32 inches, or the slack «q'^„^^,,^Google 



44 



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16 fRBATIHE ON SAILS AND SAlLMAKlKtt. 

BOLT-ROPE : — SEWING IT ON. 

The ^exibilitj of hoUrope should be always considered in 
taking in the slacks which must rest on the judgment of the 
sailmaker, and it should be neatly sewed on through every 
contline of the rope ; and to avoid getting a turn, the rope must 
be kept tightly twisted while sewing on ; but to rope without a 
turn in it, can only be acquired by practice. In roping, care 
must be taken that neither too much nor too little slack is taken 
in, but a regular slack held on all the way on the leeches of 
square sail& The leeches of fore and aft sails ought to be 
straight-roped, without any slack, with a shallow stitch and a 
stout thread. All jibs should be roped straight round the sail ; 
the foot-rope the slackest, when the foot is cut with a curve. On 
the foot of trysails, it is the erroneous practice of some sailmakers 
to curl the rope next the clue in sewing it on : all foot-ropes on 
drivers, trysails, &c., should be sewed on veiy round, and slack 
in the way of the gores, with a slight hold of the canvass, and 
for the canvass to carry the strain. Mast-ropes ought to be 
nearly straight roped on, and the head-lines one inch in every 
yard slack canvass. Many a well-cut sail is spoiled by the 
roping. 

CLUES. 

In the royal navy, the courses 
and topsails have short clues, 
with double thimbles, and the 
blocks strapped on, when fitted 
on board of ship, as shown in 
the sketch. Q^e top-gallant 
clues have no thimblea The 
I foot ropes of courses and top- 
sails only, are served through- 
out — ^topgallant sails round the 
clue, about one foot each way. 

The marline-holes of courses, topsails, and clues of fore-and- 
aft sails, have from 11 to 13 stitches ; fourteen holes are worked 
in each clotk The depth of the marling-holes of courses (for 
frigates) are at 3 inches from the rope ; and those of main and 
fore-topsails are at 2 f inches, and mizen-topsail 2^ inches, from 
the rope. Topgallant-sails and royals have no marling holea 
The clues of ships' square-footed jibs are served and marled ; 
round-footed sails have cringles stuck through two holes, served, 




CLUBS AND CLXTE-ORINOLBS. 



47 




and thimbled. All tacka are formed by an earing in the Btay« 
rope. Thimbles of mixed metal are nsed in boats' sails, and in 
the buntline-holes of courses and topsails. Thimbles of iron in 
all other sails are used. 

In the merchant service, the 
clues of courses, &c., are dif- 
ferent from those of the royal 
navy. The rope is carried 
round the sail, virithout fbi^n- 
ing the clue, virith & seizing, 
thus : — Rope clue-cringles are 
stuck through two holes with 
a thimble for the sheet, in the 
same manner as the leef- 
cringles; the sheet> by this 
mode haying a &irer strain than by any seized clua 

The hole for the clue garnet is worked close up to the 
clue-holes^ and the due-line block-strop reeves through the 
hole and due-cringle, and it therefore takes a direct strain from 
the sheet ; the block is seized into the strop on the afterside 
with several turns of spunyam, and strained tight with three 
or more cross-turns. 

The advantage of rope clue-cringles in lieu of turned clues is, 
that they are more readily replaced when they break ; besides, 
more sail is gained in not having long cluea The more compact 
clues can be made, the stronger they will be, and the clues 
will also come nearer to the sheave-holes in the yards, besides 
avoiding the complaint of "the clues always breaking." 
Hence care should be taken to ensure their being of sufficient 
strength, and made so as to last as long as the saiL 

Recently, iron clues in place of rope have come much into 
fashion, and bid fair to supersede the use of the latter material 
altogether. The Americans fit iron clues in all their sails 
indiscriminately, both in fore and aft sails, as well as in courses, 
topsails, and topgallant-sail& 

There are many captains who question the propriety of sub- 
stituting iron for rope clue-cringles, because they do not like 
ironwork at all about their sails to iron-mould the canvass. 
Iron clues, however, are apparently stronger than rope, and last 
much longer, and when galvanized they may for a long time be 
preserved f^om rusting ; and, it must be remembered, that when 
a sail is worn out, they can, by being galvanized afresh, b&put 
into a new sail again. Digitized byLnOOglc 



4S TREATISE ON BAILS AND SAILMAEINO. 

These iron clues have two eyes with thimbles inserted fo; 
splicing to the bolt-rope. The round shape of the clue, and the 
position of the two eyes, give it the appearance of a pair oi 
spectacles, and hence its name " the spectacle clue." The due 
is formed by simply welding a round eye on each end of a bar of 
round iron, then bending the bar into a round shape, and bringing 
the sides of the two eyes together. Another eye is made by an 
open link welded over the parts of the eyes which meet together, 
and then bent through the due-eye, into which a thimble is 
inserted, for stropping on the clue-line block. 

The eye splices are made of an 
additional length of 15 to 18 
inches of the bolt-ropes being left 
at the clue of the sail, which, 
being thrust through the eyes 
and over the thimbles respec- 
tively, are turned back to the 
size of the thimbles, and form 
the eyes; which being neatly 
covered with service-leather, the 
ends are stuck twice through 
and hove well in (with a heaver 
and board) ; the clue is then set-up and the eye-splices well 
stretched, the ends are tapered, and laid along the rope, marled, 
parcelled, and served over with spun yam ; then marled round 
the comer of the clue of the sail as far as it is served. 

The adjoining sketch is another 
form of iron due, consisting of 
'a large rtn^, into which three 
thimbles are inserted — two for 
splicing into the bolt-ropes, and 
the third, a small thimble for 
the clue-line block strop to splice 
into. These ring-clttes are more 
approved of than the spectacles, 
for the eyes come closer together 
the tighter the clue is hauled 
on, and there is lees strain on the canvass at the comer of tlie 
due of the sail. 

Other improvements have been adopted by many sailmakera 
instead of those just mentioned, and the result has been to secure 
a more flexible rope at less expense without the aid of marling- 
work. No service should be put on any sail exeept round the clue. 





CLUES AND CLUB OBINOLES. 49 

Roping and neat service-leather or two-fold canvass casing (in 
the way of chafes) are cheaper, lighter, less exposed, more 
flexible, and therefore easier for handling, consequently it is in 
every respect decidedly better. 

The dues of topgallarU'saUa and rqyals are similar to those of 
topsaila The cringles are one-inch larger than the rope which 
goes round the sail A hole for the due-garnet is prepared, in 
eveiy respect the same as the topsails. The clues only are 
parcelled with worn canvass, well tarred, and served over with 
two-yam spun yam, and marled in with strong marline as fkr as 
they are served. The dues of small royals are fbmed of the 
bolt-rope^ sewed home to the clues. The clues only are served 
with spun yam, and seized with houseline or marline^ 

The dues of main, fore^ and mieen staysails, and main and 
fore-topmast staysails, — ^The cringles are hidf-an-inch larger than 
the due-ropa The due-rope splices into the foot and after 
leech-rope, and the cringle is stuck through holes made in the 
comer of the clue, and hitched. The ends of the cringle are 
passed through the bolt-rope three times each way, and the 
tacks have cringles stuck in the same manner as the clues, and 
earings at the peak, with iron thimbles in each of the comers. 

The clues of all studdin^sails have cringles stuck through 
holes, and the ends passed into the bolt-ropa The tacks oiSy 
of topmast-studdingsailsy topgallant-stud^g sail% &c., are 
made of the bolt-rope, parcelled, and served with spun yam. 
The canvass is marled on to the rope about 18 inchest, equally 
distant from the clue, or the extent of it served. 

The dues of shipt^ drivers and trysails^ 
barque^ mizens and trysails, hrigi main-* 
sails, &C. — ^These are made with cringles, 
about half-an-inch larger than the due- 
rope. The mast-rope on the driver of 
large ships should be taken round the 
tack and neck ; also, the peak-rope round 
the comer, and spliced in the head-rope ; 
and cringles stuck in all the comers, with 
the ends passed into the bolt-ropa The 
tack of the driver should be strong, as it 
is frequently hauled to the weather mizen rigging. Tlic tacks 
of large jibs should have a rope spliced into the foot and stfty« 
rope, as large as the due-rope, with a cringle : the clues to be 
fixed about two feet equally distant from the clue, and the 
cringle half-an-inch less than the clue-rope, stuck twice througb 




50 



TBEATISE ON BALLS AND SAlLBfAKINO. 




the holes, and the ends passed into the cringle, or into the 
bolt-rope. 

The clues of sloop^ topsails, and topsails and other satis of 
colliers, are mostly formed by the rope going round the sail, 
which is left sufficiently long to form the clua 

Cringles should be made of the strands of new bolt-rope, half- 
an-inch smaller than the bolt-rope on the sail to which they are 
fEurtened, excepting the olue-^iringles, which cannot be too strong. 
^-:» The earing-eringles are made of an 
" additional length of 15 to 18 inches of 
the leech-rope left at the head of the 
sails, which, being turned back to the 
size of eight twists or turns, forms the 
cringle by splicing its ends into the 
leech-rope, and cross-stitching the whole 
of the splice. The first stitch at the 
head is double, and all the cross-stitches 
hove tight The ends of the head-line 
are spliced into the earings, and one strand is turned back and 
spliced in the head- rope, for preventing the head-line drawing 
out of the earingSb All earings are served over with spun yam, 
when finished. 

Rerf and reef-tackle cringles are stuck through holes made 
in the tablings, and the lower-ends are put through the bolt- 
rope once more than the upper ends, being more liable to be 
drawn out Sometimes the cringles 
are stuck twice through the holes, 

and the ends worked up into the 

^^g cringlft Eyelet-holes, thus worked 

^^^^^j^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ in the sail for cringles to be formed 
through, are an excellent plan, as 
the cringle is then made roimd the entire rope, and not 
between the strands, which must give the leech-ropes better 
lead, and less injury to the rope. 

Manilla reef^points are now generally used for sails in the 
merchant service, as they not only cost lefis, but, in point of 
utility, are preferable to the white-line points, being softer and 
and having a beautiful silky appearance, while at the same time 
in weight they are one-third less than the white-line : thus not 
only reducing the weight on a topsail, but also being easier for 
the men when tying the points in reefing. The lengths of the 
points are about twice the circumference of the yard. At each 
reef the points are lessened six inches in length ; and the aft-legs 




GLUES AND OLUII-CBINGLES. 61 

ate one fbot longer^ excepting the dose-reef pointB, which are 
halved. The points being whipped at each end, and inserted 
in the eyelet holes, they are fixed in the sail by sewing them to 
the upper part of the grommet on the after-side of the reef-band. 
In fore and aft sails, the points are sewed to the lower part oi 
the grommet, " smack" fashion. 

In the royal navy, the topsail reef-points are flat-braided or 
plaited with 3-yam spunyam, and made with an eye at one 
end, and whipped at the other. They are fixed in the sails by 
means of two knots, one of which is before and the other behind 
the reef-band, thus :— -A running eye is made on each pair, and 
then greased, to make the eyes run easy ; the ends arc thrust 
through the reef-holes, fScom the fore and after side, and rove 
in each other's eye, then jammed tight, while using sheaves 
to set the feet against. 

The bowline-cringles of courses and topsails are stuck the 
same way as the reef-cringles ; and topgallant sails and royals 
are stuck in the bolt-rope on the sail, at the distance of four 
turns or one strand clear in the bolt-rope asunder. The ends 
are first stuck in an open- 
ing made with a fid, under <iift. ^ _ J P^'^ 
two strands of the bolt- 
rope. The two ends are 
then passed over each 
other, one ot them being the longest. The long end is thrust 
through two strands, and worked back into a three-stranded 
rope. The ends are then stuck under two strands, and again 
passing over one strand, and they are finally stuck under two : 
all bowline-cringles are served as those of earings. 

Splices are made by opening the ends of two ropes, and 
placing the strands between each other, openings being made 
in the untwisted part of the rope, near the thickest end, with a 
fid. The strands are thrust through them ; and the large ends 
are regularly tapered fi:om the thick rope, by cutting away 
some of the yams every time they are thrust through. The 
email strands, as those of the foot or leech rope, are stuck twice 
through the openings made in the large rope ; and the large 
strands are tapered on to the small rope for about 15 to 18 
inches. The leffc-handed splices are the best for roping straight, 
and look much better, being passed to and keeping the form 
of the strands, and scarcely showing that there is a splice. All 
splices are cross-stitched as far as they run, and spme only at 

the ends. Digitized by CiOOglc 



^ST"^^^-;^ )K^^i*.-^^^?a2^^S^^ 



62 



TBEATISB ON BAII^ Am> BAILMAEIKO. 



TO LENGTHEN A BOPE WITH A SINGLE STKAND. 

The plan of lengttiening a rope, for the purpose of enlarging 
a sail with one doth, instead of putting in a piece of rope and 
making two long BpliceSy is this : — ^First^ rip the rope off four 
cloths— 



Nal. 



B 







Cut a single strand at B for a centre, nnlay each strand to A 
and to 2ft, 6in. each way, forming No. 2 : — 

No. 2. mv3w0^.mj^jvi^jj^j^j3^j,j^^^jj>jjv^m^^^ 

Cut the next strand at 0, and unlay it to A ; and finally cut 
the last strand at A; thiis forming No. 3 : — 



No. 3. mmami 



Join B and C, lay up D and E, and it will form No. 4 :— 




'tf^/^^.^y^^A^/Ay/XA^X/y/'/^^yry^^^y^^^Xj'yX^^^^/MWfi 



No. 4. 



Lay in the single strand from A to D^ and you will have four 
splices or knots. 

This is also a good plan for shortening a rope in a fore-and 
oft-sail, when too much slack-rope has been put on, and you 
have not enough rope to make a long splice : you can shorten it 
as little as 6 inches. 

This is rather a troublesome splice to make if it is not laid- 
up right the first time ; but practice and keen observation soon 
overcome the difficulty. 



Digitized by 



Google 



PRACTICAL OPERATIONS IN SAlLMAKINa 53 

CHAPTER IIL 
PRACTICAL OPEBATIONS IN SAlLMAKINtt. 

Oonrses •— Main-Course -.—Rule for determining the Depth of the Leech ami 
Head— Dimensions for Cutting-Out— To determine the Size of a Square 
Mainsail for a Brig— Dimensions for CvLtiing-Oui.— yote.— B,u\e for 
finding the Gore at the Top of Buntline Cloths, inclined inwards.— 
Reefing Courses to Jack-Stays.— Fore-Course :— Dimensions for Cutting- 
Out — Boom-Foresail — Ship's Cross-Jacksail— Topsails— Main, Fore, 
and Mizen — Rule for determining the Hoist, Head, Close- Reef, and 
Foot —Topgallant Sails:— Main, Fore, and Mizen — Rule lor deter- 
mining the Hoist. Head, and Foot. — Royals :— Main, Fore, and 
Mizen.— Rule for determining the Hoist, Head, and Foot 

MAIN-COURSE. 



This sail is quadrilateral, square on the iead, (some cut it 
down at the eariugs,) and is made of Ho. 1, 2, or 3 canvass. 
It bends at the head to the jackstay on the mainyard, which 
hangs to the mast at right angles, and parallel to the deck. 
The earings come 18 inches within each of the cleats on the 
yard-arms, and the middle of the foot-drops, to clear the height 
of the boat. 

Gores, — One to two cloths are gored on the leech; and the 
gore on thefoU equals the difference of the depths of the leech 
and middle. The roach, however, of the foot (of large courses) 
is not circular ; three-fifths of its breadth at the middle is mad 
parallel to the head, from which place the clues are c^rr 



54 TBEATISE ON BAILS Ain> 8AILMAEIN0. 

down to give the amount of roach, at the rate of so many 
inches per doth. The reason why there are so many square 
cloths in the centre of this sail, is to prevent leeward pressure, 
thereby equalizing the pressure of the wind on the sur&ce of 
the sail : — ^the same means clearing the height of the boats, and 
not throwing tho foot so high up into the wind. (See page 8.) 
The roach usually given to a main^course, in 1,500 ton ships, 
is 3 feet 9 inches, and in smaller ships, 5 to 7 feet The depth 
of the leech is found, if for a new ship, by the following 
RULE. 
Add the length of the mast-head, the slings below the bottom 
of the trestle-trees, the housing of the mast, and the chess-tree, 
or block hooked into eye-bolt, above the deck; the sum of 
which, subtracted &om the extreme length of the mast, and 
20 inches or 2 fbet from the remainder, gives the len^h of the 
leech. 

The head. — Subtract the two yard-arms from the whole 
length of the main-yard, which gives the hounded length, and 
3 feet or 18 inches within each of the cleats on the yard-arme^ 
for the width an the head. Thus : — 

MoSn \ ^' IN' ^T. IN. FT. IN. 

«,t^"M7 3-12 6 head. Main-yard -71 

°^^^'^ 4 6 sling. « two arms 7 

19 9 housing. — 

2 chess-tree. " hounded 64 

J 3 f tack block »' within dts 3 

( and shackle. 

Head - - - 61 
40 or 33 cloths, per table 

page 19. 

37 3 
1 3 Stretching 

36 Leech 

DIMENSIONS FOE CUTTINO-OUT. 

FT. IN. Foot-gores : — 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 

Head- -61 equal to 33 doths. 6, 7, 9, 11=4 feet 

Foot - - 65 8 equal to 37 cloths. 

Leech - • 36 tabled. 

Gore - - 4 Leech-gores, 18fk. 6in. each. 

Middle - 33 cut, 19 squares 

Note — One foot is added to the middte Pnr-irrT^ 

fortabling^ 3iotized.vL.oogle 



ON COUBSJES. 55 

For seams, tablings, reef and head holes, &c., see the general 
instructions at pages 40, 41, &c. 

The main-course has, in very large ships, two reef -hands, of 
one-third the breadth of a doth. The upper reef is 6 ffeet 6 inches, 
and the lower ree^band is 7 feet distant from the upper one. The 
ends go under the leech-linings to the rope, which are tabled 
twice down. Ships of 900 tons and under have only one reef- 
band, about 6 feet down from the head. The reef-taelle cringle 
is 3 feet below the reef The sail has also a middle-hand^ of one 
breadth of cloth, half-way between the lower reef-band and tlie 
foot. It is first folded and creased down at one-third of the 
breadth, then tabled small (long) work on the top of the selvage ; 
and it is then turned down, and seamed both the selvage and 
double part, leaving open in the way of the tops of the bunt- 
line cloths, to be stitched down twice underneath. Half a 
breadth middle-band is put on small courses, half-way between 
the reef-band and the foot 

Linings are of one breadth of cloth, from the due to the 
earing on the leeches. The foot is lined from clue to due with 
half a breadth of canvass. 

Four huntline cloths are placed at equal distances between 
the clues, extending from the foot to underneath the lower side 
of the middle-band, which is tabled down upon the ends of the 
buntline cloths ; and the feet of the buntline cloths are tabled 
down over the foot-band. The outer buntline-cloths are put 
on two cloths of the sail, goring inwards ; and the middle two 
are straight up and down.* (See sketch, p. 53.) When there 
are fbur buntline-cloths in the sail, divide the foot into five equal 
parts; for two bunts, divide the foot into three part& In 
small courses there are only two buntline-cloths, run up abor* 
one yard and a half 

Beef-cringles are made on each leech, one at each reef-band ; 
reef-tackle cringles at 3 fbet below ; and three howline-crinfflei^ 
the upper at 3 feet above the centre of the leech, and the other 
two equally divided between it and the clue. 

Holes are made on the foot, one at the middle of each bnnt<- 
line^sloth. 

* Rule for finding the gore at the top of bwnUine doths inclined In- 
wards :— -Divide the nnmher of cloths the buntline-cloth is gored inwards 
by 1^ times the depth in yards, and the quotient will give the gore at the 
nead in terms of a cloth. Thus— Suppose the buntline-oloth is gored one 
cloth and a half in the middle of the sail, and the perpendicular depth of it 

is 8 yds. 1 ft. then 3i yds. x li = V 5< } = 5,and IJ cloth = 3 ft. =36 ir 
Therefore 8)36 

—7 iuenes gore for the head of the bantline cloths. 



56 fBEATISB ON SAILS AND SAILMAKING. 

. The dues are cased with two-fold canvass or service leather, 
18 inches each way from the due over the spun yam. The 
tlue cringles are described at page 47. 

In sowing on the bolt-rope, three inches of slaeh doth are 
taken up in every yard in the leeches, and one inch in every 
cloth in the fbot (See note, page 21.) 

*«* The foot-rope onght to be weU stretched before it Is roped. 



TO DETERMINE THE SIZE OF A SQUABE MAINSAIL FOB A BBIQ ? 

The bunt of brigs' courses generally stands high, and the posi- 
tion of the tack is such as to clear the top part of the rail. Some 
vessels have the tack to hoard through a kind of stout thimble 
fitted in the top part of the rail, or through an eye-bolt, about 
one foot below the rail, as described in the foot-note, page 8. 
The dimenMons of the fbllowing is to stand, in the bunt, 7 feet 
above the deck ; the rail is 3 feet high, and eye-bolt for the tack 
2 feet above the deck. The measurements are as follows, thus : — 

FT. IN. 

Depth. — ^Fromthejackstay on themainyardtodeck- 30 
Bunt to stand above the deck 7 

23 
Add for tablings - - - - 9 

Middle cut 23 9 

Foot-gore 3 3 

Leech, cut 27 



Main-yard^ from deat to cleat on the yard-arms - • 35 6 
Subtract 4 

Head • - 31 6 

or 17 cloths, per table, page 18. 
nalf'fooi.*^Yiom 2 feet distant firom the main-mast ft. in. 
to the chess-tree, or eye-bolt - - - 21 
Deduct the allowance for the drift of the tack 1 6 

The half-spread of the foot 19 <r 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 







ON OOTTBSEa 






DIUENBIONS FOB CUmNO-OUT. 


Head • 
Foot - 
Iieecli - 
Gore - 
Hiddio - 


31 

39 

27 

3 

23 


6 equal to 17 cloths. 

equal to 21 doths. 

Ocut 

3 

9 cat— % squares. 


Foot-gorcB — 
1 
2 
3 
4 

5 Leech- 
7 gores. 

— FT. IN. 

9 13 6 
11 13 6 



57 



FT. IN. ■- 

3 6.~.42 27 

Memobakdum. — ^This sail has one reef-handy at 5 feet down 
from the head, of one-quarter to one-third of a cloth. The 
rerf'taclle cringle is 3 feet below the reef : often nona 

Linings on the leeches are of one breadth of cloth, extending 
from the clue to the earing ; and on the /oo^, one-third to one- 
half of a breadth from underneath the leech-linings. 

Two huntUne-doths, at equal distances, or the fbot divided 
into three parts, are carried up two yards, inclining at an angle 
inwarda 

Three botdines, the upper one at 3 feet above half-way of the 
leech, and the other two equally divided between it and the 
due. 

Hbks are made on the fbot, in the middle of each buntline- 
cloth. 

The thichiess ofhoU-rape on the leeches and along the foot is 
3^ inches, and for 18 inches up each leech and along the fbot 
to each buntline-hole is parcelled and served ; and between the 
bunts it is sewed on the foot ; but, frequently, the foot is roped 
throughout 

Tlie duei are mostly fitted for chain-tacks. Cringles are 
stuck on the leechesf, at the end of the reef-band and bowline& 

BEEFINa COUSSES TO JACK-STAYS. 

In the royal navy, and also in the merchant service^tho upper 
reef of the main and fore^ourses is generally reef^ with half- 
legged points (on the fore side of the sail), which are flat-plaited, 
and made with eyes. Through those eyes, a small-sized rope is 
reeved ; and this is called thejaei-Une, The points are thrust 
through every eyelet-hole from the after side ; and, between 
every four eyelet-holes, the rope must be well stitch^ tQ th^ 



6S 



TRKATISE ON SAIL AND 8AILMAKIN0. 



Rail ; the ends of the jack-line being spliced into the reef-oringlea 
If on each yard-ann, three points be left out, a ffrab^ope, oi 
reef -line, may be fonned, thiis : — Take a pi©ce of small rope, 
and splice one end to the eyelet-hole in the head of the sail, 
then reeve it through that left in the reef, and splice the othei 
end into the same eyelet-hole in the head, leaving about two 
feet slack. This will be found of much use in gathering the 
sail up for reefing. 

FORE-COUESE, 




This sail is made of canvass No. 1 or 2. It is bent, at the 
head, to the jack-stay on the fore-yard, which hangs at right 
angles to the mast, and parallel to the deck. It hauls out at 
the earings within 18 inches of the hounds on the yard-arms, 
and drops to dear the mainstay, when carried to the stem, or 4 
feet from the forecastle deck, in ships which have a forecastle. 

€hres—{Bee page 7). — ^A gore is made on the foot, to drop 
the due, usually 2 f&et 6 inches to 4 feet, beginning at the 
three- fifths of the foot (in large courses). The depth of the 
leech (in a new ship with a forecastle) is found thus : — 

FT. IN. FT. IN. FT. IN. 

3 head. Fore-yard - - 71 
6 sling. « two arms - 7 

9 housing. 

6 F.O. deck.* " hounded - 64 
« within cits. 3 



Foremast, 74 


■ 


. 18 

4 

19 

6 


43 







31 







Stietcliing 1 








Head - - - 61 
or 33 doths (page 19). 



Ijeech - 30 Cn^c^n 

Digitized by VjOOV 

* Wbdc fbe v^ceel bne pot a fbreeastle, take Uie height of tbe cathead. 



ON COTTBBEB. 69 

DIMENSIONS FOB CUTTING-OUT. 

Head - - 61 equal to 33 clothfl. 
Leech - - 30 
Gore - - 4 
Middle - - 26 6 cat — 17 squares. 
Foot-gores, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12 = 4ft. 5m, 

lustractions for seams, tablings, holes, &c., are given in the 
last chapter. Two reef -bands, of one-third the breadth of a 
cloth, are put on large ships' courses, at the distance of 6 feet 
and 6 feet 6 inches asunder, the upper one being 6 feet from 
the head; the ends go to the rope under the leech linings, 
which are tabled twice over them. Ships of small tonnage 
have only one reef-band, 5 feet or 5 feet 6 inches below the 
head. 

A middle hand, of one breadth of canvass, is put on half-way 
between the reef-band and the foot, of No. 5 canvass. It is 
put on in the same way as that of the main-ooursa In smaller 
vessels there is half a breadth of canvass, extending from leech 
to leoph under the linings, but often none at alL 

Linings on the leeches are of one breadth of cloth, extending 
from the clue to the earing ; and on the foot half a breadth 
from clue to clua In coasters, foot bands are seldom us9d ; 
and, when any, are one-third of a clotL 

Four huntUne'chthsy at equal distances — or, the foot divided 
into five parts — ^are carried up to the lower side of the middle 
band ; the outer bands are put on one and a half cloths, goring 
inwaids, and the middle two straight up and down (see sketch 
page 58). The middle band is tabled upon the ends of the 
buntline-cloths, and the buntline-cloths are tabled over the foot- 
band. Tioo buntline-cloths only are put on small courses, run 
about 1 yard or li yards up from the foot. 

Reef cringles are made on the leeches, one at the end of each 
reef-band, stuck through holes close to the rope, or leaving room 
to take half a stitch ; reef tackle cringle 3 feet below the reef; 
as also are two botoline-cringles, the upper bowline-cringle being 
made in the middle of the leech, and the lower one equally 
distant from the upper one and the clue : a hole is also made 
at the end of each buntline-cloth on the foot, in the middle. 

Cringles are also made in lieu of turned clues (see page 47), 
and a large hole worked-in close down to the cringle, for the 
clue-garnet block strop. The clues are cased with two-fbld can- 
vass or service leather half a yard each way over the spunyarn. 

In sewing on the bolt-rope, three ox four inches of slacH; chth 



60 TBEATISE ON SAILS AND SAILMAKINO. 

Bhonld be taken up in eyery yard in the leeches, and one inch 
up in every cloth in the foot The foot-rope ought to be well 
stretched before it is roped. (See page 2h) 

BOOM-FOBESAIL. 

Meamrements. Fr. IN. 

Poreyard, from cleat to cleat on the yard-arms - 35 6 

Subtract -.-30 

32 6 

or 17^ cloths (see page 18). 
Depth, — ^The height of the centre of the yard from the main- 
stay, 17 feet. FT. IN. 
Boom, between the two auger-holes - - - - 29 6 

or 15| dotho (page 18). 

Dimensions for Cutting -ota, 

FT. IN. 

Head 32 6 equal to 17^ cloths. 

Foot 29 6 equal to 15f doths. 

Depth 17 cut square on the foot 

Memobanduh. — Linings on the leeches are of one breadth 
and extend from the clue to the earing. 

One-quarter to one-third of a \y[esAih. fooi-hand, A reef-land^ 
one-fourth to one-third of a breadth, is put on at 5 feet below 
the head. 

Two buntUne- cloths run about one yard up from the foot ; 
and small cringles are stuck in the bolt-rope, in lieu of buntline- 
holes. 

Two bowlines, the upper bowline-cringle being made in the 
middle of the leech, and the lower one equally distant ftom the 
upper one and the clue. 

Cringles are made in the two lower comers or dnes. 

Dolt-rope. — ^The bolt-rope is sewed round the sail 

CBOSS jacesail. 
This sail is made of canvass No. 3. The head is bent to the 
jack-stay on the cross jack-yard, and it drops at right-angles 
with the ship's mizenmast, and parallel to the deck, exten<&ng 
within 12 inches of the hounds on the yard-arms. The depth 
of this sail at the middle is made to clear 6 or 7 feet of the 
4ecl^ so that it is cut with a deal of Toach on the foot)gIe 



OK CBOSS JACKflAILS 61 

Oores. — Two goring cloths are on each leech ; and the gore 
on the foot is 6 feet, beginning at the buntline-cloth, and 
increasing to give the drop at the clue& The gores are found 
in a similar way to those of the main-coursa 

For seamsy tablingSf &c, consult the last chapter. 

This sail has one reef-handy of one-third the breadth of a 
cloth, at 5 feet 6 inches down from the head. The ends go 
four inches under the leech-linings, which are tabled twice over 
thenL A reef in this sail is not of any use : it is merely for 
the sake of uniformity with the other courses that it is put oil 
like a small main-course, it has no middle- hand. 

Linings are of one breadth of doth from the clue to the 
earing on the leeches, and half of a breadth of doth from clue 
to clue on the fooi. 

Two huntline doths are placed at equal distances between the 
leeches, or the foot is divided into tluree parts, extending from 
the foot to one-fourth up the sail 

A reef-cringle is made on each leech, one at each end of the 
reef-band, stuck through holes made in the tablings; two 
hotoline-cringlesy the upper one made in the middle of the leech, 
and the lower one equally distant from the upper one and the 
due ; a huntline-hcle is also made at the end of each buntline- 
cloth on the foot, in the middle 

Cringles are also made in preference to turned clues ; the 
dues are cased with canvass, as those of the main and fore 
courses, over the spunyam; and a hole for the due-garnet, 
which should be close to the cringle-holes. 

In sewing on the hoU-rope, a regular slack is taken up in the 
leeches and head, and one inch in eveiy doth in roping the 
foot throughout 

ON TOPSAILS. 
These sails are quadrilateral, square on the he^id, and reached 
on the foot, and made of canvass No. 2 or No. 3. They are 
extended across the topmasts by the topsail-yards above, and 
by the lower-yards beneath, being fastened to the former by 
earings and robands (or good rope-yams), and to the latter by 
means of the topsail-sheets, which, passing through iron cheek- 
blocks, brought on the after-side of the yard, well with the stops 
(as per sketch, page 47), and from thence through the quarter 
blocks, shackled on each side of the middle or slings of the 
yards, and led down by the mast The topsail-yards are 
hoisted up by dmn'tyes and loj^halHards. The upper-end of the 



62 



TBEATISE ON SAILS AND SAILMAEINQ. 



tye is first rove through the bullock-block from aft, then through 
thetye-block hooked into the eye of the hoop in the middle of 
the yard, and the end taken to the mast-head, where it is 
shackled to the chain-pendant on the side opposite the bullock- 
block ; the lower end of the tye comes down abaft the mast, to 
which a block is shackled, for any required purchase to be 
added, to hoist up the sail as far as the spider-hoop. (See 
page 6.) 

MAIN-TOPSAIL. 




To determine the Size? 

RULE. 

1. The Hoist. — The hounded length of the topmast, or mas?r 
head, deducted from the extreme length of the topmast 

N.B. — Small vessels, from 250 to 300 tons, from the pinhole 
down to the heeL 

2. Head, — Subtract the two yard-arms from the whole length 
of the topsail-yard, which gives the hounded length, and 4 
feet for the earings within the cleats on the yard-arms. 

3. (7/<)5c-»'e^ —-Subtract 5 feet from the whole length of the 
topsail-yard. 

4. Length of the Foot — Subtract the two yard-arms from the 
whole length of the lower-yard, and the result gives the hounded 
length, from which deduct 3 inches in every 3^ feet of the hounded 
length, for the sheave-holes within the stops and the foot of the 
sail stretching, thus : — Suppose the whole length of a lower-yard 
63 feet, and the arms 3ft. 6in. each. From 63 subtract 7, 
leaving 56 feet, the hounded length ; and 6Q divided by 3^ gives 
16, which, multiplied by 3 inches^ equals 48 inches or 4 feoi^ 



ON TOPSAILS. 



63 



the distance the foot is to be short of the hounded length : — 
thus, the length of the foot will be 52 feet. 

The Boach on the Foot is about 2ft. Gin. for main and fore- 
topsails, and 3 feet fbi mizen-topsails. 

In the royal navy, the feet of the topsails are cut Mtraighiy 
because the blocks attached to the clues lift the foot above the 
yards to dear the stays. (See sketchy page 46.) 

EXAMPLK. 
FT. IN. FT. IN. 

Topmast - - - 40 Lower-yard - - 63 
Head - 6 6 Two Arms 7 



Hoist - 34 6 


Hounded 56 


. Gore - 2 6 


Subtract 4 


Middle 32 cut 


Foot - . 52 


or 29 cloths, per tabk 


FT. IN. 


page 20. 


TopsaU-yard - 48 9 


FT. m. 


TwoArms 7 Topsail-yard - 48 9 




Subtract- 5 


41 9 
Subtract 4 Olo 




se-reef - - 43 9 


Head - 37 9 




or 20^ cloths, per table page 19. 




DIMENSIONS FOE CUTTING-OUT. 




Foot Gorea 


FT. IN. 


IN. 


Head - 37 9 equal 204 cloths. 
Reef - 43 9 equal 23| cloths. 


1 


i 


Foot - 53 equal 29 clotha 


2 Lefch- 


Hoist- 34 6 


2 gores. 


Gore - 2 6 


3 Fr. IN. 


Middle 32 cut— 9 squares. 


3 — 60 




4 -41 




4-^66 




.5 — 60 




6 — 50 



2fl. 7in. =: 3lized b^oe^gle 



64 t&eahsb on sails and sailmakikg. 

This sail is made of No. 2, and lined with No. 5 canvasd. 
It has three or four reef-lauds, pnt on at, or 18 inches above, 
the c«3ntre of the close-reef, when there are tour reefs in the sail, 
and the upper reef is 4 feet distant from the head ; the others 
are diyided equally between it and the lowisr-ieef, and they 
extend from leech to leech underneath the lininga They are 
each half of a breadth of canvass^ put on double : the first side 
is stuck twice long-work, and the last turned over and tabled 
close-work, which gives strength to the eyelet-holes for the 
reef-points. 

One or two middk-hands arc put on between the lower reef- 
band and the foot, and are made and put on in the same way as 
that of the main-course. 

Linings, — ^The leeches are lined from clue to earing with one 
breadth of cloth, and the /(xa is lined from the clue under the 
leech-lining to the buntline-hole with half a breadtL Two 
huntline^laths are put on the foreside of the sail, at one-third 
the foot : their ends go under the foot-band, and are carried 
up under the middle-band, which is tabled twice on them. 

The ree/'tackle cringle is 3 feet below the lower-reef The 
ree/'tackle pieces are put on the foreside of the sail, and are so 
cut and sewed as, when put on, to be two -thirds broad at 
the leeches^ and one-third at the end which reaches to the 
top of the buntline-cloth, and tabled twice, under the middle- 
band 

Also, a top-lining on the aft-side, which covers one-third of 
the cloths in the foot, and is carried up so as to sew the top- 
edge to the centre of the middle-baud, and ttoo cloths run up to 
the head, covering the centre-cloths of the sail 

In the royal navy the short-cloths of the top-lining run up 
to the middle-band, and the two mast-cloths run up as high a£ 
the third ree£ The reef-tackle pieces are put on iu the direction 
of the buntline-cloths — ^three yards long from the leech. The 
fr>ot-band is half of a breadth, and extends from clue to clue. 

Three bowline-cringles* the upper one being 2^ feet below 
tlie reef-tackle, and the other two equally distant from each 
other between the upper one and the clue. One buntline-hole is 
made in the middle of each buntline-cloth ; and, also, a hole in 
the middle of the foot, for the spiOing-line. 

The bob-rope along the foot is roped, and for 3 feet up each 
leech is parcelled and served ; and before it is roped to the sail, 

* Two are much better, when the leef-tadde cringle Is oaed Jot the IU)pe^ 

bowline. Digitized by VnOOg Ic 



ON TOP8AIL8. 86 

the fboi-rope should be well stretched, and the length of the 
foot of the sail set oS, 

Cringlea are made on the leeches at the end of each reef- 
band, and in lien of turned dues^ which are described in the 
foregoing chapter. 

BeekOs for hunfji^ffer. — ^Work tioo holes on each nde of the 
oentre-seam, in the Srst and second reefe ; the first for furling 
with one reei^ and the second with two. 

EyeUhhckt for reef-earingt. — Make an ^elet-hole below 
each cringle, for the standing part of the earings to splice inta 

* FOBE-TOPaAIIi. 

This sail is made of No. 2 or No. 3, and lined with No. 5 
or No. 6 canvass. It has the same number of nrfa in it as the 
main-topsail ; and the Umngi^ &a, are exactly similar to those 
of the main-topsaiL 

inZEN-TOPSAIIfc 

This sail is made of canyass No. 3, and lined with No. 
5. It has three rerf-handSf* put on similar to those of the 
main-topsaiL A middle-band and hwUUne^pieeee are only put 
on sometime& 

The reff "tackle eringle is 3 feet below the dose-reef, and two 
bowUnes,f the upper one 3 feet below the reef-tackla The 
reef 'taehU pieces are put on the aft-side of the sail, extending 
from the leech to the top-lining. 

The top-lining is put on the aft-side, and covers one-third 
the foot, and is carried up half-way between the lower-reef and 
foot Two mast-cloths are put on in the middle of the sail, on 
the aft-side, between the foot and head. 

Linings on the leeches and footy the same as the main-topsaiL 

Cringles are made on the leeches, stuck through holes worked 
at the end of each reef-band, reef-tackle piece, and bowlines ; 
cringles, also, are stuck in lieu of turned due& One buniline 
hole is made at the edge of the top-lining on each side^ to 
take the foot-band. 

The holt-rope along the foot is roped, and for 18 inches to 2 
fbet up eadi leech is parcelled and served, then marled round 
the dua 

* Thny may be fitted with /our, which, except for the nke of onifiinnlty, 
IB uot oi^ much use. 
t Sometimes Mrsii nr^r^n]^ 

_ Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



66 TBEATISE ON SAILS AND SAILMAKIKO. 

TO DETERMINE THJS SIZE OF A TOPSAIL FOB A BRIG OF 

18 keels)* 
The close-reef of the topsail, and the length of the foo^ 
govern the length of the head of the sail ; and it is to be 
observed, that the dose-reef mnst never extend beyond the UJU 
of the topsail-yard. Hence, the method of fixrag the length on 
the head of the topsail, or the distance of the head of the sail 
from the topsail lifts, will cause the hollow given to the leeches 
of the topsails always to be more or less, according as the 
lengths of the lower yards at the sheaves exceed the lengths of 
the topsail-yards at the lifts, or place of the low-ree^ which, in 
colliers, is invariable, and gives the leeches a ver]rcoDdiderable 
hollow. Thus : — Suppose a topsail has 18 cloths in the foot, 
14 cloths in the dose-ree^ and the leedies require a hollow of 
half a cloth on each Bide, what number of doths ought there to 
be in the head f 

Here - - 14 doths in the close-ree£ 

Add - - 1 cloth, the hollow of the two leeches. 

15 cloths in the reef, when straight 
2 or twice. 

30 
Subtract - 18 doths in the fbot 

12 cloths in the head. 

Again : — ^If we suppose 19 doths in the foot, and the rest the 
same, as before, it will be seen that the doths in the head are 
less. 

Thus - - 14 doths in the ree£ 

Add - - 1 doth, the hollow. 

15 cloths in the ree^ straight leeches 
2 or twice. 

30 
Subtract- 19 doths in the foot 

11 cloths in the head. 

* Keel is a name given to a low, flat, interior vessel, used to bring ooals 
down the river Tyne for loading Uie colliers. Henoe, a eollier is said to 
oarry so many " keels" of ooals. ^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



ON TOPSAILS. 67 

Showing tliat the head is entirely regnlated by the reef and 
foot : consequently, the cloths in the foot and dose-reef must 
be determined first, and then see whether the leeches will 
require much or little hollow for the head to extend well out 
on the topsail-yard, which is generally from 2 to 2^ feet on 
each side, &om the topsail-lift&t 

TOP&AIL. 

Measurements. 

FT. IN. 

Topsail-yardi from lift to lift - 27 8 Topmast, from the pin 
Subtract - - 1 6 of the sheave-hole 

down to the heel, 

Reef ^^ ^ 26 2 27ft. 9in. 
or 14 cloths in the reef (page 18). 

' FT. m. 

Mainyard, pin and pin - 34 

Subtract - 1 6 

or 18 cloths (page 20). 32 6 the foot 
Head. — To make the leeches straight in this sail, there must 
be only 10 doths in the head, which will measure 18ft. 6in.; 
that is, bringing the earings 4ft. 7in. on each side from the 
hauling-out to the cleats, which is a great deal too much. 
Hence, we must hollow the leeches to get a squarer head — 
generally half a doth on each side. The doths in the head are 
shown in page 66. 

Dmensians for (hoUng-out. 





FT. 


IK. ] 


rootgores 




Head- 


- 22 


4 eqaal to 12 cloths. 


IS. 




Reef - 


• 26 


2 equal to 14 cloths. 


1 




Foot - 


• 32 


6 equal to 18 dotha 


2 




Hoiat- 


• 27 


9 


3 


Leech- 


Gore - 


2 


6 


4 


gores. 


ICddle 


• 26 


Scut — 1 squares. 


« — 

7 — 
9 - 


rr. nr. 

14 
7 9 
6 



31 27 9 

The construction of the plan for cutting hollow-leeches is 
given at page 32. But leech-gores (like the above) are easil^ 



68 



TBEATISB OK SAILS AKD BAn.MAKTNa 



calculated^ for it is only to cnt the first leech-cloth a little 
deeper than half-way down the hoist, and rpgulate the remain- 
ing cloths so as to make about 18 or 20 inches difference of 
them^ according to the number of cloths in the leech. Say : — 
If four clothsy lessen the difference^ take care that the whole 
of the gores do not exceed the hoist or length of the leech. 
The calculations, however, are only approximate, and founded 
on a good natural judgment and long practice. It is always 
the better plan, before cutting the leeches out^ to make a 
draught of the gored side of the saiL 

ON TOPGAIIiANT SAILS. 
These sails are quadrilateral, square on the head, and reached 
on the foot, and made of canvass No. 4 or No. 5. They are ex- 
tended above the topsail-yard8>in the same manner as the topsails 

are extended above the 
lower-yards. The quan- 
tity of roach given to the 
foot of topgallant-BailB,for 
large shipef, is four feet, 
and for small ships about 
three feet. The roach 
here given is for clearing 
the topmast-stays, when 
the topsails are reefed. To lessen the roach in the topgallant- 
sails would bo somewhat advantageous with whole topsails set ; 
but when the topsails are reefed, the topgallant - sheets must 
be started, insteaid of being sheeted home, as they ought always 
to be. The mizen-top^Jlant-sail is commonly reached as 
much as 5fb. 6in., on account of the standing part of the main- 
topgallant braces leading to the mizen-topmast stay ; and, par- 
ticularly so, to allow the sheets to come home over the single- 
reefed misen-topsail. 

MAXN-TOPGALLAKT-SAIL . 

To determine the 8izef 

SX7LE. 

1. The Hoist. — ^The hounded length of the lopgaiiant-masC^ 
with one foot added. 

2. TkQHead. — Subtracting the two yard-arms from the whole 
length of the yard, gives the hounded length, and two to three 
feet for the earings to come within the cleats on the yard-arms. 

3. The jPoo^.—Subtracting the two yard-arms from the whole 




OK TOFOALLAJSIT-SAILS. 69 

length of tlie topsail-yaxd, gives the hounded length ; and 18 
Inches fbr the sheets to come within the hounds, gives the 
length of the foot for sheeting home : — ^Thus, suppose the whole 
length of a topsail-yard 45 feet, and the arms 3 feet each. 
From 45 subtract 6, leaving 39 feet, the hounded length ; and 
Ifb. 6in. taken from the hounded length gives 37ft. 6in:^ the 
length of the foot 

lEYAMPT.Tg, 

FT. IN. FT. IN. 



Topgallant-mast - - 18 


6 Topsail-yard - 45 


Add - . 1 


Two Arms 6 


Hoist - - 19 


6 Hounded 39 


Gore - - 3 


6 Subtract 1 6 


Middle - 16 


Ocut. Foot- - 37 6 




or 20J doths, per table page 21. 




FT. IN. 


Topgallant-yard 


33 


Two Arms 


4 




29 


Subtract - 


2 


Head. - 


- - . - - 27 A 


JJLdftU • " 


» • » > ^1 ^ 

or 14i doths, per table page 18 


DDiENSIONB 


FOB OUTTINO-OTTT. 


FT. IN. 


Foot-gorea 


Head - - 27 equal to Uj; cloths. in. 


Foot ' - 37 6 equal to 20i cloth& 1 


Hoist- . 19 6 


2 


Ck>ie -.36 


3 


Middle - 16 eat— 3 


aqnarea 4 Leech- 




5 gores. 




6 FP. IN, 




7 — 5 7 




8 — 6 5 




9 — 6 




2 — 1 7 



Digitized b; 



.^od^leO 



70 TBBATISB ON SAILS AND SAILMAKINa 

This Ban b made of No. 4 or No. ff canyass, and lined with 
No. 6. 

Three hawOne eringlee are made on each leech, the upper 
one in the middki and the others equally divided between l£at 
and the dne. 

lAmnge on the Uechee are of half a breadth of canvass, ex- 
tending from the due to the earing ; and the fooi-band of the 
same breadth extends from the due 6mdemeath the leech- 
lining), to one-third the length of the sail at the foot Also, a 
top-Uning on the aft-side of the sail, which covers one-third of 
the cloths in the foot, and runs up one-third the depth of the 
middle. One hunihns-hele is made at the one-third of the foot, 
on each side of the top-lining, for receiving the foot-band end. 

One moii'ehih is put on tiie middle of the safl, on the aft- 
side, between the top-lining and head. 

Cringles are made in lien of turned dues, and a hoie fbr the 
due-garnet. 

The foot is roped and the due marled, about 18 inches each 
way. 

FOBE-TOPGALLAKT-SAIL. 

This sail is made of No. 4 or No. 5, and lined with No. 6 
canvass : it has the same number of bowlines in it as the 
main-topgallant^HdL 

The UningSf &c., are exactly similar to those of the main- 
topgallant-sail. It may, however, be observed, that it is hegt 
to make the sail with an odd number of squares, so that the 
nuut-ehihy on the aft side^ shall cover the centre-doth in the 
sail, which answers better for wear. 

MrZEN-TOPGALLANT-SAIL. 

This sail is made of No. 5, and lined with No. 6 canvass. 

Two hawUne'cringles are made on each leech, the upper one 
in the middle, the other half-way between it and the due. 

The linings are the same as for the main-topgallant-sail. 
Also, a top-lining on the aft-side of the sail, which covers one- 
third the cloths in the foot, the short-doths running up one 
yard, and the centre cloth from the foot to the head. 

The foot is roped similar to the fbre and main-topgallant- 
sails. OHnglee are stuck for the sheets, and a hole for the 
due-garnet. 

In the royal navy the topgallant-sails are made of No. 6, and 
have no linings on them, except one-foot comer-piecea 

N.B.-^Service-leather ought to be sewed on the dues of sails, 



ON BOYAIB. 



71 



whcxQ they rub agfunst the yard; also, from bmtline-liole to 
bnntliiie-hole where the foot rubs against the stay and braceia^ 
particularly the muim-tapgattiint-saiL 

ON ROYALS. 

The royals spread imme- 
diately above the topgallant 
sails, to whose yards the lower 
comers of them are attached : 
they are sometimes termed 
topgallant - royals, and are 
never used but in &ie weather. 



it- ill] ifftTiiiiir 

re ^1 I IN 'Ml I 11^ 



MAm-BOTAL. 

To determine the Sistef 

BULB. 

The HoUi. — ^The hounded length of Ibe royal-mast 

The Head, — Subtract the two yard-arms from the whole 
length of the yard, which gives the hounded length, and one 
to two feet for the earings to come within the cleats on the 
yard-arms, which gives the length on the head. 

The Foot* — Subtracting the two yard-arms from the length of 
the topgallant-yard, and 18 inches subtracted from the 
hounded length gives the length qf the foot sheeted home. 

The Eoaehonthe FootiatJbout2 fiset for main and fore-royals, 
and 2ft. 6in. fbr mizen-royals. 

This sail is made of No. 6 canvass. Two bowline cringles 
are stuck in the leech-ropes, the upper one in the middle, and 
the other half-way between it and the clue. 

Linings, — The foot is lined with one-third of a breadth of 
doth from due to due : pieces are put on at the earings. 
Cringles are stuck for the sheets. No buntline-holes are made 
in the foot ; and the foot is roped in the same way as that of 
the mizen-topgallant-sail. 

FOBE-BOTAL. 

This sail is made of No. 6 canvass: it is finished in pre- 
cisely the same way as the main-royal. 

laZEN-BOYAL. 

This sail is made of No. 6 canvass. Pieces are put on at 
aU the comers, and the clues only are served and marled in, 
having cringles stuck for the sheets. Digitized by Google 



72 



TBBATISB ON SAILS AND SAILMAKINO. 



The following sketch exhibits the sails ahready treated upon 
expanded in their proper places : — it also shows the leading of 
the various ropes attached to the sails, as buntlines, duo- 
garnets, bowline - bridlesf, leech -lines, slab-lineef, reef -points^ 
cringles, &c. ; as also the shrouds, lifts, &c 




STEBV VHEW OF THE SAILS ON IIAIN-MASX. 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



ON STUDDINChSAILa. 



73 



The sketch on this page represents the itudding-taUs spread 
out beyond the leeches of the principal sails^ attached to the 
foremast, where they appear as wings to the yard-arms ; afi 
also the gear attached to the sails, &c A description of making 
studding-sails is given in the following pages. 




HEAD VIEW OF THE SAILS ON FOKE-MAS^^^^J^ 



74 



TREATISE OK HAILS AND BAlLMAEINa 



ON STUDDINO-SAILS. 

LOWER STmODINChSAILa. 

These sails are quadrilateral, square on the head, foot^ and 
leeches^ and made of No. 4 or No. 5 canvass. They are ex- 
tended, in moderate 



y 






y 



/ 



/ 



I \ 



and steady breezes, be- 
yond the leeches of the 
forecourse, as shown 
by the sketch on page 
73, the heads being 
bent to the fore stud- 
ding-sail yards, at the 
one-third or one-half of 
the cloths from the 
outer leech, and the 
feet extended on the 
booms^ and, sometimes, farther extended by jack-yard& The 
boom, which extends the foot of the lower studding-sail, is 
hooked or fitted to the foremost part of the fore-channels by 
means of a goose-neck, or else swings off with the sail to whid^ 
it is suspended, being kept steady by ropes termed "guya" 

Eecently, three cornered or triangular lower studding-flails 
have been adopted, for dispensing with swinging-booma The 
dotted line on the above sketch represents the outer-leech, 
which it will be seen is curved to prevent it from blowing into a 
hollow. This plan of making lower studding-sails not only 
saves the cost of the booms, but also the gear for supporting 
the booms — ^as fore and after guys^ topping-lifts^ out-haulers, 
martingales^ blocksf, &a — ^besides canvasa Some captains, 
however, do not approve of the plan, because less canvass is 
spread than by the square lower studding-saiL The plan 
seems better adapted for schooners, which have very square 
eross jack-yards^ than it is for large vessela 

The rule for determining the size of lower studding-sails is 
given at pitge 11. 

Pieces, three-quarters, of a yard in length, are put on the four 
comers, and a /?Mce half a y ard long^ on the third or the piddle 
of the head. 

Holes are made on that part of the head which is bent to the 
yard; and two in each due, and centre or third of the cloths in 
the head, for the cringlea 
In sewing on the bolt-rope^ tladk canvass should be taken up 



ON STUDDINChSAILA. 



76 




round the sail ; but the bolt-rope on the outer-leech of three- 
cornered lower Btudding-sails must be sewed-on like the foot- 
rope on a mainsaiL 

Cringles, with galranized thimbles, are stuck in the clue and 
tack ] the earings being served, as well as the cringle, in the heiuL 

HAIK AND FOSE-TOPKAST STUDDINChSAILS. 

These sails are quadrilateral, gored on the head, foot, and 
outer leech, and made of No. 4 
or No, 6 canvass. They are set 
on the outside of the topsails, 
as shown on the sketch (page 
73)^ the heads being bent to 
their respective yards, and the 
feet extended by booms, which 
slide out on the extremities of 
the lower yards. The inner- 
earing covers two doths^ and 
the clue one cloth of the top- 
sail-leecL To find the size, 
refer to rule on pttge 11. 

A regular gore is made on the head and foot^ decreasing to 
the outer-eaiing, and increasing in depth from tiie inner-leech. 
The gore is given on acooxmt of the studding-sail inclining at an 
angle inwai^ or by its spreading beyond the leeches of the 
topsaiL Hence, the gore on the head and foot is governed by 
the number of goring- cloths in the leeches of the topsail; and 
the greater the number of goring-doths in the topsail-leech, the 
stronger the head and foot-gores must be of the studding-sail ; 
and the less cloths in the topsail-leeches, the lesser gores on the 
head and foot of the studding-sail ; and were there no goring- 
cloths in the leeches (like a foresail), the head and foot would 
then have to be cut squara 

To find the gore on the head and foot of topmast and topgallant 

studding -sails f 

BULK. 

Divide the number of cloths in the leech of the topsail by 
one-and-a-half times the depth in yards of the leech of the top- 
mast studding-sail, and the quotient will give the gore at the 
head in terms of a cloth. Thus : — Suppose the number of 
cloths in the leech of the topsail is/otir, and the length of the 
leech of the studding-sail, or hoist of the topsail, 10 yard? 



76 TBBATISB ON BAILS AND BAILUARINa 

Then, 10 yards x 1^ times a 15, and 4 cloths = 8 feet = 96 
inches. Therefore, 96 divided by 15 gives 6 inches gore for 
the head of the studding-sail 

A re^-band is sometimes put on at five feet down from the 
head, and pieces on the four comers. Two holes are made at 
the due for the cringle ; and two holes for the down-hauls on 
the outer-leech, at one-third the depth of the leech from the 
head, the upper-hole, and the other hole halfway between the 
upper-hole and the tack. 

The head-holes are cut one and two in each cloth respectively. 

In sewing on the bolt-rope, slaei canvass should be taken in 
the foot and goring-leech, but none in the square-leech. The 
taci is served and marled about 18 inches each way. 

The eatings are served, and galvanized thimbles are put in 
the clue-cringle and tack. 

MAIN AND FOBB-TOPOALLANT STUDDING-SAIia 

These sails are quadrilateral, gored on the head, foot, and 
outer-leech, and made of No. 6 canvass, and spread beyond the 
leeches of the topgallant-sails, as shown on the sketch (page 73). 
They are extended at the foot by booms, 
which slide out at the extremities of the 
topsail-yards, and their heads or upper 
edges are attached to small yards, which 
are hoisted up to the topgallant yard- 
arm& The inner-earings cover one-and- 
a-half cloths, and the dues three-quarters 
of a doth of the leeches of the top- 
gnllaTitrBail. To find the size, refer to rule at page 12, and head 
and foot gores at page 75. They are finished in a similar way 
as the topmast studding-sails. 

BOTAL 8TI7DDING-SAIL& 

These sails are made of No. 7 canvass, and spread beyond 
the leeches of the royala They are finished in the same way 
as the preceding. To obtain the size, refer to rules at page 12, 
which are applicable to studding-saila 

Some ships have mizen-tcpmast studding-sails^ but they are 
rarely used. 

Under frigates of the second class to frigates of the sixth 
class inclusive, the lower and top studding-sails are made of 
No. 6 canvass^ and topgallant studding-sails of Na 7 or Na 8 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




ON WINDSAILS AND AWNINGS. 



77 



WINDSAILS. 

The windsail or ventilator, is made of canvass No. 5. It is 
employed to convey a stream of fresh air downwards into the 
lower apartments of a ship, being let down through the hatches, 
and is in the form of a wide tube or 
fiinneL It is kept distended by circular 
haopSf made of ash, and sewed to the 
inside— one at the top, and others at dis- 
tances of six feet. The upper part or top 
is covered with a circular piece of can- 
vass, and below the top is an opening 
on one side, to which wings are sewed, of 
two breadths of canvass each, tapering 
to a point, which are braced to the wind 
so as to receive the full current of air, 
which fills the tube, and rushes down- 
wards into the lower regions of the ship. 
Large merchantmen have generally, in 
hot climates^ three or four of these wind- 
sails, for the preservation of the health 
of the crew. 

These windsails are about 8 yards in 
length; and four breadths are sewed 
together with a half-inch seam. In 
joining them, one cloth is left, or cut five or six feet short at the 
top. A three-inch tabling goes round the top and bottom; 
and, at every six feet distance, a six-inch band is tabled for the 
hoops, which are sewed to the insida The mngs are cut 
thus : — One breadth of cloth, 6 feet 6 inches long, has a gore of 
20 inches cut off at each end, then laced together, and sewed to 
it, thus making two breadths tapered to a point A small rope 
is sewed all round the edge of the wings and opening of the 
tube, and an eye or clue formed at the points of the wings. At 
the top a diamond piece is stitched on, for working in a grommet 
for a becket, which is spliced with a stopper-knot, for the wind- 
sail to hang by. Two or three holes are worked in the edge of 
the tabling, at the bottom, to keep it steady. 

AWNINGS. 

These are made of canvass No. 3 or 4. They are spread flat 
over the ship, above the deck, for protection from the rays of the 
sun in hot climates, and are sewed together athwartship with 
an inch teatih and tabled at the ends with a three-inch tabling * 




78 TBBATISB OK SAlIiS AND 8ATT.MAKTNG. 

then lined with half a breadth of canvasa A whole breadth 
13 sewed along the ricfye of each awning Valances are attached 
to the side, ^ one-third of a breadth of canyass, which are 
sometimes scalloped, and bound with baize of some fancy colour. 
The diameter of the masts is cut out in the middle at each end, 
and lacing holes are made across the ends, one foot distant^ to 
connect one awning with the other. 

On the upper part, along the middle of the ridge-lining, two 
small holes are made in eveiy seam, about one inch apart, and 
two at each end, to which the ridge-rope is seized on, in lieu of 
being roped on. Round the margins of each awning and mast- 
holes is sewed one-and-a-half or two-inch rope. Cringles are 
stuck at the end of each seam, and small earings with galvanized 
thimbles in the four comers. 

In the royal navy the awnings are made of No. 4 canvass, and 
along the ridge is sewed only one-half of a breadth-lining ; the 
ridge-rope is incased in the canvass, or sewed on the centre of the 
ridge, like the side rope. The valances are about one foot deep. 

Sometimes curtains are made to hang to the sides of the 
awnings of the same length as the awnings (see page 1 2). 
Their depth is usually two yards, and are sewed together with 
an inch seam, as those of the awning, and tabled all round with 
a two or three-inch tabling, containing spunyam in the inside 
for giving additional strength to the lacing-holes, which are 
made one yard apart along the upper tabling of the curtain. 
A. hole is made in each of the lower comers to steady it. 

HAHMOCK-CLOTHS. 

In the royal navy, as also large merchant ships, on the rough- 
tree-rails all roiind the ship are placed boxes, technically called 
hammock'nettings, for the reception of the sailors' hammocks 
or beds, which are stowed in them during the day. The 
hammocks, when stowed in the nettings, are protected from the 
rain and the sea by hammoci-cloths of painted canvass, which 
are made thus: — Double berthing, 2| cloths, and single 2 
cloths. The inside edge has a band stitched on the inside ; 
the band is cut 6 inches wide, and doubled to 3 inches (similat 
to a double reef-band). The lower edge or double part is 
kept one inch above the edge of the hammock -cloth, and 
along the lower edge of the band are holes 18 inches apart, 
worked like button- holes, for slipping over staples or eyes, to 
toggle the inside of the cloths, and when all is made fast the 
toggles are covered. Digi,,ed by Google 



ON FLAlySAlLS. 79 



CHAPTER IV 

ON FORE-Airo-AFT SAILS. 

On Flat flAils In general.— How the Wind strikes the Sail, in turning to 
windward.— The Way to make Flat Fore-and-Aft Sails.— Jibs :— Flying 
Jib— Standing Jib— Angnlated Jibs.— Spanker.- Trysails.— GaflF-Top- 
flails. — Staysails :— Fore-Topmast-Staysails — Fore-Staysails— Main- 
Staysail — A Collier's Main-StaysaU — Main-Toproast-Staysail — Main- 
Topgallant-Staysail— Royal-Staysail— Mizen-Sti^rsaii— Hizen-Topmast- 
Staysail— Mizen-Topgallant-Staysail, &c 

OH FLAT-SAILS IN GENEBAK 

There cannot be a question but that the sailing qualities of a 
vessel materially depend upon jUit mils, and particularly on 
fore-and-aft-sails that will trim close to the wincL It would be 
a waste of words to dwell on the many advantages resulting 
from vessels having flat sails, the signal victory of the far-famed 
American yacht over the Royal Yacht Squadron having for ever 
settled their superiority. Not but that, years before, the 
advantage which would be gained by flat sails was known to 
nautical men ; but sailmakers were ignorant of the principles 
on which sails to stand flat must be constructed ; and, even at 
the present day, several cut their sails to bag in the middle, 
although it is known that such bagging gives the wind a less 
power, especially when sailing close-hauled, for the parts so 
bagging-out being scarcely struck at all by the wind, are filled 
only with eddies from the adjoining parts of the sail, which 
eddies have no force at alL Moreover, the flat sail catches 
more wind than the concave one, even though the concave one 
be larger ; for the wind strikes perpendicidarly upon all the 
parts of the former, but to the latter only a pressure in propor- 
tion to the angles of incidence is given. Hence, it is evident 
that if the wind does not fall perpendicularly upon the sail, but 
strikes it obliquely, the wind will hardly have any effect on the 
windward part of the concave or bellying sail, and its impulse 
upon the leeward part, to which it is more perpendicular, 
causes it to flat-off the vessel, being, as it is, nearly parallel to 
the keel ; besides, it often happens that that part of the sail 
near the after-leech, when the sheet is hauled aft, proves 
entirely a back-sail, the bad effects of which are too wcU known 
to require an explanation. Digitized by Google 



80 



TUSATISB ON BAILS AND SAILMAKlKa 



Thougli it may not be in keeping with the nature of this 
work to enter upon the practice of seamanship, it may still not 
be uninteresting to show, by the following sketch, how the best 
effects may be produced by flat sails, in turning to windward, 
and impelling the yessel ahead ; and, while there is nothing 
new in the investigation to those who have a knowledge of 
the principle known in mechanics as " the composition and 
resolution of forces," it may still be useful to the student to 
inform him how a wind, which is nearly opposed to the course 
of a yessel, may notwithstanding be made to impel her in the 
desired diroction by the agency of sails. 




Let A B or A F be the position of the sail, A S the angle 
formed by the sail and the direction of the keel, of which, be it 
remembered, the boom is always on the lee-sida If the line 
W be taken to express the direction of the wind and its force, 
let O E W F be a rectangular parallelogram, of which W O is 
the diagonal The force W O will be equivalent to two forces, 
one in the direction EO, perpendicular to the sail, and the 
other, OF, in the plane of the canvass. The effect^ OF, is 
entirely ineffectual, excepting only as regards friction — ^it glides 
off the nir&oe of the flat sail without otherwise- producing 

Digitized by VjOOQ 



ON FLAT-SAILS. 81 

any detriment upon the vessel, and the other, E 0, equals the 
effectiye force on the sail, estimated full against its face. Next 
resolve W F into W P and P F respectively, perpendicular and 
parallel to S ; the part 1 or W P produces leeway, and the 
part H or P F (drawn on the sail) impels forward. The form 
of the vessel is evidently such as to offer a great resistance 
to the former force, and very little to the latter. The vessel, 
therefore, proceeds with considerable velocity in the direction 
S V of its keel, and makes way slowly in the sideward direction 
1, or to leeward. 

Having thus briefly noticed the effects produced by flatness 
of sails to facilitate speed, it is requisite to proceed to set forth 
the principles on which sails are made to stand flat. The first 
thing to be done towards making fore-and-aft quadrilateral 
sails set flat, is to be particular in taking the lengths, as 
directed in page 10, and give proper allowances for the sail 
stretching. It is evident, from practical experience, that from 
want of proper allowances being given to the foot, the clue of 
the sail hauls out to the boom-end at first setting ; and it is 
likewise evident, that not the least calculation is made for the 
foat'fforey as to the rake of the mast, whether it has much rake 
or little. The greater the rake of the mast, the less the foot- 
gore. How frequently do we hear of mainsails not standing, 
or that the after-leech hangs slack, with a variety of complaints, 
proceeding from inattention to the rake of the masts and 
the rise aft of the booms with the sheer of the deck, showing the 
necessity of always taking the length of the cross-ffore, and 
making a plan of the sail, to get the foot-gore. 

The following rules and observations may be depended upon 
as being correct for merchant-vessels' sails, as they are the 
results of upwards of twenty years' constant practice. 

VOBE-AND-AFT MAINSAILS, SPANKEBS, ETC. 
RULES. 

Referring to page 10 : — 

1. The head. — ^The head is within the stops, 1ft. 6in. or 2ft, 

2. The /oo«.— The length of the foot is to be short of the 
length of the boom 4 inches in every 3 feet, for the foot and 
diagonal stretching of the saiL 

A'oto. — ^When bending a new fore-and-aft sail, it is a common 
practice with seamen to stretch it as much as ever it will bear, 
particularly on the foot, which is decidedly wron^^ It ought to 
be drawn out gradually, as the fbrce of the wind stretches it best 



82 TKBATISB ON SAILS AND SAILHAlONa. 

3. The fore-lsech, — ^When the gaff and sail are hoisted to 
the proper height, the tack ought to be above the boom about 
15 or 18 inches. Some fancy the tack should reach within a 
foot of the boom. 

4. The after4eeeh. — ^The quantity of peak in a fore-and-aft 
mainsail is entirely according to taste. When with a narrow 
head and much peak, the sail has a handsome appearance; 
but a wide head and little peak is better adapted to quick 
sailing. In the merchant-seryice, the proportion of the length 
of the after-leech to the lu^ which determines the peak, is 
generally one and three-fifths the luff; and in brigs, about one- 
half longer than the depth of the fore-leech. 

5. The amount of the foot-gores^ which determines the 
position of the due, must be taken from a drawing similar to 
the sketch on page 10, then make an allowance for &e eating-in 
of seaming, as expressed at page 36. 

6. The amount of the head-gores^ for giving the sail peak, 
is token in like manner from the drawing; but the slack 
which is put in the leech is to be subtracted from it, as the 
Blacky depth of the luff, foot and head gores, added together, 
and deducted from their sum, the eating-in of seaming of the 
luff and foot-gores, equals the length of the after-lee(^ (See 
page 37.) 

7. The slacks for giving a round and flowing after-leech, is by 
means of gathering sladic canvass in the seaming-up of the 
doth in the after-leech, or puckering the seams, in a gradual 
manner. The slacks however, should be hdd on all above the 
ree&, that is, 1 inch in every 3 feet down from the head to the 
upper-reef in the leech seam, and 1 inch less in the next seam, 
and so on, 1 inch less in eveiy seam from the leech ; but when 
the sail has a narrow head and a long leech, the slack is more 
quickly diminished. The seams thus sewed, and the slack 
fdlowcd in the cutting-out, form the curve on tiie leedi, which, 
rightly managed, will be an extremely near approximation to a 
circular ara The same means give the utmost freedom to the 
after-leech : the wind glides off unchecked or unobstructed, and 
thereby the belly which was made by the broad seams is taken 
out, and the sail brought back as near as possible to a perfect 
plane^; besides, the straining of the leech into a hollow is 
completely avoided — at leasts as far as it is practicable. (See 
page 15.) 

8. The depth of the luffoi a mainsail or a spanker is deter* 
mined thus : — ^Add the length of the mast-headUihe distance 

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ON FLAT^tAILS. 



83 



the gaff works below the houndsy the honsing of the mast, and 
the height of the boom — ^the sum of which, subtracted from the 
whole length of the mast^ and 16 or 18 inches from the 
remainder, gives the depik of the fore-leech wt I'ug. Take for on 
example a 

SPANXSB, 



1 
If izenmast • 


rr. nr. 

68 


rp. 

8 


18 

6 

2 

1 


OHead. 

OheekB, or gaff below fhe hoonda 

Hooaiiig, 

6 Height of round-house.* 

7 Height of the boom. 
6 Stretching. 




42 











Depth of loff- 

Oaff . 
Pole 


26 

» - 





FT. 

. 31 

4 


nr. n. 
Boom • • 39 
6 Subtract- • 4 



6 



Hounded- - 26 6 
Subtract- - 1 6 



Sheet block 1 



Head- • - 25 Foot of sail- 33 6 

* When the Teasel hA8 a roand-honse, the boom is kept as low as it can 
be oonveniently worked over the skylight on the house. 

9. The luffoi a jib-headed gaff-topsail is found thus : — ^Add 
the distance the gi^ is below the hounds of the mast> to the 
sum of the lengtlus of the topmast and topgallant-mast or pole, 
and 18 inches from the amount^ gives the hoist of a gaff-topsail 

EXAMPLE. 



FT, IK. 



Mizen-topmast 33 

Topgallant-mast 12 9 

Gaff below the heel of topmast 5 



Subtract - 



50 9 
1 9 



The quantity of 
cloths in the head 
of themizen equals 
the quantity of 
cloths in the foot 
of the gaff-topsaiL 



Hoist on luff - - 49 
Haying made a plan of the above, and taken therefrom the 
leqgths of the after-leech and foot-gore, proceed to make out 



81 



TBSATISB ON BAILS AND SATLMAKTNQ. 



the dimensioiiB for cutting the sail to the size determined on 
by the roles here given. The dimensions for cutting this gaff* 
topsail are given at page 37. 

DIMENSIONS FOB CXTTTINGhOIJT A SPANKER. 







FT. IN. 








Head 


. . . 


25 equal to 13 clotha 




Foot 


. . . 


33 6 equal to 18 clothfi. 




Leecl 


I - - 


44 tabled. 






Mast 


. • • 


26 tabled. 






Head 


-gore - 


11 9 Round of leech, 2ft. 3in. 


Foot) 


jore - 


8 9 Round of foot, 2ft. 8in. 












Width of Seams 


Length ol 


lotlUL FOOt-gON*. 


Ifasi-gores. 




at the foot 


taper. 




IN. 


FT. IN. 




IN. 


fT. IN. 


1 ... 


15 . 


- 5 6 




3 ... 


2 


2 ... 


U ., 


. 5 6 




3 ... 


2 6 


3 ... 


13 .. 


. 5 2 


- 


2| ... 


3 


4 .. 


12 . 


. 5 2 




2 ... 


3 6 


5 ... 


11 . 


. 4 8 
Head-gores. 

IN. 




2i ... 


4 


6 ... 


10 . 


.. 12 




2i ... 


4 6 


7 ... 


9 . 


. 10 




2i ... 
2i ... 


5 


8 ... 


8 ., 


8 




5 


9 .. 
10 ... 


7 .. 
6 . 


Q O 

° Slack Seams. „f 

o w. ^i ... 


5 
5 


11 ... 


5 „ 


8 ... 


I 


... 2 ... 


5 


12 ... 


3 . 


. 8 ... 


2 


... 2 ... 


5 


13 ... 


2 . 


8 ... 


3 


... 1| ... 


6- 


U .. 


1 . 


. 8 ... 


4 


... If ... 


4 


15 ... 


. 


8 ... 


5 


... If ... 


8 


16 ... 


1 ., 


8 ... 


6 


...2 . 


2 6 


17 ... 


2 .. 


8 ... 


7 


... 2 ... 


2 


18 ... 


3 .. 


8 ... 


8 Leech-tabling. 





Width of Seams at the Head, — The firat and second seams 
next the throat to be 2^ inches wide, and tapered down about 
18 inches ; the remaining seams 1^ inches, and continued this 
width down to the foot-taper. The tablings at the throat to 
be suddenly turned in, to suit the hook, which is driven 
into the under part of the jaws of the gaff^ to hook the throat 
of the saiL 

Leech tabling, 6 inches wide at the clue and peak, and 3 
inches at the middle ; the tabling at the clue made sudden, 
and the tabling; at the peak about 6 or 8 feet down the taper. 



ON I'LAlSSAlLS. 85 

ZAnings, — The after-leech is lined with one breadth of 
eanvassy from the due to one yard above the upper-ree£ The 
peak-piece is one yard and a quarter in length, and the fore- 
leech or maat is lined with half a breadth of canvass, from the 
tack to the throat. 

Reefa — ^This sail has two recfe, 6 feet and 5 feet 6 inches, 
parallel to the foot^ and small holes are made in the seams, 
across the sail, for reef-points, (for which see page 51). Holes 
are also made for the reef-cringles on the leeches, at the ends 
of the reefs ; and two holes at the due, for the clue or sheet- 
cringle. In the royal navy, the spanker has three ree&^ banded, 
of one-fourth of a breadth* 

Holes are made in the mast-leech, 27 inches asunder, for 
seizing the mast-leech to the hoops which encircle the mast, 
and a hole is made in every doth in the head for attaching it to 
the hoops on the gafifl 

NoTB. — ^It has become common to have the heads of mizens 
attached to hoops on the gaffs, and to draw them out by an 
outhauler. 

BoU-ropea, — ^The thicknesses are given in the " Table of the 
Circumference of Bolt-rope," page 44 ; and sewing them on is 
described at page 46. In roping round the due, a good deal 
of slack canvass ought to be taken in, to take the strain off the 
holes, for the sheet-cringle. 

Galvanized thimbles are stuck in the cringles at the clue, 
peak, neck, and tack ; and also in the cringles made on the 
leeches^ at the ends of the ree& 

MAIN AND FOSE TBYSAILS. 

Fore and main trysail gaffs^ in sailing vessels, are generally 
fixtures, fitted with a goose-neck to work in an eye in the after- 
part of the truss-hoop. The heads of the sails are attached to 
hoops on the gaffs, and are drawn out by an outhauler ; the 
fore-leeches are fixed to the lower masts to an iron jack-stay, 
similar to lower yards ; a hoop with three eyes is driven on 
about two feet within the outer end of the gaff; the eye on 
the upper side of the hoop is for the peak-halyards, and the eye 
on each lower quarter for the vangs ; a sheave-hole is cut out- 
side of the hoop for the outhauler. 

The depth of the luff of a main-trysail or a fore-trjrsail is 
determined thus : — Add the length of the mast-head, the 
distance of the truss-hoop bdow the hounds, the housiag of the 
mast, and the height of the tack has to be above th&4e&— rtho 

Digitized by VnOOg IC 



86 



TSEATISB ON SAILS AND BAILMAKIKa 



sum of whichy subtracted from the whole length of the mast^ 
gives the depth of the fore-leecL 

The tack of the main-tiysail, for a barque, stands about ten 
feet above the deck ; and, in a poop-deck ship, the tack is 14 
feet from the main-deck. For fore-trysails, the tack is 7ft. 6in. 
from the deck, or the height of the main-stay^ where it crosses 
the fore-mast 

The after-leeches of the main and fore trysails, to look well, 
ought to be parallel to the leech of the spanker. 

MIZEN-TEYSAIL. 

In theJ[U)yal Navy, a mizen-tiysail is occasionally used for the 
spanker in stormy weather, and made of No. 1 canvasa The 
fore-leech is nearly the same depth as the spanker, and the 
after-leech is three-tenths deeper than the fore-leecL The head 
has two-fifths of the number of cloths that are in the head of 
the spanker, and the length of the foot is such as to set all on 
board. 





eiming-ma a frigatit numm-ttytail 






FT. IN. 






Head • - 


-•146 equal to 8 cloths. 




Foot - - 


- - 27 equal to 16 dotha 




Mast-leech - 


- - 36 taUed. 






After-leedi 


• - 46 2 tabled. 








Width of Seams 


Length 


Clotb 


B. Foot-gores. 


Uaut-gores. at the foot 


of taper 




w. 


VT. in. IN. 


PT. IN, 


1 


... 14 ... 


6 4 3 ... 


2 


2 


.. 13 ... 


6 4 21 ... 

5 2 2J .. 

6 2 2| ... 


2 C 


S 


... 12 ... 


3 


4 


... 10 ... 


3 6 


e 


... 9 ... 


6 24 ... 


4 


6 


... 8 ... 


6 24 ... 
4 10 2| ... 


4 6 


7 


... 7 ... 


4 6 




Head-gores. 




8 
9 


.. 6 ... 
... 6 ... 


o a, 

„ Slack-scsms. ^* '•* 

9 H .^1 ... 


4 6 
4 G 


10 


... 4 ... 


3 ... 2 ... 2 ... 


4 6 


11 


... 3 ... 


3 ... 3 ... 2 ... 


4 


12 


... 2 ... 


3 ... 4 ... If ... 


3 


13 


... 1 ... 


8 ... 6 ... H ... 


2 6 


14 


... .. 


3 ... 8 ... 14 ... 


2 


16 


... .. 


3 ... 9 Leech tabUng.. 


^ I 



ON inZKN-TETSAILS. 87 

This mizen-trysail is extended like the spanker, the fore- 
leech being attached to hoops which encircle the trysail-mast : 
the head is bent to a gaff, and the foot is extended by the 
boom (to set aU on board). 

It has two reef-hands, 6 inches wide, parallel with the foot ; 
the upper one is 12 feet up the fore-leech, and the other half- 
¥ray between that and the foot It also has two strengthening 
hands, one-third of a cloth broad, at equal distances asunder, 
between the upper reef and the head, which are stuck along the 
edges of the bands across the sail 

The after-leech is lined with one breadth of cloth, from the 
clue to four feet above the upper reef-band. The fore-leech is 
lined with half a breadth of cloth, and the peak with one yard 
and a half in length. 

The holt-rope for the mast-leech is 3f inches in circumference ; 
for the head 2 inches, foot and afber-leech 2^ inches^ and 
clue 4 inches. Holes on the mast-leech, three-quarters of a 
yard distant. 

A bbig's tbtsail. 

This sail derives its name from a small mast, just abaft the 
main-mast, termed a trysail mast;* the throat or neck of the 
sail is fastened on )k) a Hook driven into the under part of the 
jaws of the galQ^ and is generally hoisted on a level with the 
truss-hoop, and the tack is brought within two feet from the 
boom. The head spreads within 18 inches of the hounds at 
the outer end ; and the foot is spread upon the boom, extending 
within 4 or 5 feet of the shoave-hole at the outer end of it The 
after-leech is about one-half longer than the depth of the fore-leech. 

Chres, — ^The depth of the fore-leech, divided by the number 
cloths to the mast, gives the length of the regular gore per 
cloth ; but, if the mast is cut with a round, the gores must be 
regulated similar to the mast-gores for the spanker, (see page 84, 
also the tables at the end). 

* Trysail-masts are generally used in large two-masted vessels, termed 
mwwsy and are for the purpose of lowering and hoisting the gafb, as also 
to receive the hoops for attaching the fore part of the sail called a " trysail," 
and hence the mast is named a trysail-ma^. When the trysail-mast steps 
on to the deck, the given diameter is at the height of the boom ; at the 
upper end the diameter is seven-eighths of the given diameter. The lower 
end is finished into eight squares or ** cants," as far as the height of the 
trysail-boom, and above it is rounded : in the Royal Navy the lower end 
is fixed into a'* toad's back" (a pieoe of cast-metal of that shape), secured 
jn the deck with four bolts. The upper end is fixed into a chock, fl-tted 
between the tresUe-trees. ▲ saddle, supported by three cleats, is fitted to 
carry the boom. 



88 



TREATISE OH SAILS AND SAlLMAKINa 



Dimensiona far euUinff-mtt afrigaJbiz migen-eaune. 

This sail is cut like a trysail or driver, and sets as such by the 
gaff on the mizen-mast. 



clothB. 

1 

2 

3 

4 

6 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 



Head - - 
Foot - - 
Mast-leech 
After-leech 
Head-gore 
Foot-gore - 

Foot-gores. 

IN. 

6 
5 
4 
3 
2 
1 



1 



FT. IN, 

- 30 6 equal to 14 dotha 

- 27 6 equal to 15 cloths. 

- 37 6 tabled. 

- 57 tabled. 

- 14 10 

- 



Mast. 

FT. IN. 

37 6 



Head-gores. 

IN. 

16 
16 
16 
16 
16 
16 
16 
16 
16 
16 
16 
16 
16 
16 



Slack-Beams. 

IN. 

1 



3 
4 

5 
6 

7 
8 



seams 



The 
are 

parallel, 1^ 
inches broad 
through out 
thes£dL 



Canvass in the body of the sail, No. 2, 232^ yards. 

This sail has one reef, 7ft. 6in., parallel to the foot ; the 
reef-band is 6 inches wida 

The after-leech is lined with one breadth of doth five yards 
in length firom the clue ; the fore-leech with half a breadth of 
clothy and the peak-piece one yard and a half in lengtL Holes 
in the mast three-quarters of a yard distant, and two holes in 
each doth, at the head and in the leet The due is marled 
two feet each way. 

The hoU-ropes for the mast-leech and foot are 3^ inches in 
circumference ; for the head 2 inches, after-leech 2f inches, and 
clue 4 inches. 

Iron thimbles are stuck in the clue, peak, neck, and taok ; 
also in the cringles at the ends of the reef-bai^ized by Google 



ON JIBS. 89 

CONSTRUCTION AND MAKING OF JIBS. 

Thejfyinff jib, when used, is the foremost of all the staysailB 
hoisted upon the fore-top^lant-stay, and the foot is extended 
by the jib-boom and prolonged by the flying jib-boom, (see 
sketch, page 96). 

A jib is the foremost sail of a ship, being a large staysail 
extended upon a stay from the outer end of the bowsprit, 
prolonged by the jib-boom towards the fore-topmast cross-trees. 
In large American ships it seems to be usual to have two jibs 
upon ttie jib-boom in Heu of one large one ; the otUer-Jib being 
extended from the end of the jib-boom, while the inner jib- 
tack is nearly half-way down between the bowsprit-cap and 
end of the jib-boom, and both jib-stays are led to the fore- 
tc^mast cross-tree& This plan is much to be recommended, as 
the inner -jib will answer for a storm-jib; and, besides, the 
two jibs are easier handled than one large jib. In cutters and 
sloops the jib is on the bowsprit, and extends towards the 
lower mast-head. 

Among the head-sails, the jib is the most powerful sail for 
casting the ship or turning her head to windward, being, as it 
is, furthest removed from the ship's centre of gravity ; and, 
moreover, there are few sails that are so much admired as the 
jib and mizen, when they stand well When a vessel is close- 
hauled, or is in stays, with the sheet to windward, the jib 
having a flat swface, soon gives effect ; while the jib, which 
has a strong girt across the sail from the due to the stay, 
forming a hollow both above and below the girt-line, is not 
only longer in intercepting the wind, but is continually flapping, 
with a noise like a '' peal of musketiy," which must be exceed- 
ingly annoying. 

It has been for many years deemed necessary to cut the fore- 
leech or luff with a roach, to obviate the girt-strain from the 
clue to the stay ; but unless the roach be placed to receive the 
girt-strain to the clue, it will never set as it ought to do. The 
roach or curve should be sudden, opposite the pull on the clue, 
thence tapering in a curved form, approximating to the parabolic, 
towards the head and tack ; and also, in order to provide further 
for the clue-girt strain, the taper of foot-seams should be about 
2ft. 3in. deep at the tack and sheet, and graduated to 4fb. 6in. 
to 5ft. at the middle of the foot-seams. 

The position or height of the clue of the jib will be according 
to the steave of the bowsprit, and the angle formed by the jil^ 
stay and the fore-topmast The flatter the jib-stay, or the 



90 TBBATIBB OK SAILS AKD BAUMAXISQ. 

greater the angle the jib-stay makes with the fore- topmast, the 
longer is the foot-gore and the shorter the leech ; and, also, 
the less the steave of the bowsprit, the shelter the length oif 
the leech, and more foot-gore will be required. The clue, 
however, should be of such a height that the sheets may bring 
a fair strain across from the clue to the stay ; and the foot 
formed with a round to prevent it blowing into a hollow. The 
rope on the foot should be sewed on slack, similar to a driver 
foot. Complaints are often made that jibs do not stand weU incon- 
sequence of the clue being too low, and that they are constantly 
drumming with a slack leech when the sheet is carried aft. 

Many attempts, at various times within the lust thirty years, 
have been made to improve the plan of the present method of 
making jibs ; and others, again, have attempted to construct 
jibs of a totally new arrangement of the cloths ; as, for instance, 
the ^' Angulated Method" of Mr. Matthew Orr, the principle of 
which consists in a new arrangement, or combination, of the 
materials used, (see sketch, page 92). The inventor remarks : — 
^ Their advantages are, to produce a more favourable effect of 
the power acting on them than what is produced by the old 
established method of construction, and consequently their 
more advantageous > impulse on the vessel" The practical 
utility of the invention has been highly appreciated by a great 
many north country captains. Another plan was that of the 
late Mr. A. Taylor, sailmaker, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, for 
diminishing the foot-gore by the use of a gored after-leech, 
whereby the foot stretches less ; and hence the round on the 
stay is not so much as other jibs, and stands uncommonly y2S»^ 
(see sketchy page 95). Then, again, we had what was denomi- 
nated the " Concentrated" (some called it the " Fantail") jib. 
This, like the " Angulated" jib, required no foot-gore, the cloths 
and seams tending to one point, or to the clue. It is a plan 
which gives great strength to, the jib, but makes it awkward to 
repair, which was no doubt the cause of the ^tem altogether 
falling Into disuse. 

There are also several other inventions which have not come 
much under the author's notice ; therefore, he has had but little 
practice in cutting them. Those referred to above have been 
most commonly adopted. A description of each plan is given. 

STAin)iiro JIB. , 

The usual size given to the jib at the foot is the distance of 
the sheave-hole in the jib-boom (rigged outside of the bowsprit- 




ON JIBS. 91 

cap) to 23 inches, or the breadth of one cloth abaft the fore- 
topmast-stay, at 6 feet above the boom, which is the given 
height for the due; for the 
leedi, as many yards in lengthy 
with one more^ as there are 
cloths in the foot ; and for the 
luff or stay, it will be accord- 
ing to the quantity of foot-gore 
there is in the sail When a 
plan of the fore-and-aft sails is 
made, similar to the sketch on 
page 96, the lengths of the 
three sides and depth of the 
foot-gore of the jib can be 
taken with accunu^ ; but a plan of a jib is easily drawn, by 
taking the angle of the jib-stay, and the lengths of the foot and 
leech, and constructing a triangle^ from which the length on the 
stoy and depth of the foot-gore will be obtained. Also, to 
receive the girt-stndn from the due to the stay, set off 3 inches 
to every cloth in the sail, opposite to the clue, from the line 
drawn from the tack to the head, then draw the curve through 
it from the tack to the head. By delineating the breadth of 
every cloth, the length of every gore may be found with precision 
fsee dimensions for cutting one, page 37). This sail is made of 
No. 4 or 5 canvasa (For geafns and tahlings consult chapter 2, 
page 40). 

The clue-piece is five yards (for large jibs), and the peak and 
tack-pieces are one jaid^ cut diagonally For small jibs, the 
clue-pieee is two yards. A strengthening-hand is extended over 
the doths, from the due to the stay, so cut and sewed as when 
put on to be two-thirds of a cloth broad at the clue, and one- 
third of a doth broad at the ed^ of the stay ; the selvage on the 
canvass is kept next to the foot, and sewed close to a thread 
of the weft from the due (see the shaded part on the sketch). 

Two holes are made at the elue, took, and head, for the 
cringles, and one hole is made in every yard up the stay. 

The elue-rope, which is spliced into the leech and foot-ropes, 
is one inch tlucker than the leech-rope ; the tach-ropey for large 
jibs, should be as stout as the clue-rope. In sewing on the 
bolt-rope no slack-doth should be taken up, beyond what the 
stitch (sinking in the contlines) gathers, which easily stretches 
oat again. When the foot is cut with a round, the foot-rope 
must be sewed on slack ; a jib will never stand if ^htly roped 



92 



TREATISE ON SAILS AND 8AILMAKINO. 



Iron galvanissed thifMes are put in the tliree comers. 
*^« The leech, foot^ and stay ought to be stretched flat out 
before the sail is bent 

MATTHEW 0KB*S ANGULATED JIB. 

Having constructed a triangle, ABC, with the lengths of the 
three sides, and giving the proper round on the luff or stay, A B^ 

as directed in page 91; then, 
with C as a centre, describe 
an arc a 5, and from the cen- 
tres a and 5, describe arcs 
intersecting in m; draw G 
m D, which will bisect or 
equally divide the angle 0. 
From the point D let faU 
the perpendiculars D 0^ on 
A and B ; « equals 
the amount of the seam gores. 
Divide D e into as many 
equal parts as there are cloths 
required to fiU up that width ; and at the points of division 
draw lines parallel to A and B C respectively, meeting in the 
line D, from which the length of every gore to the scale of 
dimensions may be found with precision as the perpendiculars 
A c of the small right-angled triangles A c <( shown on the 
sketcL 

Mr. Orr invented an instrument for calculating sails^ and 
which he has termed the Histiometer, 

Dimensions for cutting an Angulated Jih, 
Leech, 36 feet ; stay, 56 feet ; foot, 26ft 6in. ; and, from C 
to D, 7i clotha SeaTn-gore, 12 J inches. 




Upper port of Stay-goros. 




Lower part of Stey-gorea. 


FT. 


IN. 


Clotlis. 


FT IK. 


heads 


6 


1 


1 Stack. 


3 


6 


2 


2 2 


3 


6 


3 


2 2 


3 


6 


4 


2 2 


4 





5 


2 6 


4 





6 


3 


4 





7 


3 


3 





i 


2 J 


29 







18 8-- I 

Digitized by LiOOgle 




ON JIBS. 99 

CIPPING's IMPKOVED ANGITLATED JIBL 

The adjoining sketch for an improved or modified angolated 
jib, is here submitted by the author, from a well-grounded 
conviction of its utility and 
extraordinary strength. It 
differs from the preceding 
jib by having the seam 
which joins both parts of 
the sail at the cross-cut, 
D, lower down than what 
it generally gives if the 
angle A B were divided 
equally in two ; it is placed 
accord ing to where the 
the strain at the clue, across 
the stay, will come. The 
seams, however, as a matter 
of course, will be oblique from the leech to the stay, becauss 
the gores of both parts of the sail which join at the cross-cut 
must be all the same, and all the cloths below D are 
parallel to the foot B 0. By this mode of construction 
the cloths are not liable to split across the sail, and by the 
longitudinal threads and seams E, D, and G B, being 
weU bound to the sheet, not only add strength, but cause 
the sail to stretch equally over every other part of the jib ; 
hence the seams relieve the body of the sail from those heavy 
shocks which are often the cause of total destruction ; and it 
is also made with less canvass than the old method. 

The Method of Construction, 
The lines representing the dimensions and shape of the jib 
being di-awn, let a line be drawn from to D, in the direction 
of the pull of the jib-sheets ; then with any radius, a, describe 
an arc a 5, intersecting D in m ; make m b equal to m a ; 
join C b and produce it to E, and the angle mGb will be equal 
to the angle i» a, and therefore D bisects or equally divides 
the angle B E, From D let fiill the perpendiculars D c on E 
and B respectively ; produce D « to any indefinite length, and 
from A let fall the perpendicular Ad on it. Divide D d and D e 
into as many equal parts as there are cloths required for the 
leech and D e, and, at the points of division, draw lines parallel 
to G E to meet part of the stay, A D, and after-leech, A G and 



94 IBEATISE ON SAILS AKD SATLTffAKmQ. 

C B ; from the termination of each line, on the line D, dniw 
parallel lines to C B ; from which the length of every gore to 
the scale of dimensions may be fonnd. 

JHmensions for Cutttng-out. 

Leech, 40 feet 6 inches ; stay, 61 feet ; and foot, 29 feet 6 
inches. The seam-gore 2 feet 8 inches. 

The Stay. — Six and a half cloths between the tack and 
seam, or B to D, each whole cloth 2 feet 4 inches. Six and a 
half cloths above the seam, or D to E, each 9 inches. Fifteen 
cloths above ditto, or E to A, each 6 inches ; the Ueeh-gores 
each 1 foot 10 inches. When the sail is joined together, and 
the stay tabHng robbed down, the student will be surprised at 
not finding it a crooked stay, since it is as irregular as the 
gore, but, on the contrary, it will spread out on each side of 
the joint at D like a bird's wing. 

CONCENTRATED JIB, EQUAL TO II CLOTHS (*etf JWI^e 90). 

Leech - 36 feet cut Stay-gores Cloths 

Stay - 49 feet tabled. ft. in. 

Foot - 22 feet, equal to 11 dotha 3 4 peak. 1 
Square - 17 feet opposite to the due. 2 10 — 2 

2 4—3 

DIBECTION& 2 — 4 

In cutting from the square doth, cut each 2 — 5 

cloth longer, to allow for M^fi^tfp in seam- 14 6 

ing. Out from the square or 13th cloth 14 7 

bothwaya 10 8 

The round of the foot is formed by the 10 9 

selvage of the doth, that is, by cutting a 6 10 

hollow off the canvass to join the next C 11 

cloth. This tightens the foo^ and prevents 2 — 12 

its shaking. — 13 

There is no waste in cutting a sail on 2 — 14 

this plan. 2 — 15 

We think the description given of page 6 — 16 

90 will be sufficiently intelligible, with- 6 — 17 

out a representation of this jib. A sketch 10 — 18 

of it wiU be found in the author's "Me- 10 — 19 

ments of Sailmaking," from which the 10 — 20 

reader will see it is not difficult to oon- 1 — 21 

Btaruct. Digiled bPGocBfle 




ON JIBS. 95 

Some captains do not like the drcnlar cloth sewed on the 
foot, they say it either curls up or keeps shaking; it will 
answer without the curved cloth. 

Ain)EEW tatlob's jib. 

Another improvement in the construction of jibs was invented 
by the late Mr. A. Taylor, sailmaker, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
The peculiarity of this invention consists of a ffored after-leech 
for diminishing the foot-poref 
which is of great importance, 
particularly of the jibs for 
schooners and steam-vessels^ 
whose jib-stays lie in a flat 
direction, and consequently 
require a strong foot-gore. 
A reference to the annexed 
sketch will show how the 
foot-gore can be diminished 
at pleasure — the foot can 
even be cut straight by a thread, if required. By this mode 
of construction, the foot is made to stretch less ; and the round 
on the stay, opposite to the due, for the girt strain, is not so 
much as other jibe, and stands well 

The plan of this sail is made by first taking the lengths of 
the three sidecf, from a convenient scale of equal parts, and 
making the necessary curve to the stay and foot ; then taking 
a common square, aO h, and pladng^ the right angle in the 
obtuse angle A B, or clue of the sail ; with the compasses 
take the widths of the cloths gored in the after-leech ^firom the 
same scale), and fixing one compass point in A and guiding the 
side of the square a to toudi the other point of the com- 
passes at right angles to it, and mark the point a; then draw 
lines to the sides of the square, as shown on the plan, and the 
line B b, drawn from B at right angles to the side of the square 
C h, will give the fbot-gore sought for. Divide A a and &, 
which are equal to the widths of the cloths in the leech and 
foot, into as many equal parts as there are doths, and at the 
points of division draw lines parallel to a, from which the 
lengths of the gores may be found. (See tables of jibs at the end.) 

Note. — In roping the leeches of these sails, a little slack 
canvass must be taken in, so that it will come out flat, but yet 
take the strain. On similar principles, thefoot-^ore can be les- 
sened in any fore-and-aft mainsail, by goring doths being brought 
on the aftier-leech, which are taken off the cloths in the mast 



96 



TREATISE ON SAILS AND SAILUAEIXa 



The following sketch exhibits the staysails, and the rest of 
the other fore-and-aft sails, that are most approved of for a sliip 
or barque. 




FLAN OF STAYSAILS, &0.y FOB A BABQl 

Digitized by 



y Google 



OK STAYSAILS 97 

ON THE SHAPES AND SIZES OP STAYSAILS. 

The usual plan of cntting staysails used to be to cut them 
with one gore all through the stay, and with a little broad seam 
in the foot, about 2| inches. The plan now is^ to crease the 
same width of seams all through the sail ; and, when the sails are 
spread for rubbing down the tablings, a little round to be in the 
stay and foot But with regard to the various shapes of staysails, 
much depends on the position of the masts, and also where the 
difF^ent stays lead to. Main-topmast-staysails do not seem to 
answer well for ships that have the fore and main-masts too 
close together, as the afber-leech chafes too much against the 
fort and /ore-topsail-braces, to avoid which it is better not to 
have so much hoist to them as the others ; the sail becomes 
then more of an acute-triangular shape. There are some craft to 
be seen which have done away with the fort-gaffy and have a 
spring-stay leading from the throat of the sail to the main-top- 
mast-head ; others, when the main-topmast-stay crosses the 
foremast about half-way up, have a mast to the sail, and the 
tack down, just to clear the main-stay. Of the main-top- 
gallant-staysail, it seems to be all the fashion to have the stay 
leading to the fore-topmast-cap, so that some ships have a short 
mast to them, with the tack down in the fore-top. It appears 
to be all a matter of taste, but the majority like the sails cut 
with jib-tacts. 

On first beginning to make staysails, many think it will be a 
difficult thing to measure for them, as they have not been used 
to them, especially the upper ones ; but after drawing the plan 
of staysails for one ship, sunilar to the sketch (page 96), it will 
not be necessarv to make any more drawings for vessels of about 
the same size, for it will be found that almost all the main-top- 
gallant-stays have about the same angle, so that after obtaining 
tiie length of the sta^, and allowing for drift, they are easily 
made. But for main-topmast-staysails you are obliged to 
measure for them, as every one has some slight difference in 
the lead of the stays. 

The stay-sails drawn on the sketch (page 96) are of the most 
approved form, as they have more the appearance of jibs ; and, 
the stays running, parallel to each other, make the sails look 
well. The sails are also soon taken-in. To use the expression 
of the sailors, '' Let go the halliards, and they come down of 
themselves," which is quite true in vessels having wire stays. 
Moreover, most captains like the stays to be nearly parallel to 



98 



TBEATISE ON SAILS AND SAILMAKINO. 



each other, and inyanably tiyas much as they can to have them 
so ; hxnt this will, however, greatly depend on the heights of tke 
masts and the distances they are apart. 

The construction of the following staysails will be readily 
understood by reference to the sketch (page 96). The plan has 
been to make them all triangular, so that they may have the 
appearance of jibs, except it be the main-topmast-staysail, 
which some captains will have with a weather leech to it, 
in which case the main-topmast-stay leads well forward and 
crosses the fore-mast, some 13 or 14 feet up the mast. This, 
however, can be avoided, by having the stay rode down; but 
others will not have any such thmg done, as they like the 
stay to lead fair from the mast-head to the stem, and there- 
fbre this is the reason why some captains would have a mast- 
leech to this sail, which makes tiie sail clumsy, and even 
unsightly. It is a much better plan to cut it with a jib-tack 
and long-gore to the clue. (See page 9.) 



FORB-TOFBIAST-STAYSAIL. 

This sail is triangular, cut with a little round in the stay 
and foot, and made of No. 1 canvass — (in 
the royal navy it is made of No. 6 canvass). 
It is extended on the fore-topmast-stay, and 
the foot is spread on the bowsprit The leech 
is of the same depth as the hounded length 
of the fore-topmast (see page 8). Thus — a 
fore -topmast, hounded 27fL 6in. * or leech, 
9 yards cut ; foot, 9 cloths. 

DimenHons for Cutting - out. 
Coths. Stay-gores. Foot-gores. 






FT. 


IN. 


IN. 


1 


6 


4 





2 


4 





1 


3 


3 


8 


2 


4 


3 


4 


3 


5 


3 


2 


4 


C 


3 





5 


7 


3 





6 


8 


3 





7 


i» 


3 





8 

Digitized by Google 



ON STAYBAUifr M 

The ehie-pieee is two yards long^ and the hmd and iadk are 
three-quarters of a yard. The hoUi on thd shiy are one yard 
apart : two holes are worked at the three oomen for cringlei 
with gahranized thimblea 

MAIN-TOPMA.ST-STATSAIL. 

See Fig. 1, page M:— 

This sail is triangular, cut with a little round in the stay 
and in the foot, and made of No. 3 or No. i canTass — (in the 
royal na^y it is made of No. 6 canvass). It is extended on 
one of the main-topmast-stays^ which reach from the hounds 
of the main-topmast to the deck, alongside of the mainstayy 
(see foot-note, page 9). The stays are wire in sereral shipa 

The stay, on which the following sail hoists, crosses the fore- 
mast 8 feet from the deck; and the length of it, between tiie 
collar and after-part of foremast^ where it crosses it, is 62ft. 9in. 
After an outline of this sail was drawn, the lengths of the sides 
were obtained as follows : — Stay, 54ft 9in.; foot, 27ft 61n.; 
and leech| 41ft 6in. cut This sail is cut from the due. 

Dtmeruioni/or CuUing the Oores. 
Oloths. Stay-gores. Foot-gores. 



1 


Ft. IN. 

2 11 


w. 
... 10 


2 


3 





9 


3 


3 





8 


4 


3 





7 


6 


3 


1 


6 


6 


3 


1 


6 


7 


... 3 


1 


5 


8 


... 3 


1 


5 


9 


3 


2 


4 


10 


3 


2 


.... 4 


11 


... 3 


4 


3 


12 


... 8 


4 


3 


13 


3 


6 


2 


14 


3 10 


1 


4 ... 


2 


5 






The §eami are 1^ inches broad all through ; and the tMinge 
are 3^ indies on the leech and stay, and 2^ inches on the foot 
TiiQ ehte-pieee is 11 yard long; and peat and tack-piecet i yard 
in length. 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



100 TREATISE ON SAILS AND SAILMAKINO. 

The holes on the stay are 27 inches asunder. Two holes are 
worked in the clue and peak^ for sticking cringles through. 

In sewing on the bolt-rop^ a regular slack should Im taken 
ttp in the stay ; in the foot-rope only such slack as will come 
out flat, and the rope to take the strain ; and in the leech, not 
any slack. 

Iron galvanized thimbles are stuck in all the comers. 



UAIN-TOPOALLANT-STATSAIL. 

Fig 2, page 96. This sail is triangular, cut with a small 
curve on the stay and foot, and made of canvass No. 5. It is 
extended on the main-topgallani-stay, between the hounds of 
the main-topgallantmast and the foremast cap. 

The length of the stay on which the following sail is hoisted 
measures 58ft 6in.; and from an outline of the sail drawn on 
the plan, the lengths of the sides were obtained as follows : — 
Stay, 41ft. 6in. ; foot, 21fL ; leech, 34fk. cut, or 32ft. 6in. 
tabled. It was cut-out from the leech. 

Dimensions for Cutting the Gores 
CBottis. 



3 
4 
6 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 3 10 

11 3 10 



Btay-gotes. 


Foo^gnI 


FT. IN. 


IN. 


S 3 


8 


3 4 


6 


3 4 


4 


3 4 


4 


3 5 


3 


3 5 


3 


3 5 


3 


3 6 


3 


3 6 


2 



The seams are 1 inch broad all through ; and the tahlings 
are 3 inches on the leech and stay, and 24 inches on the foot 
The ckte-pieee is one yard long, and peak ana tach-pieees are each 
half-a-yaxd in length. 

The holes on the stay are 27 inches asunder j two holes aiB 
worked in the clue and peek, for sticking cringles through. 

In sewing on the bolt-rope, a regular sUbch should ^ takes 



OS STAYSAILS. 101 

ap in the stay, and one inch in ereiy doth in the foot, but none 
in the leech. 
Iron gahanized thimbles are stack at the tack, peak, and sheet. 

MIZEN-STAYSAIL. 

Fig. 4, page 96, This sail is triangular. Sometimes it is 
eot with a mast-leech, but generally captains seem to like it 
jut with a jib-tack, similar to the other staysaik. The number 
of canvass it is made of is No. 2 or 3. It is extended on the 
mizen-stay, between the hounds of the mizen-mast and main- 
mast, at 10 feet from the deck. In large ships, the mizen-stay 
is set up to a hoop round the main-mast, about 14 feet from the 
deck. The following sail was made for a barque of 500 tons. 
Its dimensions were these : — Stay, 29ft. ; foot, 22ft ; and leech, 
I8ft 6in., or 19ft. 9in. cut It was cut from the leech. 



Dimeni 


jotu/or Ouaing 


theChret. 


caotba. 


Stoy-gorea. 


FOOtfONI. 




PT. 


M. 


m. 


1 




2 


1 


2 


•• 1 


4 


1 


S 


• •• 1 


4 





4 


1 


4 


1 


5 


'••• 1 


4 


1 


6 


1 


6 


2 


7 


> •• I 


6 


2 


8 


«•• 1 


6 


3 


9 


I .. X 


6 


3 


10 


1 


6 


4 


11 


1 


7 


4 


12 


2 





6 


*. T 


1 





8 



The teams are 1| inch broad all through ; and the tMingt 
are 3 inches on the leech and stay, and 2\ inches on the foot 

This sail is finished in every respect the same as the main- 
topgallant-staysaiL 

BOTAL- STAYSAIL. 

Fig 3, page 96. This sail is triangular, and made of No. 7 
canvass. It is extended on the main-royal stay, which is 
attached to the main-royal mast head, and leads to the fore-top- 
mast-cross-trees. These sails are seldom made for merchant 
vessels, but generally used in the royal navy. The following 
sail is for a frigate. The stay on which it is hoisted leads t<* 



102 TBKATIBB OH SAIU AHD BAIUCAKIKa 

«he hoandB of the foro-topgaUant-mast Foot, 19 olotha; stay, 
18| doths, and leech, 12 yarda — the foot-gorets, 7 teet cut vp. 
oloUis. ""■ ~ ■ 

1 
2 
S 

4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 „., 

11 ^. 
12 
IS 
U 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 

The linings, &a, are similar to the preceding staysails. 
mzmr-TonusrsuTaAiik 

Ilg 6, page 96. This sail is triangnlar, and made of Na 6 
canvass. It is extended on the nis6n-tqpmast«tay, between the 
hounds of the misen-topmast and the cap of the nuun-mast The 
following dimenaionB were taken off the plan made for the barque 
here spoken o^ viz.: — Stay, Slit 9in. ; foot, 21ft.; and leech, 
26ft. Sin., or 27ft. cub This sail was cat from the tack. 



Stey-goreB. 


Foot-gora. 


FT. 


IK. 


IN 


3 





2 


2 11 


2 


2 10 


1 


2 


9 


1 


2 


8 


1 


2 


7 





2 


6 


1 


2 


5 


2 


2 


4 


3 


2 


3 


4 


• 2 


2 


5 


2 


1 


6 


2 





• •• ••• 1 


2 





8 


2 





9 


2 





10 


2 





11 


2 





12 


2 





13 



loths. 


Stay-gONB. 


Foot-gorea. 




n. 


n. 


n. 


1 


2 


9 


7 


2 


2 


5 


5 


8 


2 


B 




4 


2 


4 




5 


2 


4 




6 


2 


4 


•• ••• 3 


7 


2 


S 




8 


2 


3 




9 


2 


3 




10 

n 


2 


3 

2 


1^ 

Digitized by ^OC 
•f tf« w 



OK STATSAIL& 108 

The Homt are 1 inch broad, KsAtdbUngi Sinbhes on theloooh 
and gtajy and 2^ inches on the foot. 
This sail is finished similar to the main-topgaUant-staysaiL 

HAm-STATSAIU 

This sail is made of canvass No. 1 or 2, and is in the form of 
a right-angled triangle. It is extended upon the main-stay, 
between the main and fore-masts, and cut so that the foot shidl 
dear the boat ; and the sheet is hauled aft to the gangway. 
This sail is seldom used, as ships generally carry a fore-trysiu) 
instead. 

VOBB-STATSAIL. 

This sail is made of canvass No. 1 or 2, and is in the form 
of a right-angled triangle. It is extended on the forestay, 
between the foremast and bowsprit. 

Beferring to rule at page 9 :---Sappo6e the bead of the fore- 
eourte to be 28 doths, Then ^) 28 doths, 

14 
Add - 2 

16 oloths in the foot 
Leseh — ^Depth of the middle of the fore-conrse, 27 ML 
Sk^'lfar&-' 16)27(1 foot « inches. 

16 

11 
12 

132(8 inches. 
128 

Lininffs.^-The tack and peak pieces are half a yard each, and 
the clue-piece extends two yards up the leech. 

Holes on the stay are 27 inches apart, and two holes in the 
due and tack, for the cringles. 

In sewing on the bolt-rope, a regular $laeJt should be taken 
in the foot and stay, but none in the leedi. 

Iron galvamiud thimbles are stuck in the comers : the peak 
Is an earing. ^ , 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



104 



TBKATISB ON SAILS AND SAILHAKIKQ. 



The fbllowing plan represents all the square and fore-and-all 
ttilfl^ excepting staysails^ (which are shown on page 96), for an 
auxitiai^ screw barque* 




AUXILIARY SCBKW BABQUE^^^,^^^^, ^^GoOglc 



ON STEAM-YESSEL& 105 



PART 11. 



SECTION FIRST. 

CHAPTER L 
MASTING, EIGGING, AND SAILS OF STEAM-VESSELS. 

Remarks on the Auxiliary Application of the Screw-Propeller to Sailing 
Vessels in the Armed and Oommercial Navies ol this Country. — 
Masting Steam-Yessels.— Dimensions of Masts and Spars for a Three- 
Decker, 131 Onns. — Description of the Armament of Gun-Boats. -^ 
Dimensions of the Masts and Sails for a Steam Screw Gun-Boat of 232 
tons.— Dimensions of the Masts, Sails, &c.,for a Steam Screw Oollier. 

Wrnns the last twenty or thirty years, a great change 
has taken place in the features of maritime affairs, hy the 
anxilliary application of the screw-propeller to sailing-yessels ; 
and, perhaps, the more especially so by its extension to the 
British navy generally. Although mudi may have been done 
in former years by our sailing vessels, and great as are the 
deeds they have accomplished, yet it is obvious that for the 
future they cannot form the chief body of our naval power, as 
the service required of them can be rendered with greater 
efficacy by the substitution of large steam-vessels, like the line- 
of-battle ships forming part of our present fleet In the year 
1856, there were in tiie navy 327 screw-vessels of all dasses, 
from the powerful three-decker with her 131 guns and 1,100 
men, to the small gun-boat of 2 guns and 25 men. 

Although the principal propeller of a steam-vessel, generally, 
is her engines, it is nevertheless necessary that the vessel should 
be supplied with sails, in order to economize fuel when circum- 
stances permit, as well as to have recourse to in case of need. 
Since, then, the consideration of economy requires that sail 
rather than steam should be employed whenever the wind will 
supply the required power, it is desirable to ascertain to what 
extent the sailing power may be carried in screw steam-ships 
and vessels. This will, of course, be determined principally by 
their stability and construction. Steam-vessels, bein^ ^nerally 



106 TBEATIBB ON SAILS AND SAILMAKINO. 

of small beam in proportion to their lengthy it is therefore not 
practicable to have them masted as heavily as a sailing-yesseL 
The position of the engines often influences, also, the situation 
of the masts : — the length of which, moreyer, must not be 
great, for too large a spiead of sail would cause the vessel to 
incline more than is consistent with the proper working of the 
machineiy. The lengths of a steam-yessers masts must be pro- 
portioned to her beam and depth of hold, as well as her gradually 
diminishing stiffiiess or stability as she consumes her ftieL An 
advantage of having light masts is experienced when a steam- 
vessel is going head to wind ; while the resistance that heavy 
masts and yards offer to the wind is oc<»sionally illustrated by 
vessels dragging their anchors and drifting on a leeshore, and 
which have only been suddenly brought up, and saved from 
destruction, by cutting away thdr masts — the power of the 
engines on the water, in such a case, being inadequate to oppose 
the force of a strong wind. The spars must^ then, be as light as 
possible ; and, since their importance as a propelling power is less 
than in a sailing vessel, it is advisable to get rid of tiie heavy tops 
and yardfl^ with their attendant lumber of standing and running 
rigging. These considerations haye led to the adoption of the 
fore-and-aft, or schooner rig in steam-yessels generally, which, 
admitting light spars and rigging, is better suited for this dass 
of yessels. The nature of the rig must, however, depend in 
some measure upon the particular service iiie yessel is intended 
for. If intended as a packet, in which speed is the main object, 
and saving of fuel a minor consideration, then short light masts 
are best^ being in such cases only carried as auxiliuies to the 
engines, and spreading just enough canvass to steady tlu> vessel 
in a sea-way. But if tiie vessel is intended to trade to distant 
parts, such as AustraliA at India» or for war puipoaes^ where 
long cruises have sometimes to be undertaken, then heavier spars 
are adopted, as in such a case, by lifting the screw, or discon- 
necting it from the engines, the vessel can avail herself of her 
sailing powers. As to the number of masts to be put into a 
steam-yessel, there seems to be no determined rule. Some long 
vessels have had as many as four, and even six (which is the 
number of masts in the Greta JSasiem\ though the general 
number is three^ and even two — this last number being often 
adopted in war-steamers, on account of leaving a clear space 
aft for working the pivot-gun. The mainmast in steam-yessels 
not unfrequently has to be placed in the space allotted to the 
engines and boilers, in which case, and when it comes too near 



OK STEAM- VESSELS. 107 

khe fires, an iron leg has to be introdnoed to support the mast j 
and, at other times^ the mast is leaded in fronts fiicing the heat. 
In screw-Tessels it frequently happens that the shaft has to go 
through the heel of the mainmast. Becentlj, irom mtui$ have 
been occasionally introduced ; but though tiiej possess the 
advantages of strength and dinabiliijj and afford the means of 
ventilating the hold, their n^dness^ and the impossibilily of 
cutting tlum away in a case of emergency, combined with tiieir 
great expense, have prevented them being brought into anything 
like general use. We need not extend these remarks fbrther, 
to show that the lengths c^ the masts and yards of steam-vessels 
must bear some general relation to the dimensions of the vessel; 
and the nature of the rig to the service in which the vessel is 
to be employed. By way of illustration, we subjoin the lengths 
of the spars for a screw lino-of-batOe sMp : — 
DimmHons of the M<uU and Spare of a Screw Three^Deelter, 
131 Oune. j^^ jjj^ jjg 

Mainmast^ extreme length above the upper deck 88 duk 42 

Main-topmast^ extreme length 73 — 22 

Main-topgallant-mast, extr^e length - - -55 — 13 

Main-yaid, extreme length Ill — 26^ 

Main-toprail-yard, extreme length - - - - 78 — 164 

Main-topgalhmt-yard, extreme length - - - 49 — ll] 

Main-royal-yard, extreme length 34 — 7 

Fore-mast, extreme length above the upper deck 79 — 38 

Fore-topmast^ extreme length 65 — 22 

Fore-topgallant-mast^ extreme length - - -49 — 12 

Fore-yard, extreme length 96 — 23 

Fore-topsail-yard, extreme length - - - - 68 — 15 

Fore-topgallant-yard, extreme length - - - 43 — 10 

Fore-royal-yard, extreme length 30 6 — 6 

Mizen-maBt,extreme length above theupperdeck 64 — 2C 

Mizen-topmast, extreme length 52 6 — 17 

Mizen -topgallant-mast, extreme length - - - 40 6 — 9j 

OrosS'jackyard, extreme length 74 6 — 18 

Mizen-topsail-yard, extreme length - - - -54 8 — 12 
Mizen-topgallant-yard, extreme length - - - 35 — 8) 
Mizen-royal-yard, extime length ----25 6 — 5 
Bowsprit, from outside the knight-heads, ex- 
treme length 52 6 — 40 

Jib-boom, extreme length 53 — 16 

Spread of canvass, 9,760 yards. In all, 24,680 yard& 



108 TBSATISE ON SAILS Ain> SAIUIAKING. 

OTTN-BOATS. 

This fleet is, perliaps, one of the most wonderful of oxa recent 
improvements in naval warfare. It was brought into ezistence 
in an incredibly short time, and is a most formidable engine in 
shoal water, where a llne-of-battle ship cannot reach. TWs will 
at once be perceived by the following description : — 




The first-class of gun-boats is composed of screw-ships of 200 
feet in length ; they carry six long 68 pounders, and are provided 
with engines of 360-horse power, and a crew of 100 men each. 
This dass is intended as subdivisional ships. 

The second-class are about 150 feet long ; they cany four 
68-pounders, are provided with engines of 200-horse power, 
and the crew numbers 80 hand& 

The third-class are about 100 feet long^ of 60-horse power 
engines^ armed with one 68-pounder pivot gun, one 32-pounder 
pivot gun, and two brass-howitzers (24-pounders) on the broad- 
side. TMs class is by far the most useM and numerous of the 
whole flotilla^ their extraordinaiy light draught (generally 
averaging firom 4 to 6 feet) enabling them to steam into the 
shallowest creeks and inlets, while their heavy armament 
renders them effective against the strongest fort& Above the 
rough-tree-rails, all round the vessel, are provided moveable 
wrought-iron platecf, perfectly rifle proof, and reaching about 
seven feet above the deck, so as to protect the men from the 
enemy's riflemen, in case of having to force the passage of 
narrow rivers defended by sharpshooters. 

The fourth-class is also a useful flotilla for very shallow 
streams and close in-shore service. It comprises vessels of 
about 80 feet long, the engines averaging 20-horse power. 
Each boat carries two 32-pounder pivot ^s amidships ; and 



ON GUN-BOATS. 



109 



the crew usually numbers 36 hands, exclusive of officers. These 
boats are very little larger than the small steamers which ply 
upon the Thames, though they are certainly considerably 
broader, in order to admit of working the guns without danger 
to the craft. Their draught of water, with stores, ammunition, 
provisions, and guns on board, does not exceed from 3^ to 4 feet. 

The whole flotilla is provided with high-pressure locomotive 
boilers, to economize the limited space at the disposal of the 
engineer. Notwithstanding their small horse power, the fleet 
will average in speed from seven to nine knots an hour. 

Having described the power and armament of the gun-boats, 
of which there are about 200, it may be useful and interesting 
to describe their rig. They are three-masted cutter-rigged, 
with light and small spars. The dimensions of the masts, 
gaflis, and sails, are as follows : — 

Dimensions of Masts, Sc.,/or a Steam Screw Gunboat of 232 Tons. 



Length between the perpendiculars, 106 
feet ; breadth extreme, 22 feet ; depth 
of hold, 8 feet ; power of engines, 60 h. p. 



Length of the Mast, from Deck to 

Hounds 

Length of Pole 

Diameter oi Mast 

Length of Gaff 

Diameter of ditto 

Length of Spanker Boom 

Diameter of ditto 

Extreme Length of Bowsprit 

Length Outb^rd 

Diameter of ditto at Heel 

Ditto at Stem 

Ditto at End 



MAIN. 



TT. iir. 

36 
12 6 

11 
20 

5} 



18 3 

13 6 

74 

8i 

6 



FOBE. 



FT. IK. 
36 

12 6 
111 

22 
5} 



MIZEN. 



FT. 1^. 

26 C 

9 3 

9 

13 6 

4 

22 6 

7 



Dimensions of Sails, from the Plan, 



Foresail 

Mainsail 

Mizen 

Jib 

Fore-Staysail 



Head 
or Stay 



FT. IN. 

18 6 

18 

11 6 

36 

34 



Foot. 



FT. IN. 

33 

28 6 

20 6 

19 

17 



Leech. 



FT, IN. 

41 9 

39 6 

26 6 
22 

27 6 



Mast. 



FT. IN. 

28 
28 
18 6 



D i g iti egel fty 



Foot 
Gore. 



FT. IN 
11 



GoogX 



Head 
Gore. 



FT. IN.. 
5 
7 
4 & 



110 ^BXATISE ON SAILS AKD SAILMAXIKO. 

SOEEW-COLLIERa 

A iereuhcoUier is a long, iron steam-yessel, chiefly employed 
in canying coals to London and other ports, being in size £rom 
600 to 1,200 tons burthen. These vessels are commonly rigged 
with three light masts, and a short bowsprit^ which is some- 
times prolong by a jibboom; the lower-masts are mostly 
taunt^ and i^e fore-topmast and topgaUant-mast in one^ the 
heel of which is made to fit close to the mast-head. The yards 
on the foremast are usually square, and lightly made^ for carry- 
ing a square sail, set flying ; a topsail ; and sometimes a top- 
gaUant-sail ; also, lower and topmast studding-sails. The fore- 
and-aft-trysails are generally made as large as the space for 
conveniently working them will admit, for they can be easily 
lowered down ; and, if they were kept up, they would present 
but little obstruction in steaming head to wind. The bowsprit 
is rigged in a similar way to that of a schooner, and carries a 
fore-staysail and jib— an^ sometimes, a large outer jib, for fine 
light winda Tbe masts are supported by wire shrouds and 
stays : — ^the main and fore by four, and mizen by three shrouds 
on each side of the masts. Some vessels have one shroud less 
to each mast The foremost-end of each gaff is fitted to receive 
an iron parral (neatly covered with leather), formed as a dasp- 
hoop, which is made to compass the mast ; on the after-part of 
whidi is welded a stalk or rod about one foot in lengthi with 
an eye to shackle on the throat-halyards. 

As the principal design of an iron screw-collier is for burthen, 
it is necessary that the engines and boilers should be fixed as 
near as possible to the after end of the vessel, on account of 
leaving a dear space in tiie hold for cargo. By the adoption of 
long luktchways, considerable time is saved in diipping the coals 
and taking them out again. One of these vessels, canying 
from 600 to 700 tons of coals, can be loaded in three hours, 
and discharged by steam cranes in seven hours. They are 
generally funiished with one small cabin aft, for the accommo- 
dation of the captain and mate; and a fore-cabin for the 
engineers, firemen, and crew. They are ballasted with water. 
The bottoms of most of them are laid with iron tanks for holding 
the water ; but lately the bottoms of some newly built vessels 
have been formed on the cellular tubular system, or double- 
bottomed, the space between the tubes affording capacity for 
the requisite quantity of water-ballast. 

Screw-coUiers (see sketch on next page) were first brought 
Into use in 1852, in which yA«r the John Biwet, a-^esselTof 

" Digitized byXnOOgle 



ON SCBEW-COLUEBA. 



Ill 



MO UmB, was built by an emment iron-ghipbailding firm at 
Janow, on the ^I^e, for the purpose of trading with coals 

between that river 
and London. The 
idea of making use ot 
steam and the screw 
in the coal-trade was 
at first received with 
distrust, and gentle- 
men of considerable 
experience in that 
business confidently 
predicted the fiiilure 
of the experiment ; 
but a trial of a few 
months proved that 
vessels of this class 
could be economically 
and successfully ma- 
naged, and the %7oAfi 
Bowes was followed 
before the dose of the 
year 1852 by twelve 
other screw - colliers 
firom the yard of the 
original builders. En- 
couraged by the suc- 
cess which attended 
the experiment^ large 
numb^ of iron screw- 
coUierSy since the ad- 
vent of the«/bAfi Bowes, 
have been built on 
the Tjne and at adja- 
cent ports, and iron 
screw - colliers have 
now assumed a promi- 
nent position in the 
conveyance of the 
great staple of the 
North to the metro- 
politan mar&et. In 1857, a new iron screw-vessel, the 
William Coryj of 1,200 tons burthen was built; ttiis being; 

Digitized by CnOOg IC 




112 



XRKA.TI8E OK SAILS AND SAILMAXUfG. 



a larger size than had before been attempted. Below are 
given the comparatiye dimensionB of the John Bowes and the 
mUtam Cory ;— 



John Bowes. 



William 
Corp, 



Length between the perpendiculars 

Depth of hold 

Extreme breadth of beam . - - - 

Draught of water when loaded^ aft - - 

« « forward 



FT. 

160 
15 
26 
U 
13 



IN. 




6 
6 



Burthen in tons -------- 650 

Coals, besides fiiel, for engines, in tons 700 

Weight of water-ballast, in tons - - 100 

Power of engines (horse-power) - - - 70 

Average speed per hour (miles) - - - 8 to 9 



PT. 

255 
21 
35 
16 
15 



IN. 









1,200 
1,500 
250 
150 
10 to 12 



The given lengths of the masts are generally the heading, 
hounding, and housing : they are of similar form to single-tree 
masts without cheeks. The hounds are made square, the depth 
of the lower-cap or iron-band for receiving the heel of the 
topmast^ and forms the trestle-trees, to which are attached the 
fittings for receiving the wire shrouds and stays. In three- 
masted schooner-rigged vessels, the foremast has two iron cross- 
trees, and the main and mizen masts each one : — ^the crosstrees 
are usually made of round iron, and curved aft ; the outer ends 
of them are open-eyesf, to receive the topmast-rigging and back- 
stays, with screw-pins to confine the sama The after-crosstree 
is of one length, fitted on to two bolts welded on the after-part 
of the cap, and secured by screw-nuts, so that they can be easily 
removed without disturbing the iron-band. A thick bolt^ about 
five or six inches long, is welded on each side of the iron trestle- 
trees or cap, to receive the socket on the inner-end of the fore- 
mast-crosstree. An eye or bracket is welded on the forepart of 
the cap, for the slings of the fore-yard ; and a strong bolt^ with 
an eye and collar drove fore-and-«it-ways of the mast to receive 
the throat-halyard-block — ^the eye to project four to six inches 
abaft, so that the block may hang clear of the mast ; also, plates 
with eyes reversed, to receive blocks for the fore-boom topping- 
lifts, and having the same raka On the after-part of the 
upper-cap are eyebolts for hooking an iron-l)ound double-block, 
for peak-halyards and outhauler, and for maintopmast-stay : 
the eyes to be clear of each other, so that the peak-halyard- 
block does not foul the stay in hoisting or lowering. ooqIc 



ox SCBEW-COLLIEBg. 



113 



Dimefuions o/Masts^ Yards^ Sc.^for an Iron Screw CoUier 
0/6OO Tons. 



Names of the Masts, Tarda, &c. 



{Housing , 
Deck to Hounds., 
Head 
Extreme Length., 



Topmasts.. jTo.the Stops. 



. Pole 
f Extreme 



Length of the 



v<.^. J Squaresail-Yard 

^^^^ 1 Extreme Length of the 

(^ Topsail-Yard ., 
/!-«- < Extreme Length., 

®*^» I Pole 

Booms Extreme Length., 

Bowsprit Extreme Length.. 

Jib-hoom Extreme Length.. 




24 
3 

30 



End, Ift. 



SAILS. 
OUTBE-JIB. 

This sail is made of No. 6 canvass. It is the foremost-sail 
and hoists on the stay which extends from the jib-boom end to 
the stops of the fore-topmast 

Dimensions for Outting-ofa (from the plan). 

FT. IN. Cloths. Stay-gores Foot-grs. 

Leech - 41 tabled. ". w. in. 

Stay - 61 6 tabled. j ... 4 6 .. 6 

Foot -29 equal to 13 J cloths. 1 ... 6 .. 8 

* 2 ... 5 ... 9 

The elue-pieee is two yards in 3 ... 4 6 ... 10 

length, and the taeh and head- 4 ... 4 ... 11 

linings three-quarters of a yard 5 ... 4 ... 12 

long. The seams on the foot 6 ... 4 .. 13 

should be three inches broad, and 7 ... 4 ...14 

should decrease to one inch on 8 ... 4 ... 15 

the hoist, (see page 89). BoU- 9 ... 4 ... 16 

rope: — ^the rope on the hoist 10 ... 4 ... 17 

should be 2^ inches in circum- 11 ... 4 ... 18 

ference ; the rope on the leech 2 12 ... 4 ... 20 

inches; and on the foot 1^ in- 13 ... 4 ... 21 
chea The stay-holes are one yard apart. 



Canvass, 115 yards 

Digitized by CnOpglC 



114 TBEAIISE ON SAILS AND SAILMAKINa 

INNEB JIB. 

This sail is made of No. 3 canvass ; and bends with hanks 
to the stay, extending from the bowsprit-end to the lower mast- 
bead ; the foot is made wide enough to spread the bowsprit. 
See sketch, page 111). 

Dimemionsfor Chotifig-ota (from the plan). 
FT. nv. Cloths. Stay-gores. Foot-grs 

Leech - 34 tabled. ft. in. in. 

Stay - 53 6 tabled, i - ^ ^ - '^ 

Foot -24 6 equal to 11 doths. 2 .. 5 6 ... 8 

3 ... 5 ..• 9 
Oanvass in the sail, 86 yarda 4 ... 4 6 ... 10 
The c/ti0^*ec« is one and a half 5 ... 4 5 ... 13 
yards in length, and the #a6i& and 6 .. 4 5 ... 17 
Atfflk^pMcef are three^uarters of a 7 ... 4 5 ... 21 
yard long. The teami on the 8 ... 4 5 ... 24 
foot sho^d be 4 inches broad 9 ... 4 5 ^. 27 
next the due^ and diminish to 3 10 ... 4 5 ... 30 
inches at the tack-seam. 11 .. 4 5 ... 32 

BoU-rope. — ^The rope on the hoist should be 2\ inches in 
circumference; on the leech 2 inches, and on the foot 1^ 
inches. The rope on the foot should be sewed on very 
round and slack (see page 90). The ^tay-holea are one yard 
asunder. 

TORB-STAYSAIL. 

This sail is made of No. 2 or No. 3 canvass : it is bent with 
hanks to the stay next before the mast The depth of the leech 
is nearly the same as the depth of the foremost-leech of the 
foresail ; and there are as many cloths in the foot as will brinic 
it clear of the foremast 

DtmeruioM/or ChaHng-out (from the plan). 

FT. IN. 

Leech - - 25 6 tabled* 

Stay - - 40 6 tabled. 

Foot . 26 9 equal to 14 doths. 

Stay-gores, 2 4 each. 

Foot-gores, 0, 0, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, inches, at 
the dua 

OdnTass in the sai^ 71^ yards 

This sail has one reef at 4 feet up from the foot, and tu» 
howlinea^-'^ne bowline is 2 feet above the ree^ and the other 
half-way between the reef and dua ^ 

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ON SCBEW-COLLIEB& 115 

The Iceeh is lined with a breadth of cloth from the clue to 
half-a-yard above the upper-bowline. The hoU-rofs on the luff 
or hoist should be 2\ inches in circumference, the rope on the 
leech 2\ inches, and on the foot If inche& The stay-holes are 
one yaid distant 

TOPSAIL. 

This sail is made of Ka 3 or No. 4 canvass. It is bent at 
the head to the topsail-yard, extending within 2 to 3 feet of the 
lifts, and the foot spreads to the inner sheave-hole in the fore- 
yard. By referring to the dimensions of the spars (page 113), 
the size of this sail is determined^ thus : — 



Head - 


PT. 

. 29 


IN. 

equal to 15| doths. 
equal to \S\ cloths. 


Beef - 


- 34 


Foot - 


-40 


6 equal to 22 cloths. 


Hoist - 


. 22 





Gore - 


- 4 





Middle 


- 18 


cut — 4 squarea 




4ft. 22 

This sail has two reef hands. The close-reef is one foot above 
the half-way of the leech, and the other half-way between it 
and the head, and they extend underneath the leedi-lininga. 

The keehes are lined from the due to the earing with one 
half of a breadth of canvass; and the foot is lined from under 
the leech-lining to the buntline-hole with a third or a halfbreadth. 

The ree^taeUe eringU is three-quarters of a yard below the 
dose reeil The reef-tackle pieces are put on the aft side, and 
cover three doths, in the direction of the head of the top-lining. 

Also, a top-lining on the aft side, which for this sail is 7 doths, 
and the doths are cu^. 1^ yards, and one doth running up abov<9 
the lower-ree^ coveri jg the centre of the sail that dMance^ oi 
3|yard& 

One huntUno-hoU is made at on^third of the foot, on each 
side of the top-lining, and to take the foot-band end. 

The thickness of bolt-rope on the leeches and along the foot is 
2} to 3 inches, and for 15 to 18 inches up each leech, and along 
the foot^ is parcelled and served ; the dues are tumed-in to 
receive a thunbla (See page 50.) 

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116 



TBEATISB OK BAILS AKi> SAILICAOKO. 



Cringles are stuck throngh holes on the leeches, at the ends 
of the reef-bands and reef-tackles, to receive galvanized thimbles. 
The foot-rope, is sewed on. Manilla reef points, 5 feet and 4| 
feet in lengthi are sewed to the upper part of the grommets in 
the reefs. 

FOSESAIL, OB FOBE-TBTSAIL. 

This sail is made of No. 2 canvass. The fore-leech is attached 
to hoops which encirde the fore-mast ; and the head is bent to 
hoops on the gaff, and drawn out by an outhauler. (See page 
85.) The size of this sail is determined from the dimensions 
of spars given in page 113. 

Dimensions for CtOting-out, 







FT. 


IN. 




Head 


- - - 


- 21 


6 equal to 11 clotha 


Foot 


- - - 


- 23 


6 equal to 13 cloths. 


Leech 


- - - 


- 40 


6 cut. 




Mast 


- - - 


- 28 


tabled. 








Cloths 


IN. 


FT. IN. 




1 
2 


... 9 
... 8 


... 15 

... 15 


Head-gores. 

IN. 


■ 3 


... 7 




— 


... 8 


4 


... 5 




— 


... 8 


5 
6 


... 4 

... 8 




— 


Q 

"' f. SIack-seaui«. 
... o m. 


7 


... 3 




— 


.. 8 ... 2 


8 


... 1 




— 


.. 8 ... 3 


9 


... 




— 


.. 8 .. 4 


10 


.. 1 




— 


.. 8 ... 5 


11 


... 2 




— 


.. 8 ... 6 


12 


... 3 







.. 8 ... 7 


13 


... 4 




— 


.. 8 ... 8 



This sail has two reefs, 6 feet 6 inches and 6 feet, parallel to 
the foot. ThQ fore-leech is lined with half a breadth of cloth 
from the tack to the nock ; and the after kech is lined with a 
breadth of cloth from the clue to one yard above the upper-reef 
The peah is lined with a piece one yard and a half in lengtL 

The seams should be 2\ inches broad, and run up from, the foot, 
similar to the sail on page 86 ; and the seams at the head to be 
1^ inches broad, which width must be continued down to the 
foot-taper. (For tahlings and holes, see pages 84 and 85.) 

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117 



BoU-ropa. — Head rope, 2 inches in circumference ; the foot, 
1 finches; leech, 2^ inches; clue-]''/pe, 3 1 inches; peak, 3^ 
inches ; and mast, 2f inches. 

Iron gahanized thimbles are stuck in the cringles at the reefs 
and in the four comers. 

MAINSAIL. 

This sail is made of No. 2 canvass. The head is bent to 
hoops on the main-gaff, and drawn out by an outhauler, and 
extends within 18 inches of the hounds. The fore-leech is 
attached to hoops which encircle the mainmast within 18 inches 
of the boom ; and the foot spreads within 4 to 5 feet of the 
sheave-hole at the outer end of the boom, which hangs fore-and- 
afb abaft the mafit The size of this sail is determined from the 
dimensions of the spars for the vessel here spoken o^ viz. : — 

Dimensions for Cutting-out. 
Head - - - - 21 6 equal to 11 doths. 
Foot - - . - 25 equal to 14 doths. 
Leech - - - - 45 cut 
Mast .... 32 6 tabled. 





Foot-gores. 


Mast-gores. 








Cloths. 




IN. 


FT. IN. 






1 




9 ... 


11 5 






2 




8 .. 


11 5 


Head-gores. 


3 




7 ... 


11 5 


IN. 




4 




6 ... 


— 


... 8 




5 




5 ... 


— 


... 8 




6 




4 ... 


— 


... 8 


IN. 


7 




3 ... 


— 


... 8 


... 2 


8 




2 ... 


— 


... 8 




3 


9 




1 ... 


— 


.. 8 




4 


10 




.. 


— 


... 8 




5 


11 




1 ... 


— 


... 8 




6 


12 




2 ... 


— 


... 8 




. 7 


13 




3 ... 


— 


... 8 




. 8 


14 




4 ... 


— 


... 8 




. 10 



This sail has three reefs — 6 feet, 5 J feet, and 5 feet — ^parallel 
with the foot. The linings^ thicknesses of bolt-ropes^ &c., are 
the some as for the foresail 

BQUABB-SAIL. 

This sail is cut square on the head and leeches, and made of 
No. 6 canvass. The head is hauled out to the outer sheave- 
hole in the fore-yard by the earings, and by sheets at the foot. 
A. crinide is stuck in the centre of the head, to hoist up the sail 



118 TEBATISS ON 8A1LS AMD 8AIT.MAKTNQ 

with the stay-foresail-halyards. The depth of this sail is nearly 
the depth of the fore-leedi of the foresail 

Chres* — ^The foot is gored at the rate of one inch per cloth, 
increasing to each clue ; four or five square cloths being left in 
the middle. It is much better to cut it square all throu^^ tho 
foot Thv sail is only used in fair winds, set flying. 

Linings, — One yard of canvass is put on at each due, half-a- 
yard at each earing, and half-a-yard against every cringle on the 
leechea Sometimes the leeches are Imed with half a breadth. 

Bowlines. — ^Two to three bowlines are made on each leech : — 
the upper bowline-cringle is on the middle of the leech, and the 
others are equally distant from that and the due. 

Chdvanized thuMet are stuck in the four comers of the sail, 
and also in the centre cringle at the head. 

MIZEN. 

Thissailismadeof No. 3canva8& The fore-leech is attaehed 
to hoops, which endrde the mizen-mast ; and the head is bent 
to hoops on the ga£^ and drawn out by an outhauler. The 
size of this sail is determined from the diTnenaiona of the spars 
given for the vessel here spoken o^ viz. : — 

Dimensions /or CuUwg-ouL 

FT. t% 

Head - . - . 19 6 equal to 10 doth& 
Foot - - • 25 6 equal to 14 doths. 
Leech - - 34 6 cut. 

Mast • - - - 23 6 tabled. 
Foot-gores. Mast-gores. 



joths. 


IN. 




PT. IN, 






1 ... 


13 




6 






2 .. 


11 




6 






3 ... 

4 .. 


9 

7 




6 
6 


Head-gores. 

IN. 


5 ... 


5 




— 


,, 


8 


6 ... 


4 




— 


• *■ 


8 


7 .. 


3 




— 


... 




8 ... 


2 




_ 


... 


8 w. 


9 ... 


1 




— 




8 ... 2 


10 ... 







— 


. •* 


8 ... 3 


11 ... 


1 




— 


* .« 


8 ... 4 


12 ... 


2 




_ 


• .• 


8 ... 6 


13 ... 


3 




— 


... 


8 ... 6 


14 ... 


4 




— 


... 


8 ... 8 



This sail has two reefs^ 6ft. and 5ft. 6in., parallel with the foot, 



OK SCBflW-STBAMBRS. 



119 



FBENCH £10 OF SCBEW-STBAMEB8. 

The acyoining sketch represents a style of rigging and saiLi 
recently applied to some of the small screw steam-yessels of 
the French mercantile marine. One of the prominent advan- 
tages of this sort of rig is, 
that the speed of a vessel in steam- 
ing head to wind will meet with 
less resistance than that of a 
vessel rigged the ordinary way, as 
she is divested of yards, gaffs, and 
cross-trees, which tend to ob- 
struct the passage of the opposing 
force of the vnnd, thereby assist- 
ing the propelling power of the 
engines; the most beneficial 
results are also experienced in 
having light masts, and spreading 
the greatest quantity of canvass 
next the hull of the vessel : — this 
is more particularly felt in steam- 
vessels of narrow beam. Then, 
moreover, there is the advantage 
of working the sails with the 
greatest facility, and brailing them 
up against a head wind. The 
mode of rigging (see sketch) con- 
sists in equipping the vessel with 
three pole-masts and a short bow- 
sprit The masts are supported 
by two shrouds on each side of 
each mast, with one stay setting 
up to the stem, and one to the 
bowsprit-end. To the masts are 
attached triangular sails, or shoul- 
der-of-mtaton sails, being the same 
as lateen sails, but are thus called 
when the heads of them (then 
called fore-leeches) are laced to the masts. On the bowsprit is 
set a fore-staysalL and a jib ; and in addition to these sails 
they cany, sometimes, on the main and mizen-stays, staysails ; 
auc^ when the wind is right aft, a square sail^ cidled a cross- 
jack, is set on the foremast, ^ , 

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120 ttOKATISB ON aiUB AND flAIIJIAKINQ. 

The following sketch lepresents the liggbg and sails of a 
fa0tr«ailiiig or oUpper schooner (see tables at the end) : — 




PLAN OF BIOOING AND BAILS OF AN IRON CLIFPlOtrBOHOONEB 

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Oir BOAT 8AI1& 121 



CHAPTER 11. 

ON BOAT SAILS. 

description ol Boats.— Boats' Spritsails. — Outter, with Sprit-Malosail and 
Jib. —Boats' Lugsails.-— S8-feet Catter, with Fore and Mizen Lug- 
sails.- 18-feet Qig. with One LugsaiL — Bermuda Schooner Rigged, 
with Short OafiRs.— Gommon Schooner-Blgged.— Settee-Sails. — Lateen 
Sails.— Xebec.— Sliding-Qunter Sails.— Herring Boat Sails. 

Boats, as is well known, are smaU, open vesselSy impelled 
on the water by rowing or sailing, and are distinguished by 
different names, according to their size and construction. The 
long-boat^ or laimch, ususJly the largest boat that accompanies 
a ship, is generally furnished with lugsail, boom-mizen, and a jib ; 
her principal employment is to bring heavy stores or provisions 
on board ; but for ships of war, they are sometimes armed and 
equipped for cruising at short distances, and are, therefore, 
mostly fitted to cany one large swivel gun. A pinnace, supplied 
to war ships for the accommodation of the lieutenants, &c., is 
generally fdmished with one lug-foresail, boom-mizen, and a jib. 
The cutters of a ship are differently built from the preceding 
boats : they are what is called " dincher-built," that they may 
be as light as possibla Other boats are, a life boat, a dingy, 
a gig, a jolly boat, a felucca^ a yawl, &c., &a 

boats' SPniTSAILS. 

These sails are quadrilateral, and made of canvass No. 6 or 
7. The foro-leeches are attached to their respective masts by 
ladngs, reeved 
through holes 
made in them, 
and the heads 
are elevated 
and extended 
by spnts, or 
small poles, 
that cross the 
sail diagonally, 
from the mast 
to the peek } the lower end of the sprit rests in a wreath ( 




122 



TBEATISE ON SAILS AXCD SAILMAKINO. 



collar <tf rope called a snotter, which encircles the mast at the 
foot of the sail, (see acyoining sketch). The fore-leeches of the 

main and fore-spritsails are 
12 inches less than the depth 
from the sheave at the mast- 
head to the gunwale, with 
one or two gored cloths. 
The heads of these sails have 
an even gore of 12 to 14 
inches to each cloth. The 
fore-leech of the mizen-sprit- 
sail is the depth from the 
sheave at the mast-head to 
the gunwale, and has two to three goring-doths : the head of 
it has seldom more than a gore of 11 inches to each dotL 

0T7TTEB, WITH SPBIT-MAINSAIL Ain> JIB. 

Length of boat, 22 feet : breadth, 5ft. 6in. 

Whole length of mast above gunwale, 12 ft.: mast-head, 1 ft. 

Dimensions for OuUinff^mi the Sails. 
Mainsail :— Head, 3^ cloths ; foot, 5^ cloths ; masl^ 9 feet ; 
and leech, 16 feet 

Foot-gores. Mast-gores. 




Cloths. 



4 
5 



IN. 

8 
15 
126 

94 



Jib : — ^Leech, 9 feet ; 



FT. IN. 

2 5 
4 9 
2 5 . 



Head-gores. 



6 
10 
10 
10 



23^ yards. 
No. 7 canvass. 



stay, lift. 3in. ; foot, 7 feet or 3| cloths. 



Cloths. 

I 
1 



Foot-gores. 



IN. 

2 


3 



Stay-gores. 

FT. IN. 

2 1 
2 11 
2 11 
2 11 



6^ jrards. 
No. 8 canvass. 

Small holes are made in the fore-leeches : those in the main 
and fore-sprit-sails are one yard, and those in the mizen are 
three-quarters of a yard asunder. Pieces of cord about half a 
yard long are used for reefing-points, which are fixed in the 
seams across the sail, at one-fifth of the depth of the after-leech 
from the foot. Holes, or small cringles, are made on the leeches 
at the reef, clue, tack, and nock j and an earing at ^j^^io 
receive the upper end of the sprit " "^ " 



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ON BOAT SAILS. 



123 



boats' lugsails. 
These sails are quadrilateral, and made of cannvass No. 6 or 
No. 7. The head is bent to a yard, which hangs obliquely to 
the mast at one- 
third of its length, 
and spreads the yard 
to about 4 inches of 
thedeats. The fore- 




leech is as deep as 
the length of the 
head, with two or 
three gored cloths. 
The he^ has about 
a six-inch gore to each doth ; the foot is gored to have a small 
sweep ; and the after-leedi is longer by one-half of the depth of 
the fore-leech, or 
the fore-leech is 
generally two - 
thirds the length 
of the after-leech. 
Two small holes 
are made in each 
cloth in the head; 
brass circlets are 
sometimes inser- 
ted in lieu of 
holes. 

These sails have two reefs parallel with the foot ; the upper 
one is half-way up the fore-leech, and the other is equally distant 
from that and the 
foot ; and pricker- 
holes are made across 
the sail, in each seam, 
through which the 
reef-points are rove, 
and sewed down on 
the seam, ** smack 
fashion" (see page 61). 
Small cringles are 
made on the leeches 
at each reef and the 
due ; and earings are made at the tack, nock, and peek. Small 
bolt-ropes are neatly sewed on round the edges of the sails. 





I2i 



TBSATISE OK SAILS AND SATLMAK1NG. 



28-FEBT OUTTBB, WITH FOBE ANP MIZEN LUG-SAIUl. 

LuG-FOEBSAiL : — Head, lift. 3m., or 5 J doths ; foot, 18ft., 
or 9^ doths j mast, 15 feet ; and leech, 23 feet. 

Dimenmna of the Gores, 
Foot-gores, llast-gores. 



doths. 


IN. 


PT. IN. 




i ... 


6 .. 


. 1 9 




1 ... 


12 . 


. 3 5 




2 ... 

3 ... 


10 . 
8 .. 


. 3 5 
. 3 5 


Head-gorei). 

IN. 


4 ... 


6 .. 


. 1 9 


... 6 


5 ... 


5 .. 


— 


*" I*^ Slack'SeaniB. 


6 ... 


4 .. 


— 


• •• 11 IN. 


7 ... 


3 . 


.. ^^ 


... 11 ... 3 


8 ... 


2 . 


— 


... 11 ... 4 


9 ... 


1 . 


— 


... 11 ... 5 



doths. 


IN. 


1 . 


8 .. 


2 . 


. 6 .. 


3 . 


. 4 „ 


4 . 


.. 3 .. 


5 . 


.. 2 .. 


6 . 


.. 1 .. 



Slack-seams. 

IN. 



No. 7 canvass, 49f yards. 

Luo-MiZEN : — Head, 8 feet, or 4 cloths ; foot, lift. 2m., or, 
6 doths j mast, lOfi 6in. ; and leech, 15 feet. 

Dimensions of the Gores, 
Foot-gores. Mast-gorea 

FT. IN. 
e» o 

Z, ^ Head-gores. 

O O JN. 

— ... 8 

— ... 8 

— ... 8 ... 2 

— ... 8 ... 3 
No. 7 canvass, 22 yards. 

18-FBET GIG, WITH ONE LUGS AIL. 

Whole length of the mast 
Uft. 9in. ; head, 1 foot. 

Whole length of the yard, 
10ft. 3in. ; arms, 9 inches. 

Head, 8ft. 9in., or 4^ cloths ; 
foot, 12ft., or 6i cloths; 
mast, 9ft. 3in. ; and leech, 
12 feet. 

This sail has two reefs 
parallel with the foot; the upper one is half-way up the fore 
leech. 




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ON BOAT SAILS. 



125 



doths. 

i 
1 

2 
3 

4 
5 
6 



Dimensions for Cutiin^-ota, 
Foot-gores. Mast-gores. 
FT. iw. 

2 3 
4 6 
2 3 



IN. 

4 
6 
4 
2 
1 

3 



Head-gores 

IN. 

.. 3 
.. 6 



6 
6 



No. 7 canvasa^ 
22^ yards. 



COMMON SCHOONEB BIGOED. 




A common schooner 
is a vessel with two 
pole masts and a bow- 
sprit, whose mainsail 
and foresail are both 
suspended by gaffs, 
instead of being ex- 
tended by sprits. The 
height of the nock of 
the mainsail above the 

water is eqiial to ^_ , 

twice the breadth of the boat ; and the foresail nine-tenths of 
the main. The heads of the sails are square, and the head of 
the foresail is usually three-fourths of the main. The length of 
the bowsprit equals three-tenths of the length of the boat. 

BEEMUDA SCHOONEB BIGGED. 

The fore and main- 
sails of these vessels 
are sometimes called 
Bermuda sails, from 
their being narrow at 
the head, broad at the 
foot, and great hoist, 
with considerably 
more rake than com- 
mon schooners. It is - 
probable that this rig 
was substituted for lateen sails, on account of gaff sails being 
more effective when going free or m tacking ; and, besides, this 
rig is not encumbered with long lateen yards. r^^^^i^ 

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126 TBEATISB ON SAILS AND SAJLMAEINO. 

BERMUDA SCHOONER RIGGED, WITH SHORT GAFFS. 

Length of boat, 
25 feet ; breadth, 
6a lOin. 

In Bermuda 
rigged schooners, 
the height of the 
nock of the main- 
sail is commonly 
two and one-fifth 
times the breadth 
of the boat, and 
theforesail twelve- 
thirteenths of the main. The length of the main-gaff is from 
one-sixth to one-fourth of the length of the boat, and the 
fore-gaff is of the same length ; and the length of the main- 
boom equals to half the length of the boat The length of the 
bowsprit equals two-fifths of the length of the boat. Bake of 
the main-mast to the foot^ 4 inches, and the fore, 2 inches 

DimemUmsfor Cutting^ut the Sails, 

Mainsail : — ^Head, 2 cloths j foot, 6 cloths ; mast, 13 feet ; 
and leech, 16ft. 6in. 

Foot gores. Ma8^gores. 
OloUis. IN. FT. IN. 

1 ... 14 ... 2 10 

2 ... 12 ... 2 10 

3 ... 10 ... 2 10 TT,.^„,^ 

4 ... 8 ... 2 10 °^'?r"^ 

5 ... 6 ... — ... 6 

6 ••• b ... — ... 6 

Foresail : — Head, 2 cloths ; fbot, 5^ cloths ; mast, 12 feet 
and leech, 15^ feet. 

Foot-gores. Mast-gores. 

OlothS, IK. FT. IN. 

i ... 7 ... 1 6 

1 ... 14 ... 2 11 

2 ... 12 . 2 11 

3 ... 9 ... 2 11 



Head-gores, 
nr. 



4 ... 6 ... — ... 6 No. 7 canvass, 64 

5 3 ... — ... 6 yds., in all the sails. 

Jib :— Leech, 13 feet ; stay, 17^ feet ; and foot, 9^ feet, or 5 
cloths ; foot-gores> 3 4, 5, 6, 7 inches ; stay-gores, 3 fe^t each. 

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ON BOAT SAILS. 



127 




BBEC, WITH THBEE LATEEN SAILS. 

These sails are triangular, find made of No. 6 or No. 7 canvaaa 
The head has the 
same spread in 
relation to the 
yard as settees. 
Th^ head of these 
sails commonly 
gore the breadth 
of the cloth, and 
the foot is cut 
square. 

THREE SLIDING OUNTBBS AND A JIB. 

A boats' sliding- 
gunter sail is the 
same as the l)oats' 
lateen sail ; but it is 
thus called, when the 
head of it (then called 
the fore-leech) is laced 
to a mast and top- 
mast, the topmast 
being made to slide 
down the mast by 
means of hoops. 

SETTEE SAILS. 

These sails are quadrilateral, and made of No. 7 or 8 canvass. 
The head is bent to a lateen yard, which hangs obliquely to the 
mast, at one-third 
of its length, and 
spreads the yard to 
about six inches of 
the cleats. The 
leech is commonly 
five- sixths of the 
length of the head, 
and the luff one- 
fifth of the depth 
of the leech, or to 
the reef with the 
first cloth gored to the nock. The length of the head, divided 

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128 TBEATISE ON SAILS AND SAILMAEINa 

by the nnmber of cloths in it^ gives the length of each gora 
The foot is gored to have a circular sweep. Two small holes 
are made in each cloth along the head through which the lacings 
are reeved ; and a reef^ at one-fifth of the depth of the leech 
from the foot. 

HEBBmO-BOAT SAILS. 

In the northern parts of Scotland, as Wick, Helmsdalcj &cj 
large numbers of boats are employed in the herring fisheries : in 
Wick harbour alone there are from 800 to 1,000 fishing boats, 
all the same sort of rig, carrying two masts with Ingsails. They 
vary in size from 24 to 34 feet in length of keeL In this 
example, the keel measures 31 feet, and the dimensions of spars 
are : — ^Foremast, 35ft. 3inj mainmast, 32ft.; fbreyard, 16ft. 6in. 
The mainsail is generally one doth less than the foresail, and 
about 3 feet less hoist, but some like both sails of one siza There 
are 8 cloths in the head and 10 cloths in the foot of the foresail : 
made with 85 yards of No. 4 canvasa The weather-bolt- 
ropes on the sails are about 4 inches in circumference, and after- 
leech 2^in. ; the foot of the sail is rounded a little, 4in. gore at 
the tack, and about 12in. gore at the sheet ; the head is gored 
3 to 4 inches per doth. The sails have six reefs, 30in. each 
apart, and a hook in the tack to which the cringle is hooked in 
reefing. The foremast is raked a little aft, and the mainmast 
stands about upright ; but the fishermen differ in taste — some 
like both masts to be without any raka The sails are hoisted 
by what they call a tie — that is, a rope about 30ft in length and 
4in. in circumference, with a knot on the end, put through an eye 
of an iron traveller which slides on the inast, and hooked on to 
the yard at about one-third from the throat of the sail ; the tie is 
rove through a sheave-hole at 18 inches from the top of the 
mast ; at the other end of the tie there is a double block, and 
at the gunwale of the boat a single block, through which the 
halliards are rove^ the size of which is from 2^ to 2^ inches. 
The sheets are made fast at the gunwale of the boat, and a single 
block at the sheet, to which the sheets are rove whenever the 
boat is put about. Whenever the boat is in stays or goes alx>ut, 
the sails are lowered down, (termed " dipping" the sails, by the 
fishermen,) and shifted to the other side of the mast, and the 
halliards put to the weather side, where they answer for back- 
stays. The fishermen say, " There are no boats that can go to 
the windward of theirs." When they shoot their nets, the masts 
are lowered down so as to make the boat ride more at ^.asa 

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ON ]>AAUGHTINQ Am> CSSTBE OF BFFOBT. 



129 



SECTION SECOND. 

CHAPTER L 

ON DRAUGHTING AND CENTRE OP EFFORT OF 
THE SAII& 

Pftctical Geomeiry<— Practical Methods of Constructing Bails:— Main- 
course: — to Draw the Plan. — Maintopsail. — Main-topgallantsaiL- 
Main-royal.— The Sails on the Fore and Mizen Masts.— Jih.—DriYer. 

ON THE PBINCIPLBS OF BBAWINO PLAITO OF BAILS. 

In order to have a right understandiiig of draughting sails, 
geometry ought to be learned. To prepare the student for this, 
the most usefUl problems are herein briefly illustrated, and those 
who have leisure and opportunity will find themselves amply 
rewarded by a deeper study, whether it can be brought into 
immediate use or not ; for the art of draughting presents diffi- 
culties to persons ignorant of it, 
which to the geometrician are 
easily surmounted. The following 
problems, being the most useful, 
have been selected. 



I. To bisect a ffivenUne, AJB — that 
is, to divide it into 2 equal parts. 

From the centres A and B; with 
any radius, describe two arcs inter- 
secting each other in and D, 
and draw the line CD, which will 
bisect the line AB in the point E, 
as required. 

The two ends of the line AB 
are called centres, being made so 
to draw the arcs, the intersections 
of which being equally distant 



>c 



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130 



TKEATISE OS SAILS AND SAILMAKINQ. 



from the two ends, a line from G to D must pass tlirougli thd 
centre of the line, and divide it equally. 

11. Ae a given piAm^ (7, in a given line, AB, to erect aper- 
dicular. 







r 




/ 




A 


c 


E B 



From the given point, 0, cut off 
equal parts, CD, OE, on the given 
line; then, making D and E 
centres, describe arcs intersecting 
in F ; then join OF, which will be 
perpendicular, as required. 



Otkerwiee. — TFhen the point C is near the end of the line. 

Draw the line AB, and mark a 
point, 0, near the end of the line. 
From a point, D, assumed above 
the line for a centre, describe a 
circle passing through 0, and 
cutting the line at E. 

Draw a line from E through the 
centre D, and cutting the circle 
at F. . 

Join OF, which will be a per- 

"pis B pendicular. 

I— From a point, A, to let fall a perpendicular on a line, BO. 

Draw the line BO, and choose 
a point. A, above it. From the 
point A, with a convenient 
radiufif, describe an arc, cutting 
the given line at the two points, 
D, E, Then, with any radius, 
describe two arcs, intersecting at 
F, and draw AF through O, 
which will be the perpendicular 
required. 

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^==^ 



>'. 



:C 



PBACTi€AL METHODS OF CONSTEUCTIKG SAILS. 131 

" Otherwise, — JFhen the point is nearly opposite to the end of 
the line. 

Draw tlie line BO, and fix the 
point A near the end of the line. 

From the point, D, in the line 
BO, for a centre, describe the arc 
of a circle through the point A, 
cuttiDg BO in K 

Now, firom the centre, E, with ■ ** 
the length EA, describe another 
arc below the line, catting the first 
arc at F. Draw AGP, which 
wiQ be the perpendicular to BO, 
as required. 

PBAOTIOAL METHODS OF OONSTRUOTING SAILS. 

Flans of sails are drawn to a scale of reduced proportion to 
the real dimensions, as the eighth or fourth of an inch to the 
foot, as may be convenient for the drawing. This sort of draw- 
ing is called geometrical^ because it has no reference to a spectator, 
and is not designed to give the appearances of the &sji\s perspec- 
tively, but only purposes to give the form and measurement of 
the surfaces of the sails in height and breadth, and also for 
rightly ascertaining the dimensions of the leeches, stays, and 
total amount of the sweep-gores on the head and foot, &c., of 
particuLax sails, as jibs, drivers, &c. 

The whole of these operations are performed by means of a 
rule containing a scale of equal parts, a compass, a parallel 
ruler, and a square. 

MAIN-COUBSE. 

To draw the plan, — Given the widths of the head and foot, 
the depth of the middle, the length of the leech, and the roach 
of the foot 

Head. — Set off half the breadth of the head, from the centre 
of the mainyard, both ways. 

Depth. — Set down, firom the centre of the yard, the depth of 
the middle perpendicularly, and produce it to the driven roach 
of the foot 

Foot. — ^Draw a Une perpendicular to the depth, or depth and 
roach on the same line, and set off firom the middle, ha^ the 
width of the foot both ways. ^ ^^'^^^ byV^OC 



)?t2 TREATISE ON SAII£ AND SAILBCAKINCL 

Leeches, — Join the places which are set off for the earingi 
and cluea 

Roach of the foot. — ^Through the depth of the middle of the 
foot draw a line parallel to the head, and set off both ways* 
from the middle, half of three-fifths of the breadth of the foot^ 
from which places the roach is carried down to the clues. 

BCAIN-TOFSAH., 

To draw the plan. — Given the widths of the head and foot 
the height of the middle, and the roach of the foot 

Mast or hoist, — Set down the depth, from the centre of the 
topsail-yard to the centre of the mainyard, at right angles to 
both. 

Head and foot. — Set off half the widths of the head and fbot> 
from the centre of the yards both way& 

Leeches, — Join the places set off for the earings and clues 

Roach of the foot, — ^Draw the arc of a circle through the roach 
set above the centre of the mainyard and the dues. 

dose-re^, — Set down from the head half the hoist of the top- 
sail, and between it and the head of the other reef& 

Hollow on the leeches. — ^Through the breadth of the sail at the 
head, the breadth at the lowest reef, and the breadth at the 
clues, pass the arc of a circle. 

MiddMand, — Set down from the lower-reef half the distance 
between the reef and middle of the foot. 

Be^-tackle pendant. — Set down to three f^ (from a scale of 
equal parts) below the close-reef on the leeches. 

Buntlines. — ^At one-third the breadth of the foot 

Bowlines. — At one-third the distance between the due and 
reef-tackle. 

The references to the other parts are obviously seen on 
sketch, page 72. 

MAIN-T0P6ALLANT8AIL. 

To draw the plan. — Given the widths of the head and iooU 
the height of the middle, and the roach of the foot 

Set down the hoist, from the centre of the topgaUan^yard, to 
the centre of the topsailyard, at right angles to both. 

Head aiui /oof.— Set off half the widths of the head and foot 
from the centre of each of the yard& 

Leeches. — Join the places set off for the earings and cluee. 



PBACnOAL METHODS OF OOlTSTBUOTINa SAILS. 133 

Eoach of the foot, — ^Draw the arc of a cirde through the height 
of the roach set up ou the mast^ aboye the topsail-yard and the 
clues. 

MAIK-BOTAL. 

To draw the plan. — Given the widths of the head and fbot^ 
the height of the middle, and the roach of the foot 

It is precisely the same way drawn as that of the preceding, 
excepting the roach, which is a great deal less. 

The sails on the fore and misen masts are likewise drawn in 
a similar manner to those on the mainmast 

JIB. 

The plan of a jib is made by taking the lengths of the three 
sides and making the necessary curves on the stay and foot, 
and dividing the plan into cloths. See sketches on pagas 91, 
92, 93, &c 

DBrVEB. 

The method of drawing a driver, trysail, &c., is shown at 
page 10. 

To draw the plan of sails for anew ship, it is necessary to have 
the dimensions of the hull, as : — 

The distance between the foreside of the stem to the centre of 
the foremast 

The distance between the centre of the foremast to the centre 
of the mainmast. 

The distance between the centre of the mainmast to the centre 
of the mizenmast 

The distance between the centre of the mizenmast to the out- 
side of the taffi*ail. 

The housing of the foremast. 
" mainmast. 

*' mijEenmast 

The step of the foremast above a straight line from the step 
of the mainmast. 
The step of the mizenmast ditto. 

The number of inches the foremast rakes to the foot ^ 

** ** mainmast ** 

• " mizenmast ** 

, ** *' bowsprit rises to the foot 

The height of the rail or gunwale. 

** topgallant-forecastle. 

" poop. 

^ cathead or bumkins. p 134.) 

Also, the dimensions of masts, yards, gaffs, &c. ^-;(^(^^etch 



134 TREATISE ON SAILS AND SAILUAKINO. 




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POSITIONS OP THE CBNTEES OP GEAVITY OP THE &AmL 



ON THE CENTSB OF XTFOBT. 13^ 



CHAPTER 11. 
ON THE OENTKE OF EFFORT. 

To find the Positions of the Centre of OnMiy of the Sails, aooording to their 
form. —To find the Centre of Eflbrt of the Sails. —The Place of the 
Centre of Effort to produce the best EfllMt.— The Sitoation of the Point 
of Sail, as to Height, made by comparison with other Ships. — The 
Effect produced on the Sails, best determined by Experiments. — 
Balancing the Ship in a Wind. —The correct BeUtion of the Fore and 
After Moments of Sail. — Estimating the Power of a Sail to Raise or 
Depreas a Ship's Head* 

DEFINITION. 

The point of sail or place in which the whole effort of the 
wind is supposed to be collected, is commonly called the Oentbb 
OF Effort of the sails ; and is the point in.which, if a single 
force were applied equally, and directly opposed to the force of 
the wind, it would destroy its effect^ or produce the same result 
as when uniformly distributed ; or as if, in this point, the centre 
of a single sail were placed wiUi a surface equal to the sum of 
the surfaces of all the saila ^^ 

It is found in a manner similar to that by which we find the 
common centre of gravity of several bodies, only that in this 
case we consider the sur&ce in place of the weight or magnitude 
of the body. 

Before the centre of effort of the sails can be obtained, it is 
necessaiy to make a plan of the sails (see adjoining sketch), and 
find the centre of gravity of each sail to obtain the moments.* 

The sails that are in general placed in the plan of the sails, 
are those which are most frequently used : — ^in square-rigged 
vessels, the fore and main courses, fore, main, and mizen topsails, 
fore, main, and mizen topgallant sails, driver, jib, and sometimes 
fore-topmast-staysail; and in fore and aft rigged vessels, as 

• Thus, by the natare of the lever, when two bodies are in equiUbriom 
about a fixed point C, they are reciprocally as their distances from that 
point; 

As A : B : : CB : CA, 

or CA. A — CB. B, that is, the two prodncts aie equal, 
which aie made by multiplying each body bv Its distance from the centre 
of gravity. It is freonently necessaiy to refer to t^s power of a force to 
produce rotation, ana aocordhigly the product just mentioned has re- 
ceived a particnlar denomination. It is called the Moment of the foice 
ronnd the axis. By moment is therefore meant the product of the foi«e 
and! 



136 TREATISE ON SAILS AND SAILMAEIKO. 

cutters, the mainsail, foresail, and jib (the second or third jib is 
commonly taken, as it is seldom that the first jib is set on a 
wind). The whole of these sails may not always be set ; nor is 
the pressure of the wind, when it acts obliquely, and as the sail 
becomes more pressed, the same on both leeches ; but since we 
obtain the moment of the sails, with a view only to compare 
with ships in which the quantity of sail is well proportioned to 
the stability, and in which the position of the point of sail 
is correct as to length, the unequal effect of the wind, and the 
number of the sails used (and these the principal sails), being 
the same in each cate, will not affect the comparison. 

If sails were rectangular, the centre of gravity of each saO 
would evidently be in the point where its diagonals intersect 
each other. But since most sails are either trapeziums or 
triangles, their centre of gravity must be found differently. If 
two sides of a triangular sail, as the jib, be bisected, and lines 
drawn from these points to the opposite angles, the intersection 
of the two lines will be the centre of gravity. The sails that 
are trapeziums with two equal sides, as the topsails, are formed 
into two triangles ^qz and ffqv, by drawing the diagonal ^q ; 
the centre of gravity of each triangle is found, as for the jib ; a 
line, ha, is drawn through the two centres of gravity, and the 
point in which it cuts the middle line of the sail, e, is its centre 
of gravity. 

When the sail is a trapezium, as the driver, not having two 
equal surfaces on each side of the middle, it is first divided into 
two triangles, asd and as^, by drawing the diagonal az ; the 
centres of gravity are fbund as before, and a line, hi, is drawn 
to pass through them ; this figure is then formed again into two 
triangles, d^a and d^z, by drawing the diagonal dff, from the 
two other angles d and g, the centre of gravity of these is found, 
and a line^ of, drawn to pass through them ; the intersection m, 
of the two Unes of and hi, is the centre of gravity of the sail 

The areas of aJl the sails that are triangular are found by 
multiplying the base by half the height, as in obtaining the area 
of a common triangle ; and the area of a trapezium, by forming 
it into two triangles, obtaining the area of each, and taking the 
sum of the two. The moment, as to height, is obtained by 
multiplying the height of the centre of gravity of each sail into 
the area ; the sum of the moments of all the sails, divided by 
the sum of the areas, gives the height of the centre of effort To 
obtain the distance of the centre of effort from the middle of the 
length of the water-line, multiply the distances of 

• ' Digitized by 



AREAS AND MOMENTS OF SAILS. 137 

those sails that are before it into their areas, for the sum of the 
moments before ; and the distance of the centies of those that 
are abafb into their areas, for the sum of those abaft ; when, if 
the difference between the sums of the two moments be divided 
by the sum of the areas, it will give the place of the centre of 
effort, either before or abaft the middle, according to which 
has the moments in excess.* 



ABEAS AND MOMENTS OP SAILS. 

The area of the sails is the measure of their surface, or the 
space contained within the boundaries of that sur&ce, and is 
estimated by the number of squares contained therein. 

The area of a triangle and trapezium is found according to 
rules in books on mensuration. Thus — 

L For the area of a triangle. — Multiply the base by the per- 
pendicular height, and half the product will be the area. 

IL Far the area of a trapezium. — Let two perpendiculars be 
drawn from the opposite angles to the diagonal Multiply the 
sum of these perpendiculars by the diagonal, and half the pro- 
duct will give the area. 



y Eule I.) 


JIB. 


Perp. - - 24.0 
Stay - - 76 


937-^ area. 

46 height of centre of gravity. 


1480 
17260 


66240 
37493J 


2)1874-0 


43117-;^ moment. 



Area - 937*^ square feet 

937'^ area. 
77*5 distance of centre of gravity from the middl& 



46866 

656133 

6561333 

72643*3^ moment before. 
• See the Author's Treatise on the Elements of SfttlmakiD^, p«se 143. 



138 TBEATISB ON SAILS ASD SAILBCAKINO. 

(By Rule II.) FOBB-cx>nBSB. 

-, (20-5 994-25 area. 

reipg. - - '^20-5 26-0 height of centre of gratity. 

Sum - - - 410 9)596550 
Diag. - - - 48-5 



662833 
2050 596550 
3280 198850 
1640 



2)1988-50 



26513-33/( moment. 



Area - - 994*25 squaie feet. 
994*25 area. 
40*5 distance of centre of gravity from the middla. 

497125 
397700 



40267-125 moment before. '' 

(By Rule 11.) foee-topsail. 

P««Mi i28 49*5 diagonal 1188 area. 

reipa j ^o 48 56*j| height of centreofgraviiy 

Sum- -48 3960 9)3564 
1980 



3960 



2)23760 7128 
5940 



Area - - - 1188. square ft. 



66924*0 moment 

1188 area. 

40*^ distance of centre of gravity from the middla 



9)3564 

3960 
4752 

479 160 moment before. 



Digitized by CnOOg IC 



ABBAS AND MOMENTS OF SAILS. 139 

(By Hule IL) fobb^topgallaktsail. 

510 area. 
85*5 height of centre of grayitj 



Perps. {{5 



Sum - - 30 2550 

Diag. - 34 2550 

4080 

2)1020 

436050 moment. 

Area - 510 square feei 

40*10 distance of centre of gravity from the middla 
510 area. 



40166 
2008333 



2048500 moment befora 
(By Bole IL) main-ooubsb. 

* 24 1530 area. 



Perps. - 1 



27 29)3 height of centre of gravity. 



Sum- - 51 9)4590 

Diag. - 60 

5100 

2)3060 13770 

3060 



Area - 1530 square ft. 

44880*0 moment. 
1530 area. 

9 distance of centre of gravity from the middla 

13770 moment abaft. 
(By Rule II.) main-topsaii. 

^2*5 55-0 diagonal 1494 area. 

54 62'5 height of centre of grayily 



i> (225 



Sum - 54- 2213 7470 
27666 2988 
8964 



2)2988*0 



933750 moment. 



Area- - 1494 square feet Digitized by Google 



140 TSgATSSM OK fUdJM ANB SAUJUJaKa. 

MAIV-TQPSAIL OOWnXUSSk 

U94area. 
10-5 difitanoe of eentre of grayitj from the middle. 

7470 
1494 



15687*0 moment abaft 

(By Rule 11.) KAIN-TOPaALLANTSAIL. 

P«™i /I* 592 area. 

*^^^ 1 18 94-5 height of centre of gra?i4y 

Sum- - 32 2960 

Diag. - 37 2368 

5328 

224 

96 55944*0 moment. 

2)1184 

Area - 592 square feet. 
592 area. 
12 distance of centre of gravity from the mid<U<^ . 

7104 moment abaft. 

(By Bule II) dbivisr. 

' '^^ \2'^ diagonal 981-^ 

46 30*5 height of centre of gravity 



p r 26 42*0 diagonal 981-^ area. 



Sum - 46 2560 49066 

17066 2944000 



2)1962-0 29930-60 moment 

Area - - 981*3 square feet 
981*3 area. 

52 distance of centre of gravity from the middia 



19626 
490666 



51029*0 moment abaft. Digitized by Google 



▲EEAS AND MOMXNTS OV 8AIL& 141 

(By Rule IL) mizen-tofsail. 

'>'30 728-2910 area. 



^"p-IJJi 



5 55-0 height of centre of grayity. 

728-2910 

Sum - 37'Sf 9)43697500 44*11 distance. 

Diag. . 88-5 

48552777 9)21848750 

18916 364145833 

302666 3641458333 24276388 

1135000 291316666 

40541*5694^ mom. 2913166666 



2)1456*58^ 



Area 728*2910 square feei 

(By Rule 11.) MIZBN-TOPGALLANTSAIIb 



32287*5972;0 mom. abaft. 



Perps. I 



10 25-5 diagonal 293*25 area. 

13 23 79*9 heightof oentreof giSTity 



Sum- .23 765 9)87975 

510 



97750 

2)586*5 263925 



4rea - - - 293'258q.ft.- 



205275 



23264*500 moment 
293-25 area. 

46 distance of centre of grayity from the middle 



175950 
117300 



13489*50 moment abaft. 

From the calculationcf, the following data is given to deter- 
mine the position of the centre of effort of the saUs, there being 
two co-ordinates requisite to fix the place, the one measured 
from the vertical line, parallel to the load water-line, and equal 
to 5*1 feet ; the other, on a perpendicular to the load water-line, 
and equal to 50*61 feet ; and the point where these intersect, 
marked E on the sketch, denotes the position of ihe centre of 
effort See "Rule at the bottom of page 13& -^d by LiOOgle 



142 TBEATISE ON SAUi^ AND SAILMAKINO. 

CENTRE OF EFFORT. 





Atcm. 


Homents. 


Moments 
before. 


Homenta 
•baft. 


Jib 


937-333^ 

994-25 
1188- 

610- 
1630- 
U94' 

692- 

981-333^ 

728-291JI 

293-25 


43117-333^ 
26513-333^ 
66924-0000 
43605-0000 
44880-0000 
93376-0000 
55944-0000 
29930-6660 
40541-569^ 
23264-5000 


72643-333^ 
40267-1250 
47916-0000 
20485-0000 




Fore-oonree... 
Foie-topsaiL. 
F.-topgalHsaU 
Main-counie. 
Uain-topsaiL 
M.topgal8ail 

Driver 

Miz.-topBtul.. 
Utopgalssdl 


13770- 
15687- 
7104- 
61029-3^ 
32287-597 
13489-5 


Sum 


9248-458^ 


468095-402J 


181311-458)^ 


133367-43 



1B1311-4583— 133367-43 



Height of centre of eflfort above the ) 468095-40 
water line j 9248-458 

Oentre of effort before the 

middle of water-line, taken 

from the fore-part of the 

stem to the after-part of 

the stem-post «. 

Relative proportion of the fore ) 133367-43 

to the after moments . ) 181311'4583 



= 50'61 feet 



9248-4583 



= 51 



= -73, or 1: -75. 



The determination of the position of the centre of eflfort by 
the foregoing rule, is made under the supposition that the sails 
are plane siirfaces ; while by the pressure of the wind the whole 
assimie a curved sunEace, by which the centre of eflfort is carried 
further afb, which in a degree causes the ardency to increase 
with the force of the wind ; and the helm, which may have been 
a-lee in light winds, may be carried a-weather as the wind in- 
crease& The inclination of the ship, by the same cause, will 
increase the ardency ; but these eflfects are not necessaiy to be 
considered in making the calculations, as, when the causes are 
known, the ardency may be corrected by trimming the sails. 
The centre of the eflfort of the sails, to produce the best efed, 
must be higher or lower according as the ship is more or less 
full at the load water-line^ compared with the fulness^f Tti|ie 



OJN THE OSMTAlfi OF EFFOBT. 143 

body at the eztFemities below the water. Ships that are full at 
the load water-line, and dean below, at the extremities, require 
the higher masts. 

The situation of the point of the sail, as to height, affects the 
ship more or less according as the wind is afb ; and^ to deter- 
mine its place, the direct and yertical resistances on the fore and 
after bodies are calculated. These results, however, cannot be 
obtained without considerable labour, owing to the extent of the 
calculation required ; and for this reason they are seldom made 
by constructors, who, in general, rest satisfied with making a 
comparison with other ^ps, and placing the point of sail 
according to their judgment of the form of the body. 

If the correct place of the point of the sail were determined 
with the sails that are generally taken into account for obtaining 
the moments, it would seldom be the point of sail when the 
wind is abaft the beam, for the studding and other sails aro 
frequently set according to circumstances ; and when the wind 
is right aft, it acts with full effect only on part of the sails ; 
consequently, it would be impossible to adjust this point by the 
sails commonly taken into this account, so as to produce the 
best effect in propeUing the ship under all circumstances. The 
yariable sails ought therefore to be adjusted when they are set, 
according to the judgment of the officer ; and it will be found 
that a greater rate of sailing will sometimes be obtained by 
taking in the top-gallant or top-studding sails. The effect pro- 
duced, however, would be best determined by experiments made 
on the ship in smooth water, by an instrument that would 
indicate the trim, and show if either extremity was depressed 
from it. 

The centre of effort of the sails, as to length, requires to be 
more or less forward, (before the common centre of gravity of 
the ship,) according as the ship is less or more full forward, 
compared with the fulness of the body afb, and likewise according 
as she is less or more by the stern. Those ships that are 
cleanest at the foremost extremity, and the least at the stem, will 
require the masts the farthest forward. It is therefore desirable 
for ships that are sharp at the foremost extremity to have a 
greater difference of draught of water ; with the excess aft, to 
avoid, when the centre of effort is in its right position, having 
the masts further forward than the position in which the pressure 
of the water on the body can afford adequate support 

By attending to the position of the centre of effort of the sails, 
we may, by modifying their aiiangement, if necessary, succeed 



144 TRBATISB OS BAILS AND SAILMAKIKG. 

in balancing the ship in a wind ; but to produce sucli a disposi- 
tion of the sails as may oemduce to £Etcilitate the working of the 
ship, there must be a correct relation between the moment of 
sail before and abaft the centre of gravity of the ship, or axis of 
rotation, which may not be the case, though the ship may be 
properly balanced when by the wind. 

When the ship is in stays, a certain and reciprocal e£fect 
should be produced by the sails forward and aft, as the quality 
of working depends, in a great measure, on properly proportion- 
ing the fore and liter sails. If the moment of sail be too 
powerful forward, and the sails be not worked quickly, the mean 
result of the water will pass to the lee quarter, the ship will fall 
off before she has recovered her way through the water, and 
considerable time will be lost before she can be brought by the 
wind ; or, if not powerful enough, the ship will not pay off, but 
remain head to wind, and get stem-way. I^ on the contrary, 
the after-moYcment be too powerfiil, the ship may come to before 
head-way is obtained, and the head sails are brought to act 
These inconyeniences in working the ship may be preyented, to 
a certain extent, when there is not too great an influence pro- 
duced by the excess of either of the moments, by an attention 
to the trim of the ship, and to the bracing of the yards. This, 
howeyer, must not be depended on, since, to produce this, the 
ship may be brought out of her proper trim, and may be made 
uneasy ; but we must attain, as near as possible, the correct 
proportions, by an attentive comparison of the fore and after 
moments of ships that work well, with other elements upon 
which the placing of the sails depends. 

The relation which the fore and after moments should bear 
to each other, can be determined only by examining their rela- 
lation in a number of sliip& In a ship that had a strong 
tendency to come-to in stays, the fore moment, from the middle 
of the length of the water-line, was to the after moment as 
1 : '84 ; while, in a ship that was found to fall-off in stays, 
the fore moment was to the after moment as 1 : *66. The 
comparative moments of several other ships that were found 
to work well, according to the reports given by experienced 
officers on board of them, varied from 1 : *72 to 1 : '77. 

It would appear, therefore, according to the experience we 
have obtained frx>m the working of good ships, that the relation 
of the moments should be somewhere between the two limits ; 
and, having determined this, which may be done with more cor- 
tainiy by examining the moments of a greater number of ships, 



ON TBS OBNTSB OF EFFOBT. 145 

any little dispoBition to come to, or Ml off, may always be cor* 
rected by an attention to the trim, and that without affecting 
any other quality of the ship. 

FOWEB OF A SAIL TO BAJSB OB DEPBESS A SHIP's HEAD. 

In eBtimating the power of a sail to raise or depress a ship's head, accord- 
ing to the position of the centre of gravity of the sail : — Let OS, the jib 
(see sketch page 134), be a line passing through the centre of gravity, O. 
Bnppose a plnmb-line drawn through the centre of gravity of the section of 
the ship and water, intersecting the water-line, taken from the fore-part of 
the stem to the after^part of the stem-post in c Thron|^ C, the centre of 
gravity of the sail, draw DO, perpendicnlar to the sail, OB perpendicular to 
the water-line, and OS, in the plane of the triangle OBD. 

Then, if DO be the force of the wind against the sail OS, then BD is the 
force generating her progressive motion, and BO is the force lifting the ship 
npwaras. Kow, the force, DB, acting at 0. in direction BD, endeavours to 
turn the ship round an axis passing through c, with a force which is equal 
JO the absolute force, BD x by the distance OB, or OB x BD : and tins is 
the force by which her head is depressed. Likewise, the force BO, in 
direction BO, endeavours to turn the ship round an axis at c, on the ooutraiy 
way, and that with the foroeBO x distance Be, or BO x Be; and this is the 
force that raises her head. Therefore, the force to raise her head is to the 
force to depress it as OB X Be to OB x BD, or Be to BD. 

Hence, if the point D fall before e, then the sail endeavours to raiqethe 
ship's head ; if it be behind c it endeavours to sink it : if it b^ in c, it will 
keep her steady. The height of the sail, OS, contrioutes nothing to he^ 
progressive motion ; and tiie same ratio of the absolute to the ppogresdve 
loroe remains still as OD to DB. 

' TO FIND PBOPOBTIONS FOB PLACING MASTS IK VESSELS. 

' B^ takit^f the distances of the masts in other nearly similar vessels, the 
.performances of whidi are known, or whose sails have been properly balanced, 
,and the lesucth of the load water-line, we are enabled to'find the proportions 
for placing )lie masts in any similar ship or vesseL Thus : — Befening to 
sketch on page Hi, the leogth of the load-water line equals 1385 feet j 
the distance oi the centre of foremast from the stem 28*25 feet ; the dis« 
tance from/to m 51 feet; the distance from m to n 34*75 feet; and from 

n to the stern-post 24*5. Here, ^^-28*25=41, the distance the centre 



of fonmart is before the middle, e; and fooik^*^ ^® proportioii as to 

the length of the load water-line the centre of foremast is before the 
middle. Again, the distonce of f» from the stem equals (28*25-1-51)= 
79*25, and 79*25 — 69*25 «■ 10, the distance of centre of mainmast 

abaft e; andT^g^=*072 the propori^on in terms of water-line for main* 

mast abaft e. Finally,* the distance the centre of mizenmast is abaft e 

44*75 
equals 34*75 -Hl0=44 75, and g^=: '323, the proportion for multiplying thd 

length of the load water-line of any other eomilar vessel for placing the 
misenmast. As for example :— Suppose the length of the load water-line 
of a ship to be 140 feet : then 140 x *296=41'44^ tiie distance the centre of 
foremast before the middle e; and substractine 41*44 from half the length 
of water-line or 70, gives 28'5o, the distance the centre of foremast has to 
• stand from the stem. And, for the distance between the foremast and 
mainmast, multiply 140 by -072=10*08 the distance the mainmast is abaft e. 
•nd(]<)*Cd+70)>-28'56=51*62froai/tom. ^ , ' 

Digitized by VnOOg IC 



U6 



TBIUTISB on BAILS ADD SAHJCAKIH^ 



T-A.BLES 
ovcm 

DIMENSIONS OF JIBS, MAINSAILS, 8ux, &a, 

utunn fo mxT CLASS or TXBBII& 





DIMENSI0N8 OF STANDING JIBS 






120 Tana. 


160 Tods. 


200 Tods. 




SdoUiB. 


lOGIotbs. 


11 Cloths. 




Stey-gons. Foot-gores. 


Stay-gores. Foot-gores. 


Stay-gores. Foot-goraa. 


No. 


FT. nr. DT. 


R. nr. IN. 


FT. nr. nr. 




8 ... 4 


9 ... 7 


10 10 ... 6 




6 ... 5 




4 8 ... 7 




4 10 ... 7 


5 !!! 9 


4 3 ... 8 




4 ... 


4 ... 10 


3 11 ... 9 




4 4 ... 12 


3 ... 12 


3 8 ... 10 




4 4 ... 14 


t ... 14 


3 7 ... 12 




4 4 ... 16 


3 ... 16 


3 6 ... 14 




4 4 ... 20 


3 ... 18 


3 4 ... 16 






• 


3 ... 20 
3 ... 24 


3 3 ... 18 
3 2 ... 21 
3 1 ... 24 

Leeoh,36ft. 





* 


• 


Leedh, 3i& Gill 


lA^'ssft. 




Stay, 40ft. 


Stay, 46ft. 6m. 


Stay, 49ft. 




260 Tods. 


300 Tons. 


300 Tods. 


340 Tods. 




12GlothB. 


ISdoths. 


14 Cloths. 


16 Cloths. 




Stayw Foot- 


Stay. Foot- 


Stay. Foot- 


Stay. Foot. 


No. 


gores, gores. 


gores. ,. gores. 


gores, gores. 


gorea. gone. 




n. nr. nr. 


n. nr. nr. 


n. nr. nr. 


n. nr. nr. 




11 ... 6 


11 ... 


11 6 ... 


11 6 ... 4 




4 ... 7 


6 4 ... 3 


6 4 ... 1 


6 6 ... 6 




4 ... 


4 ... 6 


4 7 ... 2 


4 7 ... 6 




4 6 ... 10 


4 6 ... 7 


4 3 ... 3 


4 3 ... 7 




4 3 ... 12 


4 3 ... 8 


4 ... 4 


4 ... 8 




4 3 ... 13 


4 3 ... 


3 10 ... 6 


3 10 ... 9 




4 ... 14 


4 ... 11 


3 8 ... 7 


3 8 ... 10 




4 ... 16 


4 ... 12 


3 6 ... 9 


3 6 ... 11 




3 ... 18 


3 9 ... 14 


3 6 ... 11 


3 5 ... 12 


10 


3 ... 20 


3 9 ... 16 


3 4 ... 13 


3 4 ... IS 


11 


3 6 ... 22 


3 6 ... 18 


3 4 ... 15 


3 4 ... 16 


12 


3 ... 24 


3 3 ... 20 


3 3 ... 18 


3 3 ... 17 


13 
14 
16 




3 ... 22 


3 3 ... 21 
3 3 ... 24 


3 3 ... 19 
3 3 ... 21 


!!!!!!!!!!!!'!**' 







SUy,67a 


T^'HsoL'" 


uiii^'&K"' 


Leeoh,4iBft. , 
Stay, 67ft. Ofau | 




stay, 60ft. 


Stay, 63ft. 



TABLES OF DIMENSIONS OF JIBS, BTa 



U7 





DIMENSIONS OF STANDING JIBS (CONTINUED). 




500 Tons. 


600 Tons. 


700 Tons. 


900 Tons. 




16 Cloths. 


17 Cloths. 


ISaoths. 


19 aoths. 




Stay. Foot- 


Stay Foot- 


Stay. Foot- 


Stay. Foot- 


No 


gores. gores. 


gores, gores. 


gores, gores. 


gores, gores. 




FT. IV. IN. 


FT. IN. IN. 


FT. nr. DT. 


FT. nr. nr. 


1 


11 6 ... 3 


11 6 ... 2 


11 ... 1 


11 3 ... 2 


2 


5 6 ... 4 


5 6 ... 3 


6 4 ... 


4 10 ... 1 


3 


4 7 ... 6 


4 7 ... 4 


4 9 ... 1 


4 2 ... 


4 


4 3 ... 6 


4 3 ... 5 


4 9 ... 2 


3 9 ... 1 


5 


4 ... 7 


4 ... 6 


4 ... 3 


3 4 ... 2 


6 


3 10 ... 8 


3 10 ... 7 


4 ... 4 


3 3 ... 3 


7 


J 8 ... 9 


8 8 ... 8 


3 6 ... 5 


3 2 ... 4 


8 


3 6 ... 10 


3 6 ... 9 


3 6 ... 6 


3 1 ... 5 


9 


3 6 ... 11 


3 6 ... 10 


9 3 ... 7 


2 11 ... 6 


10 


3 4 ... 12 


3 4 ... 11 


3 3 ... 8 


2 11 ... 7 


11 


3 4 ... 13 


3 4 ... 12 


3 0.. 9 


2 10 ... 8 


12 


3 3 ... 15 


3 3 ... 13 


3 ... 11 


2 10 ... 9 


13 


3 3 ... 17 


3 3 ... 15 


3 ... 12 


2 9 ... 11 


14 


3 3 ... 19 


3 3 ... 17 


3 ... 14 


2 9 ... 12 


16 


3 3 ... 21 


3 3 ... 19 


3 ... 16 


2 8 ... 14 


16 


3 3 ... 24 


3 3 ... 21 


3 ... 18 


2 8 ... 16 


17 
18 
19 




3 3 ... 24 


3 ... 21 
3 ... 24 


2 7 ... 18 
2 7 ... 21 
2 7 ... 24 

Stay, 75ft. 


;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;>' 


* ** 


StoSTVoft-Gin. 


L^^diTpt!'^ 
StoyTtaft. 


L^^69ft'*' 
StaJTVSft. 




LOOOTons. 
20 Cloths. 


1,900 Tons, 
iiaotbs. 


1.400 Tons. 
22 Cloths. 






Stay-gores. Foot-gores. 


Stay-gores. Foot-gores. 


Stay-gores. Foot-gores. 


No. 


FT. m. Dr. 


R. Dr. Dr. 


FT. DT. IN. 


1 


11 ... 3 


11 ... 3 


11 ... 4 


2 


6 4 ... 2 


u # ... a 




3 


4 ... 




4 9 ... 2 


4 


4 9 ... 1 


4 9 ... 


4 9 ... 1 


6 


4 ... 2 


4 ... 1 


4 ... 


6 


4 ... 3 


4 ... 2 


4 0,,, 1 


7 


3 6 ... 4 


«l o ... 8 


tl O ... X 


8 


3 6 ... 6 






9 


3 2 ... 6 


3 2 ... 5 


8 91 ,.. 1 


10 


3 2 ... 7 


3 2 ... 6 


8 m .., 8 


11 SO ... 8 


8 " ... 7 




12 


3 ... 9 




8 w ... 4 


13 


2 10 ... 10 


2 10 Z 9 


2 10 ... 4 


14 


2 10 ... 11 


2 10 ... 10 


2 10 ... 5 


15 


2 8 ... 13 




2 8 ... 5 


16 


2 8 ... 15 


91 o ... lo 


31 o ... o 


17 


2 6 ... 17 






18 


2 6 ... 19 


2 6 ... 17 


2 6 ... 8 


19 


2 6 ... 21 


2 6 .19 


8 « .,. V 


20 


2 6 ... 24 


2 6 ... 21 




21 
22 




u 


2 6 ... 24 


2 6 "' 14 




LeedLmt."£ 
StavTT^ft. 


Leei£^6Ift."«in'. 
Stay, olft. 6in« 


Leech, 70ft.' 

Stay. 87ft. 30gle 



148 TREATISE OK BAUA Am> SAILMAKlNa 

DIMENSIONS OF ANQULATED JIBS. 



Leech, cut, Idft, 
Stay, 26a 
Foot, 12ft. 9!n. 
Seam-gord, 15m. 
Ganvaas, 27 yards. 



'I 



I 



Leech, oat, 23ft. 
Stay, 29ft. 
Foot, 8ft. Siiu . 
Seam-gore, l^n. 
Ganyass, 36 yards. 



"I 

QQ 



Leech, cut, 31ft. 
Stay, 44ft. 
Foot, cut, 18ft. Sin. 
Seani-gore, Sin. 
Canvass, 47 yards. 



'I 

OQ 



I 



"I 

QQ 



FT. IN. 
3 6 

3 6 

: 3 6 

3 9 



NO. 

1 
2 
3 
4 



FT. IN. 
1 11 

1 11 

2 
2 2 



FT. IN. 
3 10 

3 10 

3 11 

3 11 

2 



FT. IN. 
2 

2 

2 

2 

1 



FT. IN. 
6 10 

5 10 

5 10 

6 10 
5 



NO. 
1 



FT. IN. 
3 3 

3 3 

3 8 

3 3 

2 6 



14 3 



8 



17 6 



4i 



9 



28 4 



15 6 



Leeoh, oat, 37ft. 
Stay, 61ft. 
Foot, cut, 19ft. 
Seam-gore, 7in. 
. Canvass, 72 yards. 



6 



II 
I 



Leeoh,32ffc. 
Stay, 46ft. 6in. 
Foot, 2Qft. 6in. 
Seam-gore, 12in. 
Canvass, 64} yards. 



QQ 



Leech, oat, 33ift. 
Stay, 48ft. Gin. 
Foot, 23ft. 
Seam-gore, Uin. 
Canvass, 63 yards. 



I 

03 



I 



FT. IN. 

; 6 10^ 

' 6 10 

; 7 2 
\ 7 2. 

35 



FT, IN. 
3 2 

3 2 

3 4 

3 4 

3 4 



16 4 26 6 



FT. IN. 

4 9 

4 9 

4 9 

4 9 

6 

2 6 



NO. 

1 
2 
3 

4 
6 



FT. IN, 

2 8 
2 8 
2 8 
2 10 
2 10 
1 6 
T5 2 



FT. IN. 

5 3 

5 3 

6 3 
6 3 
6 3 
8 6 



FT. IN, 

3 2 

3 2 

3 S 

3 3 

3 3 

2 3 



29 9 61 18 4 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



TABlSas OF niMENBIONS 07 JIBS^ ETC. 
DIMENSIONS OF ANQULATED JIBS. 



149 



Leech, cut, 32 Aft. 
Stay, mtt. 
Foot, cut, 21ft. 
Seam-gore, lOin. 
Canvass, 61 yards. 



I 



II 
I 



Leech, cut, 26ft. 
Stay, 41ft. 6m, 
Foot, 22ft. 6m. 
Seam-gore, lOJin. 
Canvass, 60 yards. 



'I 

03 



"I 



Leech, cut, 34ft. 
Stay, 47ft. 
Foot, out, 21}ft. 
Seam-goze, lOJin. 
Canvass, 67 yards. 



s 



11 



"I 

QQ 



FT. nr. 

5 

5 

6 
6 
6 
a 9 



»o. 
1 

2 

S 

4 

& 



FT. IH. 
2 10 

2 10 

2 10 

2 10 

2 10 

2 IJ 



rr.nr. 

3 6 

3 6 

8 t 

8 6 

8 6 

3 6 



no, 

1 



I 



FT. IV. 

2 9 

2 9 

2 9 

2 9 

2 9 

2 9 



FT. IN. 

4 8 

4 8 

4 9 

4 9 

6 

6 



iro. 
1 



FT. IN. 
8 7 

8 7 
a 8 
8 S 
2 10 
2 10 



28 9 5$ 16 3.i 



21 



6i 16 6 



28 10 



16 2 



Leech, cut, 31ft. 
Stay, 43ft. 6m. 
Foot, cut, 24ft. 
Seam-gore, 13m. 
Canvass, 66} yards. 



^1 

GQ 



FT. IN. 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 



II 
I 



F3.IN. 
2 10 

2 10 

a 10 

2 10 
2 10 
2 10 



Leech, cut, 28ft. 
Stay, 40ft. 
Foot, 2Qft. 4m. 
Seam-gores, 12m. 
Canvass, 56 yards. 



I 



FT. IN. 

3 8 

8 8 

3 8 

3 8 

3 8 

3 8 



NO. 
1 



II 
I 



FT. IN. 

2 4 

2 4 

2 4 

2 4 

2 4 

2 i 



Leech, cut, 32fti. 
Stay, 46ft. 
Foot, 21ft. 9m. 
Seam-gore, 14m. 
Canvass, 65 yards. 



1 

QQ 



FT. IN. 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 



|1 



I 



FT. IN. 

2 5 

8 6 

8 6 

a 6 

2 5 

2 6 



24 



17 



22 



14 



24 I 6 

Jigitized by vjOC 



14 6 



150 TREATISB ON BAHA AND SAILMAKINO. 

DIMENSIONS OF ANGUIATED JIBS. 



Leeoh, oat, 37ift. 
Stay,61ft. 
Foot, 21ft. Qin. 
Seun-goire, ISin. 
GauyaBi, 68 yards. 



Leeoh, oat, 34^ 
Stay, 46ft. Cmi 
Foot, 21ft. Sin. 
Seam-goro, Idjin. 
GauTao, 66| yaicb. 



Leeoh, oat, 32ft. 
Stay, 46ft. 4in. 
Foot, 16ft. 6in. 
Seam-gore, 12iii. 
GanTaBB, 69} yards. 



1. 



Is 
I 



II 
I 



FT. IN. 

6 

6 

5 

5 

6 
5 
2 



32 



NO, 

1 
2 
3 
4 

6 
6 
J_ 



FT. IN. 

2 5 

2 6 

2 5 

2 5 

2 5 

2 5 

9 



FT. IN. 

4 3 

4 3 

4 3 

4 S 

4 S 

4 6 

2 6 



NO. 

1 

2 
3 

4 
5 
6 



FT. IN. 

2 2 

2 2 

2 2 

2 2 

2 3 

2 3 

1 2 



FT. IN. 

8 10 

3 10 

4 
4 
4 2 
4 2 
2 3 



15 3 



3 



6} 14 4 



NO. 

1 



FT. IN. 

2 6 

2 6 

2 6 

2 6 

2 8 

2 8 

1 6 



26 3 



6} 16 9 



Leech, oat, 34ft. 
Stay, 46ft. Sm. 
Fool^ oat, 22ft. 
Seam-gore, ISin. 
GanTasB, 68) yards. 



J 



NO. 

] 

2 

3 
4 

5 
6 

6) 



I 



I 



"I 

QQ 



FT. nr. 

2 4 

2 4 

2 4 

2 4 

2 4 

2 4 

1 4 

15 4 



oat, 36fta 
Stay, l»ft. 
]?oot, oat, 26ft. 
Seam-gore, llin. 
Canvass, 83| yards. 



Leeoh, cat, 34Jft. 
Stay, 52ft. 
Foot, 19ft. 
Seam-gore, ISin. 
Canvafis, 81 yards. 



ll 



FT. nr. 

4 3 

4 3 

4 3 

4 S 

4 3 

4 4 

4 6 



30 1 



FT. IN. 

2 7 

2 7 

2 7 

2 7 

2 9 

2 9 

2 9 



18 7 



FT. IN. 

3 11 
3 11 
3 11 
3 11 

3 11 
Sll 

4 



27 6 



I 



FT. IN. 
2 9 

2 9 

S 9 

S 9 

2 9 

2 9 

2 10 



19 4 



TABLES or DDCENSIOKS OF JIBS, ETO. 151 

DIMENSIONS OF ANGULATED JIBS. 



Leech, cat, 3Qft. Sin. 
Stay, ifift. din. 
Foot, 23ft Oin. 
Beam-gore, liin. 
Ganyass, 72J yarda. 



FT.nr. 

3 

3 2 

3 3 

3 3 

3 8 

S 5 

2 9 



FT. nr. 

2 4 

3 
3 
2 10 
2 4 
2 
1 



Leech, cat, 38ft 
Stay, 54ft. 
Foot, cat, 27jft. 
Seam-gore, 12|in. 
Canyafis, li4 yards. 



FT. IN. 

3 10 
3 10 

3 10 

4 
4 
4 2 
4 2 
2 2 



NO. 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 



VT.isr. 
2 6 



2 10 
2 10 
1 6 



Leech, cat, 38ft 
Stay, 66a 
Foot, 28ft 
Seam-gore, ISJin. 
GanyafiB, 94J yards. 



rr.iN. 



II 



FT. IN. 
2 6 



2 6 
2 6 
2 6 
2 7 
2 9 
2 11 
1 6 



22 1 I 7 17 3 



30 7i 20 



31 4 



7J 



19 8 



Leech^SGft 
Stay, 66ft 
Foot, 26a 6in. 
Seam-gore, 12^ 
GauyaBB,102iywds. 



>i 



I 



Leech, 39fl 
Sti^^ToGa 



39a 



Foot, 23a 3in. 
Seam-gore, 12iii. 
GauyasB, 95} yards. 



I. 
I 



Leech, cat, 45a Gin. 
Stoy,64ft. 
Foot,3Qa 
Seam-gore, lOiin. 
CanyasB, 123 yards. 



li 



II 



PI. IN. 

3 6 
3 9 
6 
6 







29 



NO. 

1 
2 
3 
4 

5 
6 
7 

i 



FT. IN. 
1 8 



18 8 



FT. IN. 

3 9 

3 9 

3 9 

4 1 
4 3 
4 3 
4 9 
4 9 



NO. 

1 

2 
3 

4 
6 
6 
7 
8 



FT. IN. 
1 10 
1 10 
I 10 

1 10 

2 
2 
2 4 
2 4 



FT. IN. 
4 3 



NO. 
1 

2 
3 
4 
6 
9 

r 

8 



FT. IN. 

2 6 
2 6 

2 6 
2 6 
2 8 
2 8 
2 10 
2 10 
06 



Jgl 



33 4 



16 



38 



8} 



22 6 



152 



TBEA.TIBB ON SAILS Aim 8AILB£AKlKO. 



DIMENSIOirS OF JIBS ON A. TATI<OB*S PLAN. 
(Seb Page 95). 



Leeoli, 21ft. Gin., tabled. 
Sta7,3ia6in.,10clothfl. 


^Leech,20ft.3]ii. tabled. 


Leedi, 26ft. ^.tabled.! 


Stay.38ft.3m.,14clo's. Stay, 47ft., 18 cloths. | 


Foot, 15ft., eq. toSdoths. 


Foot, 21ft. 9in. lido's. 


Foot, 26ft., 12 doths.1 




Stay. Foot- 


Stay- Foot- 


Stay. Foot- 


No. 


gores, gores. 


gores, gores. 


gores, gores. 


.^ 


FP. nr. m. 


FT. IN. IN. 


FT. IN. IN. 


1 


3 6 ... 3 


2 6 ... 2 


2 6 ... 2 


2 


3 ... 1 


2 3 ... 3 


2 3 ... 3 


3 


2 10 ... 


2 8 ... 4 


2 3 ... 4 


4 


2 10 ... 1 


2 2 ... 6 


2 2 ... 5 


5 


2 9 ... 3 


2 2 ... 7 


2 2 ... 7 


6 


2 9 ... 6 Leech- 


2 1 ... 9 


2 1 ... 9 


7 


2 8 ... 10 goies. 


2 1 ... 11 


2 1 ... 11 


8 


2 8 ... 16 n. IN. 


2 ... 13 


2 ... 13 


9 


2 7 12 9 


2 ... 15 Leech- 


2 ... 15 


10 


2 4 12 9 


2 ... 18 gores. 


2 ... 18 Leedi- 


11 




2 ... 21 n.IN. 


2 ... 21 gores. 
1 10 ... 24 R.IN. 


12 


!!!!!!!!!!!!}!.!!.'!!!!!!!!!!!! 


2 6 6 


13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 




2 6 6 

2 6 6 


1 10 ... , 4 

1 10 4 

1 10 4 

1 10 4 

1 10 4 

1 10 4 




*.!!!"!*.!!!!!!!!!!!!!'!!*! 














• 1 


Leech, 28ft. 6m. tabled. 


Leedi, 34ft. Gin. 


Stay,13doth8. 
Foot,10doths. 


Stay, 5Qft., 19 cloths. 


Stay, 4dft. 6in. 


Foot, 24ft. 6m., 12 cloths. 


Foot, 23ft. 




stay- Foot- 


Stay. Foot- 


Stay- Foot- 


No. 


gores, gores. 


gores, gores. 


gores, gores. 




FT. IN. IN. 


FT. IN. IN. 


FT. IN. IN. 


1 


3 ... 2 


4 3 ... 1 


3 9 ... 


2 


2 6 ... 3 


3 6 ... 


3 3 ... 1 


3 


2 3 ... 4 


3 2 ... 1 


3 ... 2 


4 


2 3 ... 5 


3 ... 2 


2 11 ... 3 


5 


2 2 ... 7 


2 11 ... 3 


2 10 ... 4 


6 


2 2 ... 9 


2 11 ... 4 


2 10 ... 5 


7 


2 1 ... 11 


2 10 ... 6 


2 9 ... 7 


8 


2 ] ... 13 


2 10 ... 6 


2 9 ... 9 Leedi- 


9 


2 ... 16 


2 9 ... 7 


2 8 ... 12 gores. 


10 


2 ... 18 Leech- 


2 9 ... 9 Leech- 


2 8 ... 16 FT. IN. 


11 


2 ... 21 gores. 


2 8 ... 12 gores. 


2 7 10 6 


12 


2 ... 24 W. IN. 


2 8 ... 16 FT. IN. 


£ 7 10 6 


13 


1 10 4 


2 7 15 


2 5 ... 10 6 


14 


1 10 4 


2 7 15 




15 


1 10 4 


2 5 15 




16 


1 10 4 


Note.— The leedi- 




17 

18 

|l9 


1 10 4 


gore oyershoots at 
the foot half a doth 




1 10 4 




1 10 4 


atthedue. 





Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



TABLKS OF DIMmiBIOIIB Ot JIBS, KKX 



US 





DIMENSIONS OP JIBS. WITH LONG TAOK-OLOTHS. 


Tioedh, 40ft. out. 
Stay, 53a 
Foot, 9 dotbfl. 
Oanyass, SSiyds. 


Leech, 37Aft.ot. 
Stay, Sm. 
Foot,10cloth8. 
CanYa8B,92}yds. 


Leech, 38ft. Gin. 
Stay, 64ft. 
Foot, 11 cloths. 
Can's, 102| yds. 


Leech, 45ft. cat. 
Stay, 62ft. 
Foot, 29ft. 6in. 
Can's, 139iyd8. 




Stay. Foot- 


Stay. Fooi- 


Stay- Foot- 


Stay- Foot- 


No. 


gores, gores. 
FT. nr. IN. 


gores. gores. 
FT. nr. nr. 


gores, gores. 
FT. nr. IN. 


gores, gores . 
FT. nr. IN. 


1 


4 9 ... 86 


4 ... 45 


3 6 ... 42 


3 10 ... 54 


2 


4 9 ... 30 


4 ... 32 


3 6 ... 33 


3 10 ... 45 




4 9 ... 25 


4 ... 24 


3 6 ... 26 


3 10 ... 36 




4 9 ... 20 


4 ... 18 


3 6 ... 20 


3 10 ... 28 




4 9 ... 16 


4 ... 14 


3 6 ... 16 


3 10 ... 21 




5 ,.. 12 


4 ... 10 


3 6 ... 11 


3 10 ... 16 




5 ... 10 


4 ... 7 


3 6 ... 7 


3 10 ... 12 




5 ... 8 


4 ... 5 


3 6 ... 6 


3 10 ... 9 




14 6 ... 6 


4 ... < 


3 6 ... 4 


8 10 ... 7 


10 

11 




14 ... 3 


14 6 ... 3 

15 6 ... 2 


4 10 ... 5 

21 n -- 9 


#•••••••*#*•#•••#• 




1 • 


• 1 


Leeoh, 40ft. cat. 
Stay, 57ift. 
Foot, 12 cloths. 
Ganyass, ll^ydB. 


Leeoh, 40ft 
sS^ft. 
Foot, lOdoths. 
CanT's, 106yds. 


Leech, 2a|ft. cat 
Stay, 32ft. 
Foot,7Qlofhs. 
GanyasB, SSfyds. 


Leech, 32ift cat- 
Stay, 43 foet. 
Foot, 8 cloths. 
Canvass, GOyds. 




Stay- Foot- 


Stay- Foot- 


Stay- Foot- 


Stay- Foot- 


No. 


gores, gores. 
FT. nr, IN. 


gores, gores. 
FT. nr. nr. 


gores, gores. 
FT. nr. nr. 


gores, gores. 
FT. nr. nr. 




3 4 ..« . 36 


4 4 ... 48 


3 6 ... 80 


4 3 ... 27 




3 4 ... 30 


4 4 ,.. 40 


3 6 ... 24 


4 3 ... 24 




3 4 ... 25 


4 4 ... 33 


3 6 ... 18 


4 3 ... 21 




8 4 ... 21 


4 4 ... 26 


3 6 ... 14 


4 3 .. 18 




3 4 ... 18 


4 4 ... 20 


8 6 ... 10 


4 4 ... 16 




3 4 ... 15 


4 4 ... 15 


3 6... 7 


4 4 ... 14 




3 4 ... 12 


4 4 ... 12 


10 6 ... 5 


4 4 ... 13 


8 
9 


3 4 ... 10 
3 4 ... 8 


4 4 ... 9 
4 4 .«. 6 




13 ... 10 




10 


3 4 ... 6 


19 ... 4 






11 


3 4 ... 6 








12 


17 ... 4 









Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



iSi 



TRKATIBE ON SAILS AND SAILMAKINa 



DIMENSIONS OF MAINSAILS. 



Head, 9 doOis. 




Head, 9i doths. 
Foot, 14 doths. 


Head, 10 doths. 


I 




Foot, 141 doths. 
Mast, m. din. cat. 
Leech, 44ft., cat. 




Foot, 15 doths. 






Mast, 21ft. Oin., cut. 
Leedi, 36 feet, cat. 


Mast. 23 feet, cat. 
Lee^ 40 feet, cat. 




No. 2,139iyd8. 




No. 2,129iyard8. 


Na 3, 153 yards. 




a 


Foot Mast Shwk 


Foot Mast Slack 


Foot Mast Shiok 




? 


Gores. Gores. Seams. 


Gores. Gores. Seams. 


Gores. Gores. Seams. 




3 


VT. rr. nr. 


DT. 


nr. FF. IN. DT. 


Dr. VT. Dr. Dr. 




1 


14^ ... 1 8^.. 


... 








24 ... 3 6 ... 


... 


21 ;;.' 4* 6* ."! !" 


26 !!! 4'"l 


,, 


.. 




2 


21 ... 3 6 ... 


... 


18 ... 4 6 


22 ... 4 1 


,. 


., 




3 


18 ... 3 5 ... 


... 


16 ... 4 6 ... ... 


18 ... 4 1 


,, 


,. 




4 


16 ... 3 6 ... 


... 


14 ... 4 6 


15 ... 4 1 


„ 


,, 




6 


12 ... 3 6 ... 


... 


12 ... 2 2| 


12 ... 4 1 


., 


,. 




6 


10 ... J ... 

8 ...SL ... 


... 


10 ... , 

8 ... B ... 1 


'I ::: 1 


„ 


,, 




7 


... 


., 






8 
9 


........ 

6 ... ^^ ... 
4 ...£•§ ... 

1 ... 1 ... 




J;;;*| ;;; J 


t ::: ?| 


•. J 




10 




4 !!! i% '", 2 


4 ... |l 


2 




11 
12 
13 




3 ... 5 b .:. 2 

2 ... « 6 ... 8 
1 ... S ... 3 


3... SS 
2 ... 1 S. 






U 


... 1 ... 




... W ... 4 


;!! w 


.. 3h 




15 




... 




... 






Head,13doth8. 




Head, 14 doths. 


Head, 12i doths. 




Foot,20doth8. 




Foot, 20 doths. 


Foot, 20 doths. 




Mast. 28ft- Gm., oat. 
Leech, 37ft. 9m. cat 




Mast, 26 feet, cat. 
Leech, 40 feet, cat. 


Mast, 30 feet, tabled. 
Leech, 48 feet, tabled. 




No. 1,200 yaids. 




No. 2, 206} yards. 


No. 1,2461 yards. 




1 


Foot Mast Sbwk 


Foot Mast SUck 


Foot Mast SladE 




Gores. Gores. Seams. 


Gores. Gores. Seams. 


Gores. Gores. Saams. 




5 


IN. FT. IN. 


IN. 


IN. n. IN. IN. 


IN. FT. IN. IN. 




1 


13 ... 3 10 ... 


... 


20 ... 3 8 


26 ... 3 10 




2 


11 ... 3 10 ... 


... 


18 ... 3 8 


24 ... 3 10 




3 


9 ... 3 10 ... 


... 


16 ... 3 8 


22 ... 3 8 




4 


7 ... 3 10 ... 


... 


14 ... 3 8 


19 ... 3 8 




5 


6 ... 3 10 ... 


... 


12 ... 3 8 


17 ... 3 6 




6 


4 ... 3 10 ... 


... 


10 ... 3 8 


16 ... 3 6 




7 


3 ... 3 10 ... 


... 


y ... s ... ... 

8 ... -«i ... ... 

4 ::: g'g z i 


13 ... 3 4 




8 

9 

10 


3 ... ^ 

2 ... -^ ... 


... 


10 ... 1 8 

8 ... -. 

7 ... i 




11 


1 ... 5fl ... 


... 


6 ... ® . 




12 


1 ... ^S ... 


... 


6 ... t4 ... ... 




13 
14 


o:::l| ::: 




l:::|& ::: i 


:::::: 
:::::: 




16 
16 


2:::1 ::: 




I" I - 1 

• ... EQ ... • 




17 


1 ... ^ 




2 ... 3 




18 


1 , ,„ 




X ... ... ... o 




19 


% ,,, , 




1 4 


2 7 




20 


. * •••^•iV — ^ 




.. ... ... 6 


8 8 





Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



TABUB OF DIMBNSIONB OF JUBSy BTO. 



156 



DIMENSIONS OF MAlNSAUiS. 



Head, 11 olotliB. 
Foot, m doihs. 
Masi, 27fi. 6bu, cat. 
Leeoh, 4m. 2m., cai 
No. 1,1881 yards. 



5 



s 

3 

4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
18 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 



Fooi Hast Slack 
Goree. Gorea. Seams. 




Foot Mast Slack 
Qorea. Gores. Seams. 

IV. FT. IK. IN. 



Head, 13 doiha. 
Foot, 18 doiha. 
Mast. 27ft 6in., eat. 
Leedb, 42 feet, oat. 
No. 1, 1841 yards. 



Foot Hast Slack 
Gores. Gores. Seams. 

in. FT. IN. IN 




Head, 12 doihs. 
Foot, 19 doths. 
Mast. 82 feet, oat 
Leeoh, 46ft Sin., oat 
No. l,230i yards. 



20 

18 

16 

14 

12 

10 

8 

6 

6 

4 

8 

8 

1 





1 

1 

8 

3 



4 3 

4 3 

4 3 

4 3 

4 3 

4 3 

3 3 

i 



... 1 

... 1 

:: 5* 

... 8 

... 21 

... 8 

... 3 

... 4 

... 5 



Head, Hi doths. 
Foot, 16 doths. 
Mast 32 feet, eat 
Leeoh, 43 feet, eat 
Na 2, 186 yards. 



5 

1 

8 

3 

4 

6 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

18 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 



Foot Mast 

Gores. Gores. 

IN. FT. nr. 

18 .. 7 H 

9... 7 



SladE 

«mf 

IN< 




Head, 11 doOis 
Foot, 17 dofhs. 
Mast 26 feet, oat 
Leeoh, 39ft 6m , oat 
No. 1,191 yards. 




Head, llj doihs. 
Foot, 17 doths. 
Mast 29 feet, oat 
Leeoh, 40ft. 6m. eat 
No. 1,196) yards. 



Foot Mast Slack 
Gores. Gores. Seams. 
IN. FT. IN. nr. 



8 51 




D i g i t i ze 



iUbjCooqlg ^ 



166 TBEATISB ON SAILS AND SAILMAKIKO. 

DIMENSIONS OF SPANKERS. 



Head, 8^ cloths. 


Head, 8 cloths. 


Head, 10 cloths. 


Foot, 12 cloths. 


Foot, 12i cloths. 


Fbot, 13 cloths. 


Mast, cat, 22ft. 


Mast, cut, 22ft. 


Mast, cut, 19}ft. 
Leech, cut, 3Uft. 


Leech, cut, 28ft. 6in. 


Leech, cut, 324ft. 
No. 4, 102 yards. 


No. 4, 90} yards. 


No. 3, 113 yards. 




Foot- Mast- 


Foot- Mast- 


Foot- Mast- Slack* 


No. 


gores, gores. 


gores, gores. 


gores, gores, seam. 




IN. FT. IK. 


IN. FT. IN. 


IN. FT. IN. IN. 


1 


. . ... 


12 2 3 




6 6 11 


19 4 6 


18 ... « 2 


2 


6 5 11 


16 4 6 


15 ... 6 2 


3 


6 5 11 


12 4 6 


12 ... 6 2 


4 


6 „.... 2 Hi 


9 4 6 


9 ... \j^ 


6 
7 
8 
9 


t :::::: l| 


\ :::::: t| 

f •••••• |1 

:::::: Ja 


4 !.'! 12 1 1' 

3 ... a| ... 1} 
2 ... -^ T ... 2 


10 
11 


3 :::::: || 


1 ... Il ... 2J 
... W* ... 3 


12 


3 a»^ 


W°° 


1 ... 3J 


13 






2 4 






Head, 10 cloths. 


Head, 11 cloths. 


Head, 10 cloths. 


Foot, 15 cloths. 


Foot, 15 cloths. 


Foot. 14 cloths. 


Mast, cut, 26ft. 


Mast, cut, 23ft. 


Mast, cut. 22ft. 


Leech, cut. 39ft. 
No. 3, 144} yards. 


Leech, cut. 36}ft. 


Leech, cut, 32ft. 


No. 8» 145} yards. 


No. 4, 114} yards. 




Foot- Mast- 


Foot- Mast- Slack- 


Foot- Mast- 


No. 


gores, gores. 


gores, gores, seam. 


gores, gores. 




IN. FT. IN. 


IN. FT. IN. IN. 


IN. FT. IN. 




12 5 1 


24 ... 5 6 


19 4 10 




10 ...... 6 1 


21 ... 6 6 


16 4 10 




8 5 1 


18 ... 5 5 


14 4 10 




6 5 1 


15 ... 6 5 


12 , 4 10 




4 6 1 


12 


10 




I :::::: U 

1 5| 


iEflEi 


8 d 

t 1! 




I :::::: |l 
S :::::: 11. 


3... 12 ... 1 

2 ... al ... 2 




1 ... -SI . ... 2 
... i.9 ... 3 


\ i^ 




1 fis 


... W^ ... 3 


& 






1 3 

2 4 





3 





Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



TABLES OF DIMENSIONS OF JIBS^ ETC. 157 

DIMENSIONS OF SPANKERS. 



Head, 11 cloths. 
Foot, 16 doths. 
Mast, 21ft., tabled. 
Leeoh, 37^ft. 
No. 3., 134| yards. 



J^ 


Foot- 


Mast- 


Slack- 


s 


gores. 


gores. 


seams. 


1 


IN. 


FT. IN. 


IN. 


16 ! 


" 5* 


>.. ... 


2 


14 . 


..4 


.. •.. 


3 


13 . 


..4 


•«. ... 


4 


12 . 


..4 , 


.. ... 


5 


10 . 


..3 


.. ... 


6 
7 


9 . 

8 . 


::|^ 





8 


6 . 




... ».. 


9 
10 


4 . 
3 . 


::fi. 


!!! "2 


11 
12 
13 


2 . 
1 . 
. 


: : : 
Head- 
4in.] 


... 3 
... 4 
... 5 


14 


1 . 


.. ...... 


... 6 


16 


2 . 





... 7 


16 


3 . 




... 8 



Head, 12 cloths. 
Foot, 16 doths. 
Mast, 17ft. 4m. 
Leech, soft. 
No. 3, 120 yards. 



Foot- Mast- Sladk- 
gores. gores, eanu*. 

IN. FT. IN. IN. 



21 

19 

17 

15 

13 

11 

9 

7 

6 



3 10 ... 
3 10 ... 
3 10 ... 
3 10 ... 



fl :::;:: 



6 ... 1 J ... 1 
3 ... W^ ... 2 



2 

1 ... 

... 

... 



Head, 12 doths. 
Foot, 15J doths. 
Mast, m., cut. 
Leech, 36a 
No. 3, 148 yards. 



Foot- Mast- 

gores, gores. 

IN. FT. IN. 

12 8 1 

19 6 2 

16 ...... 6 2 

13 6 2 

10 

\ P 

1 
2 
3 



Head, 12 doths. 
Foot, 17 doths. 
Mast, cat, 21|ft. 
Leedi, cat, 38Aft. 
No. 3, 1691 yards. 



Foot- Mast- Slack- 
gores, gores, seams. 

IN. FT. IN. IN. 




Head, 13 doths. 
Footi 17} doths. 
Mast, 2%. 
Leedh,42ft. 
No. 3, 176^ yards. 




Head, 13 doths. 
Foot, 18 doths. 
Mast. 26ft. 
Lee^4tft. 
No. 3» 210} yards. 



Foot- Mast- Slack- 
gores, gores. 

IN. FT. IN. IN, 



.Dig tized by 




Gcrog 



158 TBBATISB ON BAILS AKD BAILMAKINO. 



DIMENSIONS OF MAIN SPENOEB& 



Head, 8 dothfl. 
Foot, 13 doths. 
Mast. 22Aft., cat. 
Lee(£, 40ft, eat. 
Ko, 1, 126i yards. 



Foot- Mast- Slaok- 
gores. gores, seams. 

IN. FT. IN. IN. 



26 

S3 

21 

19 

17 

15 

13 

11 

9 

7 

5 

4 

3 



4 

4 

4 

4 

4 






Head, 9 cloths. 
Foot, 13 doths. 
Mast 22Aft., cat. 
Leech, 31ft., cat. 
No. 1,108 yards. 



Foot- Mast- Slack- 
gores, gores, seams. 

IN. FT. IN. IN. 

18 ... 6 2 

16 ... 6 2 

12 ... 5 2 

10 ... 6 2 

8 ... ^^ 

« ... Id 

O ... jjs 

4 ... fl ... 1 

2 "5 1 

1 !!! J J :;; 2 

... W*» ... Q 



Head, 9 doths. 
Foot, 12 doths. 
Mast, 23ift., eat. 
Leech, dOjft., oat. 
No. 2, laTyards. 



Foot- Mast- SUdft 
gores, gores, seams. 

IN. FT. IN. IN. 

14 ... 7 7J 

12 ... 7 7} 

9 ... 7 7f 

8 ... il ... 1 

2 ... Is. ... 1 

1... -Ss- ... ij 

... I J, ... 2 

1 ... W^ ... 2i 



Head,12dothik 
Foot, 15 doths. 
Mast, 211ft., cat. 

No. 2, 148 yards. 



Foot- Mast- Slack- 
gores, gores, seams. 

IN. FT. IN. IN. 




Head, 9} doths. 
Foot, 14 doths. 
1^ 26a. oat. 
Leech, d9jft., cat. 
No. 1, 138^ yards. 




HMd« 11) doths. 
Foot, 16f doths. 
Mast, 20lft, cat. 
Leech, 31)., cat. 




Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



TABLBB OF DDOENSIONS OF JIBS, STa 159 

DIMENSIONS OF MAIN SPSNOESS. 



Head, 13 dotiiB. 
Foot, 18 dotlis. 
Mist, 27ft. cut. 
Leech, 42ft. 6m, atk 
No.3,X97yttd«. 



Foot- Mart- Slack 
gores, gores. Seams. 

IN. FT. IN. IN. 

6 1 .. .. 



18 
16 
14 
12 
10 



8 .. J .. .. 

4 .. £1 .. 1 

.. n ..2 

( 2 

1 3 

2 3 

2 4 

3 4^ 



Head, 8 doths. 
Foot, 11 cloths. 
MasL 20ft. 6m. oat. 
Leech, 28ft. Sin, cat. 
No. 2, 90^ yards. 



Head,12oloths. 
Foot, 18 cloths. 
Mast, 23ft. oat. 
Leech, d6ft.6in. cat. 
No. 1, 168} yards. 




1 


Foot- Mast- Slack- 


s 


gores, gons, seams. 


i 


IN. FT. ni. IN. 


10 .. 6 9 .. .. 




9 .. 6 9 .. .. 




8 .. 6 9 .. .. 




7 •• • .. •• 




6 .. £^ .. ., 




5 •• &*§ .. .. 




S::|si::S 


10 


S::«l:: 1 


11 


3 



Head, 6 cloths. 
Foot, 10} cloths. 
Mast, 2Wt. eat. 
Leech, 34ft. 9iii. 
No. 1, 84} yards. 




Head, 12i doths. 
Foot, 17 doths. 
Mast. 21ft. oat. 
Leech, 3tft. cat. 
No. 2, 135i yards. 



Foot- 
gores. 

IN. 

10 . 
9 . 
9 . 
8 . 
8 . 
8 . 
8 . 



Mast- 
gores. 

FT. IN. 
.42 
.42 
.42 
.42 
.21 



Slack- 

lam 

IN 



i 






Head, 6 doths. 
Foot, 10 doths. 
Mast, 23ft. cat. 
Leech, 32ft. 6ia. oat. 
No. 2, 79} yards. 




Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



160 TBBATI8X ON BAILS AMD SAILlCAKlNa 

DIMENSIONS OF FORE-SPENCERS. 



Head, 8 dothfl. 
Foot, U dotiiB. 
Mart. 16ft.. cut. 
Lee(£, 2^., cat. 
No. 2, n&da. 




Head, 8 doths. 
Foot, 13 doths. 
Mas^ 18ft:, cut. 
Leech, 35ft., cat. 
No. 3, 126iyd8. 



Foot- Mast- Slack- 
gores, gores, seams. 

IN. FT. IN. IN. 




Head, 8) doths. 
Foot, 12 cloths. 
1^ 18ft.. cat. 
Leech, dO#ft., cat. 
Na 1, 93|f ds. 



Foot- Mast- Slack- 
gores, gores, seams. 



IN. FT. IN. IN. 




Head, 8 doths. 
Foot, 9f doths. 
Mast, 2(Hft., cat. 
Leech, 27 Aft., cat. 
No. 2, 75i]rds. 



Foot- Mast- Slack- 
gores, gores, seams. 

IN. FT. IN. IN. 

6 .. 8 10 
8 ..U 9 




Head, 8} doths. 
Foot. 12 doths. 
Mast. 20ft., cat. 
Leech, 33ft., cat. 
No. 3, Sld^jda. 




Head, 7i cloths. 
Foot, 10 doths. 
Mast, 18a 
Leech, 29ft. 
No. 3» 81yds. 



Foot- Mast- Slack- 
gores, gores, seams. 

IN. FT. IN. IN, 



24 .. 7 6 ., 


•• 


20 .. 7 6 .. 


.a 


16 .. 3 9 .. 


1 •• 


13 .. -^A - 


,, 


U .. gf . 


• • 


9 .. fi . 


. 2 


I :: n : 


. 3 


. 4 


t :: li : 


. 5 


. 7 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



TABLES OF DIMENSIONS OF JIBS, ETO. 161 

DIMENSIONS OF STAY-SAILS. 



Leech, 35ift. 


Leeoh, 27ift. 


Leech, 28ft. 


Leech, 3Qft. 


Stay,7cloth8. 


Staj, 8 doths. 
No. 1, 43Jyd8. 


Stay, 34ft. 
No. 1, 55ycls. 


Stay, 82|ft. 
Nci^eiydB. 


No. 1, 32Jydfl. 




Foot- Stay- 


Foot- Stay- 


Foot- Stay. 


Foot- Stay- 


^o. 


goree. gores. 


gores, gores. 


gores. gores. 


goPBS. gores. 




nr. PT. nr. 


IN. FP. IN. 


IN. FT. IN. 


IN. FT. IN. 


1 


4 ... 3 11 


6 ... 3 6 


3 ... 3 


8 ... 8 6 


2 


2 ... 3 9 


4 ... 3 4 


2 ... 2 11 


7 ... 2 6 


3 


1 ... 3 9 


2 ... 3 4 


1 ... 2 11 


6 ... 2 6 


4 


... 3 9 


1 ... 3 4 


... 2 11 


5 ... 8 6 


5 


2 ... 3 8 


..• 3 4 


... 2 10 


4 ... 2 6 


6 


4 ... 3 8 


2 ... 3 4 


.r. 2 10 


3 ... 2 6 


7 


6 ... 3 8 


4 ••• 3 4 


... 2 10 


2 ... 2 6 


8 




6 ... 3 4 


1 ... 2 10 


1 ... 8 6 


9 
10 






2 ... 2 9 

3 ... 2 9 


... 3 3 
... 3 3 











SCREW-STEAMER'S STiLT-FORESAILS. 



Leech, 22ft. 


Leech, 26ift. 


Leech, 23ia 


Leech,31ft.,oat 


Stay, 36Aft. 
Foot, 23ft. 
No. 3, 66iyds. 


Stay, 


40.Jft. 


Stay, 45ft. 


Stay, 46m. 
Foot, 30ft. 


Foot, 


26«t. 


Foot, 30ft. 


No. 3, 


70Jyds. 


No. 1, 76Jyds. 


No. 1, 88.3yds. 




Foot- Stay- 


Foot- 


Stay- 


Foot- Stay- 


Foot- Stay- 


J^o. 


gores, gores. 




gores. 


gorei* gores- 


gores, gores. 




IN. FT. IN. 


IN. 


FT. IN. 


IN. FT. IN. 


IN. FT. IN. 


1 


1 ... 2 7 


.. 


. 2 4 


2 ... 2 8 


... 2 6 


2 


2 ... 2 7 


.. 


. 2 4 


3 .. 


2 8 


... 2 6 


3 


3 ... 2 7 


.. 


. 2 4 


4 .. 


2 7 


... 2 5 


4 


4 ... 2 7 


1 .. 


. 2 4 


6 .. 


2 7 


... 2 6 


5 


5 ... 2 7 


2 .. 


. 2 4 


6 .. 


2 6 


1 ... 2 6 


6 


6 ... 2 7 


3 .. 


. 2 4 


7 .. 


2 6 


2 ... 2 6 


7 


7 ... 2 7 


4 .. 


. 2 4 


8 .. 


2 5 


3 ... 2 5 


R 


8 ... 2 7 


6 .. 


. 2 4 


9 .. 


2 5 


4 ... 2 5 


9 


10 ... 2 7 


6 .. 


. 2 4 


10 .. 


2 4 


5 ... 2 5 


10 


12 ... 2 7 


7 .. 


. 2 4 


11 .. 


2 4 


6 ... 2 5 


11 


14 ... 2 7 


8 .. 


. 2 4 


12 .. 


2 3 


7 ... 8 6 


12 


16 ... 2 7 


9 .. 


. 2 4 


13 .. 


2 3 


8 ... 2 5 


13 
14 
15 
16 




10 .. 

11 .. 


. 2 4 
. 2 4 


14 .. 

15 .. 

16 .. 


S 2 

2 2 
2 1 


9 ... 2 5 

10 ... .8 5 

11 ... 2 5 

12 ... 2 5 



















Digitized by CjOO^IC 



162 TBSA.TISE OH SAILS AND SAILBfAEIKO. 

DIMENSIONS OF GAFF-TOPSAILS. 



Mast, made 36ft. 
Leeoh, dOfft., cut. 


Ma8t,3Qft.,cat. 
Leech,14ia,ct. 


Mast, made, 41ft. 
Leech, 33a, cut. 


Mast, 41ift., out. 
Leech,3lift.ont. 


Foot, 10 cloths. 
No. 5, Ziiyds. 


Foot, 13 cloths. 


Foot, 11 dGths. 
No. 6, 73yd8, 


Foot, 10 cloths. 
No, 6, Zljyds. 


No. 5, 87yds. 




Foot- Mast- 


Foot- Mast- 


Foot- Mast- 


Foot* Mast- 


No. 


gores, gores. 


gores, gores. 


gores, gores. 


gores. gores. 




IN. FT. IN. 


IN. PT. IN. 


IN. FT, IN. 


IN. FT, IN. 


1 


... 12 6 


4 ... 4 7 


... 3 10 


2 ... 6 3 


2 


... 2 2 


3 ... 4 7 


... 3 10 


1 ... 6 


3 


... 2 2 


2 ... 4 7 


1 ... 3 10 


1 ... 2 10 


4 


... 2 2 


1 ... Ill 


1 ... 3 


... 2 10 


5 


1 ... 2 2 


... 1 11 


2 ... 3 


... 2 10 


6 


2 ... 2 2 


... 1 11 


2 ... 3 


1 ... 2 10 


7 


3 ... 2 2 


1 ... 1 11 


3 ... 3 


2 ... 2 10 


8 


6 ... 2 2 


2 ... 1 10 


4 ... 3 


3 ... 2 10 


9 


7 ... 2 2 


3 ... 1 10 


6 ... 3 


4 ... 2 10 


10 


10 ... 2 2 


5 ... 1 10 


9 ... 3 


6 ... 2 10 


11 
12 
13 




7 ... 1 10 
10 ... 1 10 
14 ... 1 10 


13 ... 3 





















Mast, 43ft. tabled. 


Leech, 19Jft cut. 


Head, 6 cloths. 


Mast, 48ft. made. 


Leech, lOAyds., cut. 
Foot, 11 cloths. 
No. 6, 79iyds. 


Foot, 11 cloths. 


Foot, 13 cloths. 


Leech, 32f. made 


Mast.28ia 
Head, 1 cloth. 


Mast, 31Aft. 
Leech, 23ift. 


Foot, 13 doths. 


No. 6, llOlyds. 




No. 6, 51iyds, 


No. 6, 88yds. 






Foot- Mast- 


Foot- Mast- 


Foot- Mast- 


Foot- Mast- 


No. 


gores* gores. 


gores', gores. 


gores, gores. 


gores, gores. 




IN. rr. IN. 


IN, FT, IN. 


IN. FT. IN. 


IN. FT. IN. 


1 


... 6 


3 ... 3 


... 4 10 


... 6 


2 


1 ... 5 


2 ... 2 6 


1 ... 4 10 


1 ... 6 


3 


2 ... 4 


1 ... 2 6 


2 ... 4 6 


2 ... 4 


4 


3 ... 3 6 


... 2 3 


3 ... 4 6 


3 ... 3 


5 


4 ... 8 3 


1 ... 2 3 


4 ... 4 2 


5 ... 3 3 


6 


5 ... 8 


2 ... 2 


5 ... 4 2 


5 ... 3 


7 


7 ... 3 


3 ... 2 


6 ... 3 10 


7 ... 3 


8 


9 ... 3 


4 ... 2 


7 ... Head 


9 ... 3 


9 


12 ... 2 9 


5 ... 2 


8 ... Square. 


12 ... 2 9 


10 


16 ... 2 9 


6 ... 2 3 


9 ... 


15 ... 2 9 


11 


18 ... 2 9 


7 ... 


10 ... 


18 ... 2 9 


12 
13 






11 ... 

12 ... 


21 ... 2 9 
84 ... 2 9 






1 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



CABLES OF smENSIOKS OF JTBS, ETC. 



168 



DIMENSIONS OF A CLIPPEB SCHOONER (see page 120). 



ICASTS, BTO. 



^1 



II 



YABDS, BTG. 






Mainmast 

ForemaBt 

Fore-topmast, hoist 

Fore-topgallant 
mast, noist 

Main-topmastj hoist 

Bowsprit, outside ... 

Jib-boom, outside of 
cap 

Flying jib-boom 

Lower mastef, house 
each 

Bake of the fore- 
mast to the foot 

Ditto mainmast ..< 

Steave of bowsprit... 

Bise of the de<uE... 



FT. IN. 

69 7 

66 4 

21 

12 
35 

6 

16 

10 6 

13 6 



FT. IN. 

8 3 

7 10 
Boyal 

8 6 



Forejrard 

Topsail yard 

Top-gallant yard . 



Main boom 

Ditto gaff 

Fore gaffj 

Gaff-topsail yard . 

Distance from fore- 
stay to centre of 
foremast 

From centre of 
foremast to main- 
mast 

Centre of main- 
mast to taffrail .. 

Height of rail , 



FT. IN. 

65 

41 

29 6 

69 

29 

23 3 

7 



29 6 



24 

46 
3 6 



FT. IN. 
2 10 

2 3 
1 6 

Pole 
4 



The above dimensions are given for the young student to go into the 
sketch given at page 120, and make a drawing of the sails, and calculate 
the gores for cutting. It will be a good exercise for him. The rule for the 
foot of the f oresiul is commonly *9, the distance between the stay and the 
fore part of the mast; the luff from >8 to *87, the length of the stay, and the 
leech *8 of the luff. Second Jib.— The length of the foot of the second jib 
is the distance from the tack to the fore part of the stem, the luff *8 to *85, 
the length of the stay, and the leech of such a length that the clue may 
be a proper height for the iheets to bring an equal strain on the foot and 
leech ropes. 

BmaTAIL SAILS. 

Although some years have elapsed since sails of this particular kind were 
made, there are captains of brigs now, who have taken a fancy to have 
them; and as the younger branch of our sailmakers may know little or 
nothing about them, we may be excused for giving a description : — 

A BirifftaU Sail sets like a topmast studding sail, outside of the after-leech 
of main-trysail; it has a sliding gunter-boom, called the ringtail boom, 
which runs out on the main-trysail boom, for hauling out the sheet The 
size of the ringtail sail for a brig is usually 4 or 5 cloths in the head, by 6 or 
7 deths in the foot^ and it is made of No. 5 or No. 6 canvass. 



Digitized by VJ' 



oogle 



DmENSZONS OF TBIAKGULAB LOWEB STUDDING SAILS. 


Head. 
17 cloths. 


360 Tons. 

Fool 

0. 


Depth. 
8 yards. 


Head. 
19 cloths. 


620 Tons. 
Foot Depth. 
0. 10 yards. 


1 .... 

2 .... 


INS. 


INS.. 

..». 11 


1 •» 


INS. INS. 

5 ......... 13 


3 


.... 11 


2 ... 




3 .... 

4 ... 


... 3 


.... 11 


3 ... 


4 14 


2 


.... 11 


4 ... 


3 14 


6 .... 
6 .... 


2 

1 


.... 12 
.... 12 




3 16 


6 ... 


2 16 


7 .... 

8 .... 


1 


.... 13 


7 ... 


2 16 





.... 13 


8 ... 


1 16 


9 .... 

10 .... 

11 .... 





.... 14 





.... 15 


10 ... 

11 ... 


17 

1 18 




.... 16 


12 .... 




.... 18 
.... 20 


12 ... 


1 19 


13 .... 


2 .... 


13 ... 

14 ... 
16 ... 
16 ... 


2 20 

2 21 


14 .... 


2 .... 


22 


16 .... 


Q 


24 


16 .... 

17 .... 


3 .... 

..... 4 .... 


27 

..... 38 

12)288 

24 fu 


3 23 


17 ... 


4 24 


18 ... 


4 27 


19 ... 


...... 5 .M...... 36 


Head. 
24. 


970 Tons. 

Foot 

6. 


Depth. 
10| yards. 


Head. 
24. 


900 Tons. 
Foot Depth, 
a 32ft 6m. 


1 ... 


INS. 

4 


INS. 


1 ... 


INS. INS. 

4 ......... 10 


2 ... 

3 ... 

4 ... 
6 ... 
6 ... 


..... 3 

. 2 

...... 2 

2 

2 


2 ... 


8 ......... 10 


3 ... 

4 ... 
6 ... 


2 ......... 10 

2 ......... 11 


6 ... 


2 12 


7 ... 


1 .„. 


7 ... 

8 ... 

9 ... 


1 ......... 12 


8 ... 


1 .... 


16 

16 


1 ......... 13 


9 ... 






10 ... 

11 ... 


1 „.. 


16 


10 ... 

11 ... 

12 ... 

13 ... 

14 ... 

15 ... 

16 ... 

17 ... 


1 14 


.... 


16 


14 


12 ... 


...... .... 


.. .. 16 
17 




13 ... 

14 ... 


.... 






17 


16 


16 ... 


1 .... 


18 




16 ... 




19 


1 ........ 17 


17 ... 

18 ... 


J 


20 


...... 1 ......... 18 


1 .... 


21 

..... 23 
26 


18 ... 

19 .. 

20 .. 

21 .. 

22 ... 

23 .. 

24 .. 


1 19 


19 ... 


...... 2 .... 


2 ......... 20 


20 ... 

21 ... 


2 .... 


2 21 




27 


o * ****** 22 


22 ... 


o 




23 ... 


3 


32 


Q SK 


1 24 ... 


^ 


38 


4 .......^ 84 


1 ^ 







APPENDIX. 



CONNINGHAM'S PATENT SELF-REEFINft TOPSAILS. 



BEEFINa FROM THB DBCK WITHOUT SENDING MEN 
ALOFT. 



Every one, who k at all familiar with maritime matters, will be 
aware of the great danger attending the operation of reefing topsails 
in heavT weather by the usual mode of men laying-out on tne yards, 
and gathering up and confining the sail thereto by reef-points and 
earing, and tliat fearful accidents are of frequent occurrence on such 
occasions. 

Mr. Cunningham's plan of reefing from the deck purposes to miti- 
gate these dangers ; and, from the very favourable reports of a krge 
number of intelligent captains, who have tested tne system and 
experienced great oenefits from it, there is every reason to believe 
that Mr. Cunningham has been successful in the accomplishment of 
the object which ne had in view, by his laudable and ingenious inven- 
tion liecoming generally adopted, particularly among the merchant 
marine.* The sail can be close-reefed in heavy weather by one man 
and a boy, in two teeonds and a Aalf—Kn. operation which, under the 

* Cunningham's patent is now all the wear. Captains are seeing the 
utility of it at all times, and merchants are finding the advantage of it, by 
sending less hands to sea. Although some of our vessels have chafed and 
worn out a " bonnet" in one voyage of fourteen or fifteen months, yet by a 
little pains of making a latt In the sides of the Patent Middle Cloth, when 
part of the sides get chafed out (for there is plenty of soap used* about thom), 
yon cut a 12-inches gore in the half breadth, or a right-angle triangle, and 
laek'sHtch all that part of the tabling which covers the rope, souiat the 
travellers work up and down easily; the back-stitching must be done toell and 
neaUy, and the last being made with a gore, does not lay over on its own 
part ; for if the last is made straight, it will be too thick for the travellers to 
work over. When the bonnet only is chafed or worn out, shift a new one in 
its place, and there will be a saving of the cost of bonnet complete, and the 
labour of sewing the middle cloth into the sail airain. r^ i 

^Digitized by CnOOgle 



166 IPPBNSIX. 

old 8j8tem, would oocnpy at least half an honr, and require many 
men. 

A oontriyanoe of such peat practical utility deserves and requires 
a detailed description, which, by the kindness of Mr. Cunningham, the 
author is enablea to give : — 

DESCRIPTION, &c. 

The succeeding Figure, No. 2, represents a yard suspended in the 
bight of the cham-topsail-tie, which chain is received and works in 
and over a whelped srooved boss, firmly fixed on the yard. This boss 
is embraced on each side by the sling-hoops, within which it works 
freely. The sling-hoops are connected together by cross-ties, and are 
geared to the parrall in the manner which will ht no doubt under- 
stood by the diagram. A is the hoistii^ part of the tie, which leads 
through the sheave-hole at the mast-head in the ordinary manner. B, 
the fore part of the tie, which is secured to the mast-head by an 
arrangement of tackles, and which allow of its being released from its 
security doft, if required. 

The lead of the topsail, ties, ftc, are represented as letters. A A 
and B B are the two parts of the tie, in the b^ht of which, it will be 
seen, the topsail-yara hangs. In this drawing, there is a second 
sheave-hole at the mast-head through which the fore part of the tie is 
led, a score being cut in the heel of the topgallant mast to allow it to 
come up dear,* and this plan is the one partieularlv recommended b^ 
ihe Patentee; but other arrangements may be made for the lead of 
the tie ; for instance, two sheave-holes may be put under the cross- 
trees, a hanging iron-block may also be placed well forward under the 
heel of the topgallant mast, &c. The end of the tie B is fitted with 
ft runner, the standing part of which is in the top, thus forming double 
topsail haulyards. Tne hoisting part A may be fitted with a common 
purchase on the end, except in larf e ships, when any arrangement 
necessar^jT may be made. 

In fitting masts on this plan, it is necessary to have a roller put 
into the score in the heel of the topgallant mast for the chain to 
work over, which should have an iron band to take pin of roller, and 
form dop at foot of score. See Figure 4. 

To hoist the whole topsail, both haulyards are hauled on, and when 
the sail is close up, the part B is belajed ; the sail is then ready for 
reefing. By lowering on the part A, it will be seen that the yard ne- 
cessanly turns round as it descends the topmast, and the sail is rolled 
up accordingly. By hoisting on the part A, the yard is par-buckled 
up, and the sail unrolled. 

When reefing, the sail in lowering slacks a little; 'this is taken up 
by hauling on the purt B, so as to keep the topsail tight set. By 

^ A roller ia also let intx> the topgallant mast for the chain to4ie npon. 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



CfUWNINOHAM's SEL7-BBEFJKe TOPSAILS. 



167 



Jbwering on both hauljards, the whole topsaU comes down without 
rollm^ up. 

It IS recommended to fit the due-lines to the lower-mast cap; 
shows the due-line block; and a down-haul tackle, D, is fitted to 
assist the yard down in case of necessity. 




J 1, shows a plan of patent topsail-yard fitted complete. The 
topgallant sheets lead througn the iron blocks a^ a, and down on deck 
through the quarter-blocks h, b. The foot ropes, it will be seen, are 
attached to tne yard-arm irons and chafing spar. GQie tongallant 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



168 



AFPENDIZ. 



studdingsail boom irons are carried on the chafing spar at G C, thus 
allowing the topsail to be reefed without risking in tne booms should 
the topgallant studdingsails be set and the ship taken in a squall, which 
is an important feature. 
The annexed diagram represents one of the yard-arm hoops within 
which the yard works, proper rubbing collars 
. - being attaoned to it. A is a roller sluickle to 

^ """ which the topsail-lifts hook, and through 

which the topgallant sheets are led, and which 
are continued through a leading block on the 
tie ; £ is a spur to which the end of the chafing 
spar is attached, which is shown on Eig. 1. The 
shackles appearing at each end of the hoop are for the braces. 
N.B. — ^Tne roller shackle, A, is now fixed to the yard-arm ironwork 

BONNET, &c. 

It was necessary to make provision to allow the sail to clear the tiev 
slin^, hoops, &c., and also to prevent the sail from chafing &^<^st the 
lee-rig^ing when rolled up, and the yard braces forward. The first of 
them 18 accomplished by dividing the sail down the centre to some 
feet below the line of the close reef, the space being sufficiently wide 




1 


-TTl 


r-i 


r-f 


n 




I-rt 


-M 


t-T 








] 








i 


1 








■- 


-- 


Mi 

























as to allow the sail to roll up on each side of the fittings on the 
centre of the yard. The sides of this division are roped in a peculiar 
way, and travellers of such formation as to embrace the rope, yet 
allow the sail cloth to pass freely through, work up and down this 
roping; these travellers are disposed at intervals of about one foot; 
and are connected together across the division. A cloth of canvas 
is laid on each side and secured to the travellers, and the whole form 
what is termed the Bonnet. The upper part of the bonnet Is attached 
^o a swingmg T bolt on the sling-hoop (see D, page 167>thj^ 

Digitized by > 



cunningbah's sblf-bebfing topsails. 



169 



the bonnet, which forms the centre cloth of the sail, to work in har- 
mony, or in other words to blow out freely with the whole saiL As 
the yard ascends or descends the bonnet is drawn up or shoyed down 
the division of the sul which is thus kept closed up. The foregoing 
sketch shows a topsail fitted with bonnet complete, and bent to the 
yard. 
The sketch given below exhibits a topsail dose reefed. 




The following are more detailed instructions concerning fitting 
Topsail-yards and Sails with " Cunningham's Patent.'* 

SAILMAKERS' DEPARTMENT. 

A certain new portion of middle cloth, with the Patent Bonnet 
fitted complete to it, is su(>plied with the Patent Gear, and the duty 
required of the Sailmaker is simpW to take out so much of the ota 
middle'Clath and put in the new. In new sails so much of the middle 
cloth will be left out and the patent one put in. Stray ends of the 
roping on the new middle dotn are left to splice into the head rope. 
In an old sail, the points and cringles must of course be taken out. 
It is recommended to have a dose-reef band and cringles, for the 
purpose of shifting and bending a close-reefed topsail, in the event of 
its splitting in a ^e of wind. 

MAST MAKERS' DEPARTMENT. 

There are no cleats required to be worked in the yardarms of Cun- 
ningham's Patent Yards. The arms are carried out full and round 
to the lifts ; about one foot of the yard, at the slings, is worked eight 
square ; and care must be taken to ^t the squares as true as possible. 
The Jackstavs are made of wood m the ordinary manner, only they 
must be made deeper towards the yardarms ;* the intention of this is 

* The difference of 1) inch^ increased depth at the outer end is generally 
fpimd to bo snflicirat. r^ r^r^M^ 

Digitized by VjOOQ Ic 



170 APPENDIX. 

to make up for the taper of the yard, so as to keep the sail set tight 
and fair. A batten ot the same proportions as the jackstays, but one 
foot shorter, is also put on the underneath f^/^-part of the yard, to 
assist in taking up tne slack sail.* 

Figure 3, Pagt 167, shows the lines of a patent topsail yard The 
hole B is for the earing to pass through, and must oe grooved and 
smoothed out in the direction of it. Before the jackstays and battens 
are fixed, of course the ironwork must be put on; the centre boss 
must be driven on with care, but as tight as possible; and when 
brought ^fff^in the centre of the yard, must be secured b;^ two short 
bolts on each side of it. Besides the yard a spar is required, called 
the "Chafing Spar."'(See Eifure 1, f age 167.) The intention of 
this is to keep tne roUed-up sa3 off the lee-rigging, &c., and to carry 
the tom;allant studdingsail booms.f This spar is recommended to bie 
entire nfom lift to lift, and slightly tapering, say \\ inch ; the ends 
must be hooped to receive the starts, wnich are driven into them, and 
which connect the chafing-spar to the yardarm hoops. Oreai care 
must be taken in driving these starts in, not to drive tkem too far, so as 
to compress the yard armhoops, and thus prevent the free working of the 
yard in them. 

The following is a scale of the sizes of Ghafing-Spars :— 

Sixe of the yard Size of Chafing- 

at dinfiis. Spar at slines. 

7 inches 2* inches. 

8 « H 

.? » ?, ^. w 

10 „ 3Jto8J „ 

12 „ 41 to 6 „ 

13 „ 5 to5| „ 

14 „ 61to6| „ 

16 „ 6|to7 „ 

18 „ 7 to 7* „ 

The inner head-earinffs in the centre of the topsail is confined to 
the yard hj screw stud-bolts. These bolts are placed on the yard at 
the followmg distances from the centre of the yard : — 

All yards np to 9( inches 4} inches. 

Ditto, above 9| inches 5} „ 

The bolts are so placed as to allow the head-rope of the sail to be 
dear of the jackstay, say 1| inches before ditto, and the distance they 
stand off from the yard must be enough for a piece of two-inch rope 
to hook over them. The inner end of the jacKstays must be placed 
say two inches outside of the earing bolts: 

* It is sometimes found neceasaiy to apply another batten if the sail has 
mnch belly, by reason of its being roped tight 

t Qnarter-irons, or saddles, are sometimes applied to the chafing-spar, to 
carry the heels of the stnddingsail booms. r^ ^ ^^T^ 

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dnnOKGHAH's SBLF-BSEVnrO TOPSAILS. 171 

Fi^re 2, Page 167, shows the arrangement for the lead of the 
foremost part of the topsail-tie. This drawing shows a second sheave- 
hole at the roast-head, through which the tie is led, a score being cut 
in the heel of the topgallant mast to allow it to come np dear.* 
Starts with heads are ariven into the ends of the yard for the topmast 
studdingsail hanlyard block to hook to, which are to be fitted with 
dip-hooks, or eight eye-rings. 

RIGGERS' DEPARTMENT. 

Fiffure 1, Page 167, shows the plan of rig^ng the topsail-jards. 
The foot-ropes go abaft the topmast, and the mner ends seize on k> 
the chafing-spar on opposite side of mast. The two quarter blocks 
b b are for tne inner lead of the topgallant sheets, which have been 
previously led down through the iron blocks a a. The chafing-spar 
IS lashed at each quarter to eye-bolts on panrall. The mode of con- 
necting yard to parrall is by means of the two drop-bolts ; a turn of 
the quarter lashing of chafing-spar must be taken through these bolts 
to keep them down anc from coming out. 

Figure 2, Page 167, shows the lead of the topsail ties, and also the 
lenM of them. The dew-lines are brought to the cap at the block C, 
and a downhaul tackle is fitted to assist the yard down at D. This 
dofonhatd must never be omitted, 

INSTRUCTIONS FOR WORKING CUNNINGHAM'S 
PATENT SELF-REEFING TOPSAIL. 

To Bend thb Sail.— Put the eyelet-holes in middle of sail over the 
iron bolts or studs on each quarter of the yard; secure the upper part 
of bonnet to the swinging iron ; then haul out head earings, and bend 
the sail in the usual manner. 

To Hoist the whole Topsail. — ^Hoist on both haulyards. 

N,B, — ^If the after-haulyards are hauled upon more than the fore- 
most ones, the head of the yard will cant over and bring the 
iackstay under it ; a little care should therefore be taken to 
hoist on both haulyards alike. If the jackstay should be 
brought under the yard, hoist on the foremost haulyards atone, 
slacking a little on after-haulyards. It is a good phm to get 
a turn m the yard before hoisting on both haulyards. 

To Reef the Topsail. — Lower away on after-haulyards, and pull 
on foremost or reefing ones, until the sail is set taut. 

N,B, — The downhaul is provided to assist the yard down should 
it require it. 

* A roller is also let into the heel of the topgalliint ma^j 

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172 APi*iin>ix. 

To Shake out Bsxvs.— Hoist on after-hanlyards, slack a little 
on foremost or reefing ernes. 

N,B. — ^If the foremost or reefing hanlTards are merely steadied in 
tJie band during hoisting, they will slack themsdiyes as much 
■sis needed. 

To Ebev THi Sail with thb Yabd oh thi Luts.— Let go the 
aft-er hanlyards, and had away on the foremost or reefing ones. 

To Shir a Split Glose-Ruvbd Topsail^ aho Benb ahb Set 
ahotheb one Close-Beefed.— Pass earings thronffh close-reef 
cringle, ronnd the spnr of the yardann iron, or where &e topgallant 
sheet blodn are, takmg care that thcT (the earings]| are quite dear of the 
yard. Take, say a d^en lensths of rope that will reere through the 
evelet-holes in the dose-reef band, knot the ends, and reeve them 
through so many eyelet-holes from/bnMir«^ to d/f, so that thev shall 
come through abaft the sail ; let two or three of them be rove tnrough 
the first two or tnree eydet-hdes from the bunt of the sail, so as to 
support the sail well amidships. Then dew up the sail, haul up the 
bunt-lines, and hitch the aforesaid points round the chafing-spar. The 
two nearest the bunt of the sail may be made fast to we eye-bolts 
on parrall. Disconnect the upper poit of bonnet from swingjng-inon. 
Take a turn with downhaul, unbend sheets, keeping bunt4ine fast. 
Overhaul the foremost haulyards, and haul on after-haulyards, so as 
to unroll the sail to head. Unbend the sail, and ease in dose-reef 
earing, and secure all for sending down sail. Make the bending sail 
up 80 as to leave upper and lower part separatdy clear, which can be 
done by passing strong stops through eyelet-holes of dose-reef, fse- 
viousi^T having shoved bonnet close down to close-beef. Send 
sail up ; haul out dose-reef earings, and pass earings as before described. 

a port sail amidships, bend the sail, cast off stops of upper part of 
overhaul after-haulyards, haul on foremost ones, so as to roll up 
sail to close-reef — a Hand, if necessary, laying the leeches dear on 
yajd. Connect upperpart of bonnet with swinging-iron. Bend top- 
sail sheets, and cast off stops of lower part of sail. Sheet home the 
topsidl. Cast off dose-reef earings, ftc. Mend the reef, if necessary, 
by hoisting the topsail a few fee^ and reefing again. 

The FOBEMOST, or reefing^ haufyards, are those whteh eome up bbfobb 
the yard, — The Anv& haulyards are those which come up KBhrr the 
yard. 

In making a Cunningham's Topsaiis it is requisite to have an odd 
number of squares in the foot ; and in cutting-out, so much of the middle- 
cloth will be left out as will take in the whole length ^patent cloth 
supplied. It ts found that rather a square-headed topsail, with hollow 
leeches, stands best, and the leech-ropes are not apt to ride over the 
yard* 

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HOW£ 8 PATBNT BIO. 



178 



HOWE'S PATENT RIG. 




Captain Howe's rig for dose-reefing topsails, differs from the 
common rig, by haying double topsail yards. The lower topsail yard 
is trussed to the lower 
cap, and instead of 
slings, is supported from 
below by a crane upon 
the forward rim of the 
top. The yard now is 
entirely suspended to 
the cap. The lower top- 
sail, therefore, b the 
size of the clos&'reefed 
sail of the ordinary rig, 
and sets entirely by the 
sheets. The upper top- 
sail sets upon tne part 
of the topmast above 
the cap, and has its foot 
laced to a jackstay upon 
the fore-cant of the yard 
below, so that no wind can escape between the " two topsails." This 
arrangement of the yards has many advantages. Labour and time 
are saved in reefing; a ship can be reduced 
to close-reefed topsails at any time, by 
lowerinff the upper topsails, which will then 
lie becidmed before tne lower topsails, re- 
maining perfectly quiet in the roughest 
weather, and can be furled or not. In 
squally weather, then, this ri^ is invaluable, 
for whole topsaUs can be earned to the last 
moment, and instantly reduced to dose- 
reefed topsails with certainty of action, 
without the necessitjr of a man leaving the 
deck. Its economy in the wear of canvass 
must also be very great, for the sails are of 
manageable size, and have neither bunt-lines, 
reef-tackles, or clue-lmes to chafe them. 

Any ship with the ordinary ris can adopt the new, by a yard to 
the cap and cutting the topsaib in two; and, if thought proper, 




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174 



APPEKDIX. 




enlam the breadth of the head, so as to spread more canvass on the 
same length of yards, as there is no room required for reefing outside 
the brace bands: the reef tackles and 
blocks will make the braces for the yard 
at the cap. 

It may here be observed that in the 
ordinarv rig the trestle-trees are never 
relieved from the continual heavy pres- 
sure of the weight above, until the topsail- 
yard is on the cap, and they are frequently 
found defective irom this cause alone. In 
Howe's rig much relief is eiven by the 
half-sail and light upper yard at the top- 
mast head ; and when both the two top- 
sails are set, if the topsail haulyards are 
let go, tne weight of tne upper topsail is 
no longer restmg upon the trestle-trees, 
as is the case in the old rig. 

Again, should a ship lose her three top- 
masts on a lee shore, blowing hard, by 
cutting away the wreck she would work- 
off under the lower topsails and courses, 
which she would have no chance to do under the old rig, especially 
in cold weather with a Lascar crew, or shorthanded, as many vessels 
are now sometimes obliged to leave the Colonial ports to sail round 
Cape Horn. 

A ship with this rig is more seaworthy, because she may always be 
considered as under close-reefed topsails, and may be worked with 
fewer men than a vessel of the same size haying the old rig. It looks 
rather clumsy in port, and this, we believe, is the principal objection 
urged against it oy those who do not comprehend its advantages at 
sea. Ships, however, are ringed for service at sea, and not for show 
in port ; that, therefore, which is the most serviceable is certainly 
the best. 

TO DETERMINE THE SIZE OF A TOPSAIL ON HOWE'S 

RIG. 

I. The hmt of iwptfr-topsail. — ^Allow 2 inches for every 3 feet in 
hoist or measure taken from the spider-hoop^ down to the centre of 
the lower topsail yard (see p. 6), — 2. The hoist of /o«w-topsail. — 
Subtract 1 ft., for drift and sheeting home, from the distance the 
lower yard is below the top of cap. — 3. Head of upper and lower- 
topsails. — Subtract 3 ft. from the hounded lengths of the two topsail 
vards.— 4. Foot ofwipertJid /<>«'^-topsails. — Subtract 3 ft. from the 
hounded length of the yard at the cap, and the lower-yard. 



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l^ATENT BELF-BBEFIKO AND FURLING BAILS. 176 



COLLINfi AND PINKNEY'S PATENT SELF-REEFINfi 
AND FUfiLma BAILS. 



Messrs. Coiling and Pinkney, of Sunderland, are also )i;vsntor8 of 
a plan for self-reefing topsails, &c., from the deck, without sendin^^ a 
man aloft to reef or furl. Their invention consists in the adaptation 
of a roller or rolling spar to the foreside of the yard, in such a way 
that it gives additional strength, whilst, at the same time, adding 
little or nothing to the weight aloft over the old phin, where no reefing 
apparatus is used. 

The sail can be wound up entirely on the rolling spar, like a "win- 
dow-blind," by means of a parbuckle or reefing halyards, which leads 




from the topmast head to the yard-arms, and adds materiallv to the 
strength, insomuch that it will be next to impossible to carry the yards 
away with this arrangement. The whole construction is so very simple, 
that any seaman immediately understands it on once seeing it. This 
invention can easily be applied to ships having no reefing apparatus, 
as it is not necessary to alter the yards or saili— only the points are 



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176 APPENDIX. 

to be taken out and reef-cringles. The sails being reefed without 
straining or shaking, will wear much longer, and are much more 
simple in their conslruction, and cost le«s at the first cost, there being 
no reef-points, bands, or gaskets. 

A great number of ships having been fitted, and having been used 
in all climates and all weathers, has proved them to answer all that 
could be desired in a self-reefing sail. 

This invention will be reaculy understood by reference to the 
accompanying sketdies, and also enable any one to fit up the Apparatus. 

MAST-MAKER'S MEMOBANDUM. 

The yard should be made straight on the foreside, so as to allow 
the roller to lie as dose as possible, and the hounds of the yard should 
be about 9 inches outside tne topgallant-sheet sheave hole. 

The cruiekes, d d, as per sketch (see p. 175), for supporting the middle 




of the roller, should be placed — sav for a 30 feet roller — 3 feet from the 
sling hoop; and, for a 40 feet roUer, 4 feet from the sling hoop, and 
so on in proportion to the length of the roller. Care should be taken 
in fixing i^e journals, carrying the ends of the roller, so that it will 
be directlv in front of the yard : and, before the crutches are made 
securely fast, the roller should be allowed to bear its own weight 
upon the spindle ; they should then be placed, so that the roller comes 
near to the topside, so that the roller will bear a great part of the 
weight before yielding to the crutches, and thus eiD&hk it tojwork 

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PATENT SELF-BEEFINO AND FIT&LINa BAILS. 



177 



piuch easier, and without friction to the sail. In all cases the sfud 
in the sling hoop should be on the fore cant of the yard. 

The bcUtetu to be left 6 inches short on each side of the crutch, 
and one should be made of hard wood, to form 9^ jack-stay, and in no 
case should they go without the leech-rope of the sail; they should be 
of the same thickness as the leech-ro{)e is in diameter. 

The roller should swell ^ or | of an inch in the middle. 

SAILMAKER'S MEMOBANDUM. 

The sails should be made with nearly a straight leech, and it will 
be well to put holes in topsails for the dose-reefs and earings. The 




topsail at the ehse-reef ^avMi be 12 inches short of the roller at eacn 



RIGGER'S MEMORANDUM. 

On reeving the reefing halyards, first reeve the chain in the sister- 
block markeoB on the sketch (see p. 175), then take up both ends of the 
chain and reeve each end through tne blocks a a at topmast-cap, and then 
through the blocks or bull's-eye on the standards c c on each yard-arm, 
and thence the ends are wound round the roller over the fore part, 
and as many turns on the ends of the roller as will be sufficient to reef 
or furl the sail, as the case may be, and each end is then shackled to 



178 



AfPEin)IX. 



the ends of the roller to an eye-bolt, observing to take about six tnmB 
for dose-reefing, and about nine turns for furling, which will be found 
sufficient. The runner is roye through the sister-block b, and one end 
secured in the top, the other end IcMling to the starboarid side of the 




deck with a tackle attached. A down-haul to be attached to the 
under part of the yard, to assist the yard down, as will be seen in 
the sketch. 



INSTRUCTIONS FOR KEEFINQ AND FURLING. 

To Beef. — ^Make fast the reefing halyards on deck, then ease away 
the topsail halyards, and as the yard descends, the roller revolves, and 
the sail will be reefed down to the cap. 

To Furl. — ^The sail bemg thus close-reefed, the topsail halyards are 
made fast, the sheets are then "started/' and by hauling on the reef- 
ing hsJyards, the whole sail is wound easily on, and thus furled with- 
out sending a man aloft. 

To Utt/itrL — Let go the reefing halyards and haul the sheets home, 
then puU on the topsail halyards, and as the yard ascends, the chains 
are wound round the roller again,* and the whole sail set as required. 

* It will be observed that when the sail is /Med the chains are unwound, 
euceept about half a tarn round the roller. 

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nXTAED's CUTTOre BOARD OB TABLB. 179 



PITTARD'8 CUTTING BOARD OR TABLE. 



ACb. Chables Pittaed,* of London, has kindly sent to the anthoi 
a sketch and description of his Cuttine Board, or Table, for cutting 
out any sail required; also, upon whicn to cut up bands, at the rate 
of one bolt of canvass per minute, into one-half, one-third, and one- 
fourth breadths, cut ana made up at the same time. This would be 
found a great saving of time, as well as accuracy of cutting the bands. 
By a reference to the following plans or sketches, it will be seen 
this table is both simple in construction and much easier for our 
work, than haying to go on to the floor upon hands and knees, for 
every gore required to oe cut, which, in some sails, are not trifling. 
We sludl now endeavour to explain the sketches, so that any carpenter 
or joiner may be able to make one of these tables. 

No. 1 sketch represents the table top complete, and ready for 
cutting out. The length of it is 6 feet. The two side pieces of the 
frame must be 8 feet long, for the rollers to fit into, and to keep 
the canvass in gauge. No. 1. K B. are two rules let into the table- 
top, and figured in inches on either side alternate^ 1 to 73 inches, 
as shown. S, on each comer of the frame, are shields to receive the 
blade of the knife, and to prevent the knife 
being thrown down, or cutting any person 
in passing by it. These shieMs are made 
of wood, thus, — the top being rounded 
every way, to prevent the canvass or any- 
thing else catching them. It is best to 
make the shields in two halves — taking out a little of the wood to 
receive the blade of the knife ; and then glue the halves together, 
and afterwards glue them to the table in the proper place. 

The frame must be well made and put together strong, or it will 
soon become ricketv. It is recommended to have all the timber 
well-seasoned, and the top of the table made len smooth. The frame 
to be set to 3 feet | inch, or 24} inches—clear (fistance. The rollers 
are 2 feet long exact, leaving | of an inch play, and have iron 
gudgeons which work in brass plates about ^ an inch tMck, let into 

* Mr. Pittard U foieman sailmaker to Messrs. George Robertson k Sons, 
Commercial-road East^ oppodto Limehonse Chnrch, London, where any 
person calling could see his table before getting one made. 

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180 



APPENDIX. 



the 



sides of the frame ; all the rollers are 2 inches diameter, and 

tipped with brass ferules. The 
, tops of rollers, Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 

*§! * 4, must be level with the top of 

•rOkr. 1. r pn the table, for passuoK ^^ cloths 

to and fro. The legs of the 
table are 3 inches sqpure, and 
the frame, top, &c., 1^ inch when 
dressed. There are fonr stout 
cross-pieces close up under the 
top, and well secured to the 
frame. 

Tn the annexed sketch, No. 1, 

the rollers, Nos. 1, 2, and 3, are 

fixtures; No. 4 must be made 

to shift by taking out a wedge 

piece of hard wood at the sioe, 

which will enable that side of 

the roller to be lifted and taken 

out, and placed in the spring, 

when the workman requires to 

cut up bands. See Nos. 2 and 

3 plans. This roller is used in 

Nos. 2 and 3 plans, as shown on 

them ; in this plan it is not really 

^ necessary to haTC No. 4 roller, 

.t| but as the inventor was obUged 

^ to have six rollers in all, and a 

^ place to keep them, it wi» as 

well where he has placed it as 

anywhere else, and looked more 

uniform. 

The gauge-lines, G L, are 
merely heavy scratches done with 
a carpenters gauge, not really 
necessary, but very handy at 
times. The annexed sketch. 
No. 2, shows the table-top with 
roller No. 6, for windii^ the 
bands on, with an iron crank 
handle, which will unship and 
stand on one side when not in 
use. You will observe that this 
roller. No. 6, does not ship into 
^^^^ - J the same socket as No. 4, but 

■ -V' Jf*"— H lower down, as shown on No. 3 

plan, into an angle groove, to 
prevent it from jumping out 

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"SSBSTT 






PIIIASD S CUTTINa BOAllD OB TABLE. 



181 



roUer 1 



V^^ 



Teihr S 



when in use. A side hook will abo be found useful to prevent the 

roller jumping. The 

roller No. 4, and spare «| k< 

roller No. 5, are shipped 1 _^ 

into the sorinffs, ready 
for cutting Dands. There 
are five mtches made in 
the five gauge-lines (be- 
twixt rollers Nos. 4 and 
3) for the point of knives 
to fit into, which must 
not be lar^r than will 
hold the knife firmly. 

The succeedingsketch. 
No. 3, is a side view of 
the table, showing the 
rollers, springs, linife, 
canvass cut (or B, a bolt 
of canvass on roller No. 6 
cut into bands), and can- 
vass to be cut as C, &c. 
The springs, which are 
made of lance wood, ash, 
or American elm, are 
fastened down to the 
table with four common 
thumb screws, such as 
are used for fastenine 
window shutters, and 
with the brass plate let 
into the table at three 
and four feet on the rule. 
The knife, E, is shown in 
one of the nitches ; and 
the canvass passine under 
the rollers; also tne size 
of the bolt of canvass cut 
into bands, at B, on roller 
No. 6. 

At the sideof this view, 
you will observe some 
common brass curtain 
hooks, for resting the 
yard stick, and a long 
rod, or straight edge, for 
marking long gores — a 
very handy and ready 
place to keep them. It — 



roVer^ 



\ 



yUm-i 



TtOkre 



i 



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182 



APPXlTOiX. 




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pittaed's cvmsa boabs ob table. 183 

is well to have these on each side, so that yon can put your hand on 
them when wanted. 

The roller No. 6, with crank handle fixed, mnst haye four hollows 
or scores cut into it, about 1} inches long; in each of these hollow 
places there must be a small hook on a loose eye, to fasten the 
canvass, before you begin to turn the roller; tins will prevent 
slipping. When you have cut your bolt into the bands, draw your 
voller out of the socket parallel with the table ; give your roller one 
turn backwards ; this will release the hooks from the canvass, and 
fall down into the hollows ; you can then draw your roller easily out 
of the canvass. 

The knives, when used in No. 3 plan for cutting bands, must be in 
good order, and quite free from notches, or you will pull them out of 
their places, and perhaps do some miscluef. 

Mr. Httard never makes a practice of sharpening his knife on a 
stone of any kind, but 8harj)ens it on a board with orick dust, and, 
occasionally, a dust of mastick out of a pepper box. 

In cutting out, as in ordinary cases, you place your.bolt of canvass 
on your left hand. If a square sail is required : — ^measure off first 
your striking cloth, and cut one by the other : your doth as cut will 
be found on your right hand ; your bolt of canvass from which you 
are cutting will pass over No. 2 roller, and your striking cloth over 
No. I roller ; this will prevent friction, and work much easier. If a 
fore-and-aft saU is required : Place, as before, the canvass on your 
left ; commence your work as usual, and cut away first on one side 
of the table, and then on the other. Ajb, in ordinary cases, your 
canvass will thus pass first over No. 2 roller, and then over No. 1, 
▼our cloths as cut will be found half at each end of the table ; but to 
keep your canvass free from the weight of the cloths vou have cut, 
pass them as you proceed to that ena of the table marked " right :" 
the whole of your sail, or cloths, will then be found together, when 
you have done, on vour right hand. 

The cutting of long-gores is as simple as the construction of the 
table itself ; for since the table is 6 feet long, with rules on each 
side figured in inches up to seventy-two, how easy is it to have or 
quarter the lensth of gore required, and so mark it off until you 
have got your full length of gore ready for the knife. Say you 
require 24 feet gore : — ^mark 6 kei (the length of table) to the four 
quarter-breadths of your canvass, and you have 24 feet. Indeed, 
you can, by quartering, mark a gore 28 feet long ; for the canvass 
will lay over the rollers, which are level with the table top, for you 
to mark a gore 7 feet long. This is the most useful part of the 
''straight edge" or rules at the side of the table, ana which are 
Always ready to hand, for long or short gores. 



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184 



▲PPEITDIX. 



PITTARD'B IMPROVED AN6UIATED JIB. 



The following sketcli exhibits Mr. Pittard's mode of outtin^ jibs, 
of wUch he has informed the author that he has cut seyeral this last 




10 years upon this formation or oonstruotion of the canvass.* At 
page 93 ot this work is given an outline of a jib on a constmction 
similar to this sketch, l)at the line G D, which represents the last, is 
inadvertently shown at right anj^les with the leech, for the strain of 
the due to stay, which is not mtended to be the direction of the 
pidl of the jib-sheets. Mr. Pittard, however, has adopted a rule foi 
placing the last. He says that the last should be at least 5 feci 
above the perpendicular C a to the leech, which he has noticed foi 
some years to De the place where the g^reatest strain of the jib^eet 
comes. For these sails he has also laid down a rule for the flow ol 
the stav, vis. — 9 inches for every vard of leech, and 9 inches fo) 
every root of rise to the due, aaded, and will give a very fait 
allowance for the flow of the stay. Say a jib of 19 cloths, 13 yards 
leech, and 16 feet rise by due: — ^13 yards by 2 inches, eqnal 

* The anfhor was not aware that his friend Ifr. Pittard, or any one ehe 
had made libs upon this prindple befora he pnUished the plan in his last 
edition of SAHrXAzzNCk ^ , 

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PITTABd's IMPBOYED ANOXTLATEB JIB. 



185 



26 inches, and 16 feet rise by 8 mches, equal 33 inches, added, will 
give 58 inches, or D I 4 feet 10 inches flow of stay. 

As it regurds to the catting oat of these sails, they oaght be done 
in three distinct parts, the part below the last being one, that above 
the last two, and the third the leech part. 



riGURES FOR THE ABOVE JIB. 

Jib equal 13 cloths, 13 yards leech, and 16 feet rise by due, of 
3 feet canvass. — By oonstmction, as per sketch, foot B G 37ft. 9in. ; 
Ce 13ft. 3in.; B^ 14ft. 7in.; De 14ft. 8in.; Kdl9 ft.; GE 
33ft. 9in.; Etf 10ft. 7in.; Bd 10ft. 6in.; Ae 34ft. 3in. ; and GA 
15in. allowance for tabling L. 

1. The foot part eat 28 feet 1 inch, 8. The Jeech-part cut from clue- 
being 4 inches to allow for last. ^ 
Last- Stay- 
goiea, gores. 



Nos 
1 .. 



Ins. 

20f 

20^ 

20r 

20f 

20 

2Q 

2Q 

U 



Ins. 

19 

20 

20 

21 

22 

24 

27 



C E, 25 ft which aUows 15 
inches for leech-tabling. 
Stay- 



Not. 



175,B0 
158 



158,00 



B (>^ft.9in. 
2. The middlO'part cut from due- 
Beams G E. 25 feet, which allows 15 
inches for leech tabling. 



Nos. 

11 . 

12 . 

13 . 

14 . 

15 . 

16 . 

17 . 



Stay- 
gores. 
Ins. 

... 15 .. 

... 15 .. 

... 16 ., 

... 16 ., 

... 17 .. 

... 17 . 

... 18 . 

... 13 . 



Last- 
gores. 
Ins. 



gores. 
Ins. 
42 
41 
41 
41 
41 
41 
41 
41 
41 
41 



120,E(2 411,A0 
126 

12)285 

C E— 23 f tTin. 



10 .... 


14 


9 .... 


14 


8 .... 


18 


7 .... 
6 .... 


.... 18 

,.., 12 


6 .... 
4 .... 


.... 12 

.... 12 


8 .... 


.... 12 


2 .... 


.... 12 


1 .... 


.... 12 



,20f 

20 

20r 

20 

. 26 

. 20 

. 14 



Note.-~There will be 25 seams in- 
stead of 11, which must make the sail 
the stronger. No broad seams. Stay 
and leech-ropes all one size— the leech- 
rope a little taut, and the clue strain- 
band of these sails to be ran acron is 
the stay. 



127,Es 



158,00 
127 



12)285 
C£— 22ft9ia. 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



186 



APPBKDIX. 



ON MEASURING FOR A MIZEN, WITH A GAFF FIXED, 
AND BOOM UNSHIPPED * 

This is done as follows :— The annexed sketch is drawn with the 
boom in its place, but that is only to show the thing more distinct 

After taking the mea- 
surements AE, 30ft. 
lOin.; AB, 24ft. 6in.; 
EO, 20ft.; BO, 20ft. 
2in.; AP, 27ft. 5in.; 
BP, 47ft. 3m.; PO, 
4.4ft. Sin.; AD, 23ft. 
10in.;CD,27ft.;BG, 
32ft.; and A O, 33ft. 
lOin., the student will 
find, if he will take the 
trouble to lay it upon 
paper to scale, that the 
lines from throat to 
deck, or A to O, and 
from gafif end to tack, 
or P to B, wiU dieck 
the other figures — it 
will detect an;^ error 
that may arise m mea- 
suring or laying down 
his drawing. 'Hie me- 
thod of measuring is 
this — ^the tape is made 
fast to the signal halyards, and run up to the gaff-end, and thereby 
avoidingthe sending a boy out, and running the risk of breaking his 
neck. With tape at signal halyards, the dimensions A P, 27ft. 5m. ; 
B P, 47ft. 3in. ; and P O, 44ft. 8in. are got ; and you can easily run 
the tape into the chain topping-lift near the ^aff end, and take the 
len^h of the chun to the ooom-end, which, with the boom 
unshipped, will be hanging inboard; this, with the lei^th of your 
boom (after you have correctly laid down the other portions of your 
work), will give you the exact angles of the sail ; or, supposing that 
there is no chain topping-lift, your boom can easily be put into its 
right place, bjr giving sufficient nei^ht above the deck for the man at 
the wneel, wmch sav 6 or 6 feet 6 inches. 

The figures ana allowances for stretching will always vary, 
according to the different angles of the sail The greater amount of 




* This method of measuring, and the fignres for cutting-ont this and 
followiog sail, were kindly presented by Mr. Charles Pittard. 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



OK KEASUBIVe A SPAinCEBy WUH BAIV IFIXXD, 



187 



fooi-gore, tlie more mnst be allowed for stretching; and the less 
amount of foot-gore, the less the sail will stretch. 



FIGQRES POR CUTTING OUT THE ABOVE SAIL. 

Head, 11 cloths ; foot, 15^ cloths ; mast, 7| yards ; and leech, 
11^^ yards. 



Slack- 


aoths. Foot- 


Head- 




seams. 
Ins. 


«sr- 


er 




2 . 


.. 1 ... 6 . 


.. 8 




2 . 


.. 2 ... 3 . 


.. 3 




2 . 


.. 3 ... 2 . 


.. 4 




2 . 


.. 4 ... 1 . 


.. 4 




2 . 


.. 6 ... 


.. 5 






.. 6 ... 1 


.. 6 






.. 7 ... 2 


.. 6 






.. 8 ... 3 


.. 6 






.. 9 ... 4 


.. 7 


Mast 




.. 10 ... 6 


.. 8 






.. 11 ... 7 


.. 11 


Ins. 




12 ... 9 


.. — 


... 60 




13 ... 11 


„ 


... 61 




14 ... 13 


.. "— 


... 62 




15 ... 15 




... 62 




i... 6 


... — 


... 16 


16 


75 


62 


261 
62 
75 
16 

414 
12 

12)402 



Yds. 
Body No. 4, canyass 138 



Peak-piece 

Splice-piece 1 

Mast-lining 4 

Thiee 4 cloths strain bands 6 



Total 



^17 



155 



Seams.~Head 2 inches, and foot 3 
inches— 2 reefis in foot 



33ft 6 in. length of leech. 

N.B.— It wUl be obserred that the slacks are very little, not more than 
will stretch oat in rubbing down the seam. This sail is cut from the leech, 
and shows greater amount of confidence than cutting from the mast, but it 
is just accordi^ to what yon accustom yourself to. 



MEASUREMENTS AND PARTICULARS 01 A LARGE 

SHLP'S SPANKER. 

Meabubeiobnts. — A B, 23ft. 9ins.; B P, 49ft. ^dns.; A P, 
aOft. Sins.; CD, 40ft. 11 ins.; B G, 45ft.; and from throat to 
sheet, 46ft. 9in8. See preceding sketch. 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



188 APPENDIX. 

FIGURES FOR CUTTING OUT 
Head, 14} dotlu; foot, 20^ oloths; mast, 7i jarda; and leech, 
12i yards. 



Slack- 


aoths. Foot- 


Head- 




teams. 
Ins. 




^ 


goree. 
Ina. 




3 


... 1 . 


.. 6 . 


.. 2 




3 


... 2 . 


.. 3 


.. 2 




3 


... 3 . 


.. 2 


.. 8 




2 


... 4 . 


.. 1 


.. 3 




2 


... 6 , 


.. 


.. 3 




2 


.. 6 . 


.. 1 . 


.. 3 




2 


.. 7 . 


.. 2 


.. 8 




2 


.. 8 . 


.. 3 , 


.. 3 




2 


.. 9 . 


.. 4 . 


.. 4 




2 


.. 10 . 


.. 6 . 


.. 4 






.. 11 . 


.. 6 . 


.. 6 






.. 12 . 


.. 7 . 


.. 6 


Mast- 




.. 13 . 


.. 8 . 


.. 6 


gowa. 




... 14 . 


.. 9 . 


.. 6 


Ins. 




... 16 


.. 10 


.. 5 . 


.. 10 




16 


.. 12 


., , 


.. 30 




17 . 


.. 14 , 


„ . 


.. 39 




18 


.. 16 


.. - ... 40 




19 . 


.. 18 . 


.. — . 


.. 40 




20 . 


.. 21 . 


t. — ~ . 


.. 40 




i 


.. 12 




.. 20 


28 




148 


67 


228 
67 

148 
28 

461 
11 



Body No. 2, canvass < ^.. 200 

Cine-piece 4 "^ 

Peak-piece 2 

Splice-piece ^ L ov) 

rfast lining 4^ '' ^ 

6 cloths band 

I breadth reef band .... 

Total 220 

This sail had a reef with half 
breadth band from the due to the 
halfway of head; this method for 
reefing a ship's mizen is approved of 
by many captains. The reef-holes 
are 18 inches apart 



12)S0 

37 ft 6 ina. length of leech. 

Width of Beams — ^head, l^ins. ; and foot, S^ins. Ropes — ^head, 
2|in8.; peak, S^ins.; leech, 2fins.; due, 4ins.; sheet, 2fins.; foot, 
Ifins. ; and mast, Sfins. 

TRIANGULAR LOWER STUDDING-SAILS. 
The reader will find noticed the recently-invented Triangular 
Lower Studding-sails at page 74, but no figures for cutting. It is 
thought necessary that some examples should be given, as the 
various outs of these sails, which are to be seen, clearly demonstrates 
that the princij^e upon which they ought to be cut is not generally 
understood. The {;enerality of these sails are cut too lean. They 
ought to be out with a good round in the outer leech, and a little 
round in the head, which is done to equalise the flow of the sail : 
also to put a little broad seam in the head, say If inches, and 
Si inches in the foot or outer leech. See examples for various 
tonnage, at page 164. ^^^ ,,Google 



TABLE OF SQUARES. 



189 



TABLE OF SQUARES. 

In order that the reader may understand what is meant bj 
' working with a Table of Squares/' we here giye him a diagram :— 







































\ 














/ 


\ 


\ 










_J 


/ 




\1 


, 








/ 








"^^t 








/ 








^ 


X 






/ 










\ 






/ 










\ 


\ 






"^- 










\ 




p 












\ 


c 



I 



Example. — Suppose you have just returned from taking the 
dimensions of a Maifuail—boom, 42 feet; gaff, SO feet; luff, 98 feet; 
and diagonal, 46 feet. The scale of squares i inch to a foot, but we 
shall caU i of an inch to a foot each of the squares, making 4 feet 
instead of 2 feet. First, from the dimensions given, we have the 
difference between the boom and gaff 13 feet, which u equal to three 
squares of the table ; then with the length of luff, A B, measure off 
28 feet ; this done, take the diagonal, A C, 46 feet, and boom, D C, 
42 feet, equal to 10} squares ; mark off the length of diagonal, A G 
— ^the distance your diagonal falls below the tack, B, is the fooUgore^ 
B D, equal 10 feet. 

This method of finding the foot-gore of any fore-and-aft mamsail 
is upon the supposition that the sail is a perfect plane; in other 
woras, that the cloths are laid selvage to selvage. As to the cor- 
rectness of this mode of finding the foot-gore, we would just say — 
that there can be nothing more correct, that is to say, if the squares 



are made correct ; besides, the thing is done in a moment of tii 

Digitized by VjOOgl( 



[me. 

e 



190 



APPENDIX. 



SAILS OF YACHTS. 
It will be recollected that the sails of the America yacht wen 
made of cotton duck; and that the Americans soaped or greased 
their sails for t^ race, to make them hold the wind. It is well 




known that cotton sails are lighter, easier worked, and hold the wind 
better than common canyass. The only advantaffe of heavy canvass 
is that it lies flatter; for this reason the most m our yachts' main- 
sails are made of very heavy canvass. ^g,^^, .^ Googk 



DlMENSIOirS POB CnTTTIKe OUTTEB XAOSTS' SAILS. 191 



With respect to the sails being made flat, enough has been said at 
s 79 of this work, but we should add that in a schooner, if the 
J are not made fai^ the wind from the jib acts against the fore- 
sail, and the eddy irom the foresail against the main, which, in each 
case, tends to retard the vessel's progress. 



The following dimensions are for catting a cutter-yaeht's sails : — 




JHmensums for Cutting out FortsaiL 

FT. IN. 

Stay 36 8) 

Leech 82 OV After stretching. 

Foot 16 Oj 

No foot-gore, except for round. 

Foot-goret. Stay-gores. 

W. IN. 

8 

4 



Cloths. 
1 
2 
3 
4 
D 

6 

7 
8 
9 



63 
61 
47 
46 
45 
45 
44 
43 



...^ 39 OnedfeetrMf 

Digitized by CnOOg IC 



192 



APPBITDIZ. 



Dimensions for Cutting out MainsaiL 

FT. IN. 

Head 26 eqasl 13 olotM. 

Foot 36 equal 18^ dotiifl. 



48 Oiferatehed after fheaaUiiinaMli 

Mast 82 ditto, ditto. 

Head-goze 10 9 

7 3 



Foot-gorak Mast-goref. 



nr. 


nr. 






6 .... 


30 






16 .... 


64 






13 .... 


68 






12 .... 


66 




Head 


11 .... 


71 




gores. 


10 .... 


67 




nr. 








16 




— .1 




12 




«» , 




10 Sladcr 




— .1 




9 nr. 




— , 








— •i 








— •* 








— •• 








,, 






lup .. 


— .. 








"■ .1 








— .1 




8 .... 10 


12 .... 


— .. 




8 .... 10 



Foot-gore 
Gloths. 

1* : 

2 ., 

3 .. 

4 .. 
6 .. 

6 .. 

7 .< 

8 .. 

9 .. 

10 .. 

11 .. 

12 .. 

13 .. 

14 ., 
16 .. 

16 .. 

17 .. 

18 .. 
Hub bsSJL has tbree xeefil^ 6 feet ttpait ; two with points. 

IHmaMiantfor OvMng-<nd Oail^topiaU. 

Head 3)oloths. 

FF. nr. 

Foot 27 9eaaall5do«]is. 

Leech 24 9 after stretddng. 

Luff 33 9ditto. 

Sheet-gore 1 

Head-gore 1 

Foot-gores. 
Olpths. nr. 

1 10 . 

2 8 . 

3 6 . 

4 4 . 

5 8 . 

6 2 . 

7 1 . 

8 . 

9 1 . 

10 2 . 

11 3 . 

12 6 

13 8 

14 12 

15 18 



6np. 




Odownatpeak. 


Luff-gores. 


FT. 


nr. 


.... 211 


.... 2 


8 


.... 2 


7 


2 


2 


2 





.... 2 


4 


2 


6 


.... 2 


7 


.... 2 


7 


2 


y 


.... 2 


2 


.... 1 


2Laf'cdol]i. 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



INDEX. 



A f tor awning, directionB for measuring, 19. 

After haulyards, 172. 

American jibs, 89. 

Ancient fonn of saiLs, 1. 

Angnlated jib, 90. 92; Kipping's, 98; 

Pittard's, 184. 
Anmilated jibe, table of the dimensiona 

Appendix, 105. 
Areas of sails, to find, 137. 
Areas of triangular sails, to find, 130. 
Ankiament of gun-boats, 108. 
Awninffs, 77; directions for measuring, 
12 ; for measuring curtains to, 13. 

Barque's mizen, to find the canyass con- 
tuned in, 28. 

Bermuda sails, 125. 

Bermudarrigged schooner, with short 
gafb, 126. 

Boat sails described, 121 ; Bermuda sails, 
125; herring-boat sails, 128; Uteen 
sails, 127; lugsails, 123; settee sails, 
127 ; spritsailB, 121. 

Boats defined, 121. 

Bolt rope, 42 ; circumference in inches of 
bdt rope for sails, 44. 

Bonnets, cutting out sails with, 83. 

Boom-foresail, 60; cringles for, 60; di- 
rections for measuring, 7; direcUons 
for cutting out, 60 ; measurements, 60 ; 
observations on, 64. 

Bowline cringles described. 61. 

Bmnkin, term defined, f n. 

Canrass for sails, 13, 88; to test the 
quality of, 89 ; to find the canvass con- 
tained in drivers, mizens, &c., 27 ; to 
find the canvass contained in main and 
fore staysails, 27; to find the canvass 
contained in mizen and main topmast 
sails, 29. 

Centre of effort defined, 135 ; to find the, 
136 ; to determine,the position of the, 142. 

Centre of gravity, position of the, in sails 
of different forms, 186. 

Chafing spar, for Cmminj^am's self-reef- 
ing apparatus, 170; scale of sizes, 170. 

Chess-tree, term defined, 8 n. 

Clipper schooner, dimensions of a, 16S. 

Cloths, method of finding tlie number of, 
in sails, 18 ; table showing the number 
of cloths required for courses, topsails, 
Stc.t 17 ; to find the number of cloths 
in the close reef, and the hollow in the 
two leeches of a topsail, 17. 



Clues, 46 ; iron, 47 ; of courses in thi 
merchant service, 46; of main, fore, 
and mizen sails, 49 ; of royals, 49 ; of 
sailij, described, 2 ; of ships' drivers and 
tr^ails, 49 ; of sloops' topsails, &c., 50. 

Colhers, screw rigging and masting of, 110. 

Collinff and Pinkney's self-ree&g and 
forhng^ sails, 175; instruction for furl- 
ing and reefing, 178; mast-makers' 
memoranda, 176; riggers' memoranda, 
177 ; sail-makers' memoranda, 176. 

Concentrated jib described, 90, 94. 

Courses described, 2 ; directions for mea- 
suring, 7. 

Creash^ of seams, 40. 

Cringles described, 50. 

Cringles, bowline, 51. 

Cross-jacksail, 60 ; cringles for, 61 ; gores, 
61 ; lining, 61 ; reefband, 61 ; Cunning- 
ham's self-reefing topsails, 165; de- 
scribed, 166; bonnet described, 168; 
method of adapting the system to the 
common plan, 169; alterations re- 
quired in the sailmakers' department, 
169; alteration in the mast-makers' de- 
partment, 169; repairing, 165 ; to bend 
the sail, 171 ; to hoist the whole topsail, 
171 ; to reef the topsail, 171 ; to shake 
out reefs, 172 ; to reef with the yard on 
the lifts, 172 ; to shift a split dose-reefed 
topsail, and bend iind set another, 172. 

Cutter, with fore and mizen lugsails, 124 ; 
with mainsail and jib, 122. 

Cutting out sails, 30. 

Depth of sails, 5. 

Drawing, geometrical, defined, 131. 

Driver, method of drawing a, 133. 

Earing cringles, 50. 

Barings of a sail, 2. 

EfFort, centre of, defined, 135 ; to deter- 
mine the position of the, 142 ; to find 
the, 186. 

Eye qdices, 48. 

Flat sails, advantages of, 75; superiority 

to c<»icave sails, 80 ; principles of, 81 ; 

rules for making fore-and-aft main 
* sails, spankers, &c., 81 ; amount of foot 

gores, 82; depth of lull, 82; slack, 82; 

spanker, 83. 
Flying jib described, 4. 
Force, moment of, 136. 
Foot of a sail defined, 2. 
Fore-and-aft sails, cutting out, 82; to find 

■ ^ «»^^ %iM-d by Google 



194 



1ND£X. 



Fore-and-aft mainaails, mizeiu, &c., di- 
rections for measaring, 10. 

Forecastle awning, directioiiB farmeasmv 
iiig.l2. 

Fore course, 68; dimensions for cutting 
out, 59: gores, 58; linings, 59; mea- 
suring, 7 ; middle band, 59. 

Foremost haulyards, 172. 

Fore-royal, 8, 71. 

Foresail, 8. 

Foresails, clnes of, 49. 

Foresails of screw steamers, dimensiona 
of, 161. 

Fore spencers, dimensiona of, 160. 

Fore staysaila, 103 ; directions for mea- 
suring, 9, 

Fore topgallant saUs, 8, 70. 

Fore topmast staysails, 98; dimensions 
for catting out, 99. 

Fore topmast staysail, directions for mear 
suring, 8. 

Fore topmast stnddin^^ails described, 75 ; 
directions for measuring, 12; earings, 
76 ; head holes, 76 ; to Imd the gore on 
the head and foot ol, 75. 

Fore topsails, 66. 

Fore trysafl, 3 ; directions for measuring, 

French rig of screw steamers, 119. 

Gaff topsails, dunensions of, 162 ; direc- 
tions for measuring, 11. 

Geometrical drawing defined, 181. 

Geometry, practical, 129. 

Gore, rule for finding the, at the tops of 
buntline cloths, 55 n.; table of the 
givings of, 8&, 85 ; use of table ex- 
plained, 86 ; examples, 87. 

Gravity, centre of, its position in sails of 
different forms, 186. 

Gronunets, 41. 

G onboats described,108 ; annamentof ,108 ; 
dimensions of masts, &c., for a steam 
screw gunboat, 109 ; dimensions of the 
sails of a screw steam gunboat, 109. 

Hanunock cloths, 78. 
Hammock nettings, 78. 
Maulyards, foremost and after, 172. 
Head holes, 41. 
Head of a sail, 2. 
Head sails, 4. 
Herring-boat sails, 128. 
Histiometer, Orr*8, 92. 
Holes of sails, 41 : names for, 41. 
Holes, marling. 46. 

Howe's patent rig, 173 ; to d«teimine the 
size of a topsail on, 174. 

rnner jib, 4. 
Iron clues, 47. 
Iron masts, 107. 

Jacklipe defined, 57. 

Jacksail cross, 60; crin«^es of, 61 ; gores 
of, 61 ; lining, 61; re«t ban^61. 

Jackstays for Cunningham's self-reefing 
apparatus, 169. 

JackiBtays, reefing courses to, 57 : jib de- 
scribed, 4, 89 ; construction of, 89 ; di- 
mensions of, ISO; power of, 89; to 
draw a plan of a 133; angulated, 90, 



92; concentrated, 90, 94 ; standing, 90; 
Kippiiu^s angulated, 93 ; Pittard's an* 



KUMM«u, 186 ; Taylor's, 95. 
Jibs, angulated, table of the dimensions 
of, 148; making, 89; Taylor's table of 
the dimensions of, 152; table of the 
dimensions of standing, 146 ; with long 
tack cloths, table of the dimensions of, 
168. 

Keel defined, 66 n. 

Keel line described, S3. 

Kipping's angulated jib, 93; construction 

descnbed, 93; dimensions for cutting 

out, 94. 

Lateen sails, 127. 

Leeches of a sail, 2. 

I<eeches, cutting, 30 ; to find the hollow 

in the leech m a topsail, 17. 
Line, to bisect a given, 129. 
Linings of sails, 41. 
Lower studding-sails, 74; directions for 

measuring, 11. 
Luff of a sail, 2. 
Lugsails, 123; cutter with fore and mizen 

lugsails, 124 ; gig with lugsails, 124. 

Main course described, 63 ; clues of the, 
56: dimensions for cutting out, 54; 
directions for measuring, 8; linings, 
55; to draw the plan <S the, 131; to 
find the depth of the leech, 54. 

Main deck awning, directions for measur- 
ing, 12. 

Main royal, to draw the plan of, 133 ; to 
determine the size, 71 ; linings for, 71. 

Mainsail, 8; clues of, 49; to determine 
the size of for a biig, 66 ; dimensions 
for cutting out, 57 ; observations on, 67. 

Mainsail of a cutter, dimensions of, 122. 

Main spencer, 8 ; dimensions of, 168. 

Main staysails, 103; directions for mea- 
suring, 8. 

Main topgallant sail, 68 ; cringles for, 70; 
dimensions for cutting out, 69 ; linings 
for, 70 ; to determine the size, 68 ; to 
draw the plan of, 182. 

Main topmast stay, setting up, 9 n. 

Main topmast staysail, 99. 

Main topgallant staysail, 100; dunen- 
sions for cutting the gores, 100. 

Main topmast studding-sails, 75; direc- 
tions lor measuring, 11 ; to find the 
gore on the head and foot of, 76. 

Main topsails, 62 ; cringles of. 64 ; eyelet 
holes, 65; Unings, 64; to determine the 
size, 62; dimensions for cutting out, 
63; to draw the plan, 1S2. 

Main trysail, 8. 

Manilla reef-points, 60. 

Marling holes, 46. 

Masting of steam vessels, 105, 

Masts, dimensions of, ftc, for a steam 
gunboat, 109. 

Masts, iron, 107. 

Masts, measuring, 6. 

Masts of a screw three-decker, dimen- 
sions of, 107. 

Masts, to find the proportions for placing 
in vessels, 146. 



INDEX. 



196 



Masts, tiysail, 17 ». 

Masts, yiffcls, &c., dimensions nf, for a 

screw collier, 113. 
Mizen coarse, directions for catting out a 

frigate's, 88 ; measariiig a, with a gaft 

fixed, 186 ; figures for cutting out, 187. 
' Siizen-royal, 71. 
Mizen-staysail, directions for measuring, 

9 ; dimensions for cutting the gores, 101 
Mizen topmast staysail, 102. 
Mizen topgallant sail, 70 ; directioDS for 

making, 70 ; linings for, 70. 
>Iizen topsail described, 65 ; linings for, 

65. 
Mizen trysail, 3. 
Moment of force defined. 186. 
Moments of sails, to find the, 1S6. 
Moonsails, 8. 

Names of the different parts of a sail, 2 
Nettings, hammock, 78. 

Orr's angulated jib, 92; dimensions for 

cutting out, 92. 
Orr's improvements on the jib, 90. 

Perpendicular, to erect a, 180 ; to let fall 
a, 180. 

Pinkney and Colling's self-reefing and 
furling sails, 175; instructions for using, 
178; mast-makers* memorandum, 176 ; 
riggers* memoranda, 177 ; sail-makers' 
memoranda, 176. 

Pittard's angulated jib, 184. 

Pittard's cutting-board, 179 ; method of 
using ditto, 183 ; directions for measur- 
ing a mizen with gaff fixed, 186 ; di- 
rections for measurhig a spanker, 187. 

Plans of saUs, princiides ctf drawing, 129. 

Points, Manilla reef, 50. 

Poop awning, directions for measuring, 
12. 

Practical geometry, 129. 

Purchases, 4. 

Quadrilateral sails, parts of, described, 2. 
Quarter-deck awning, directions for mea- 
suring, 12. 

Raise a ship's head, power of a sail to, 
145. 

Reef cringles, 50. 

Reefing courses to jackstays, 67. 

Reefs, 41. 

Rig, French, of screw steamers, 119. 

Rig, Howe's patent, 178; to determine 
flie size of a topsail on, 174. 

Rigging of screw colliers, 110. 

Rigging of steam vessels, 106. 

Bang clues, 48. 

Ringtail sails, 168. 

Rope, bolt, 42 ; rules to find the number of 
yams in each strand, 42; to find to 
what length one fathom stretches as it 
comes down in size, 43 ; weight of a 
fathom of rope of various sizes, 42. 

Ropes for expanding sails, 4. 

Ropes, to lengthen with a single strand, 
52. 

Royal Navy, holes in the sails of the, 41 ; 
stretching sails in the, 40 

Hoval staysails, 101. 



Royal studding-iiails, 76. 
Royals, 3, 40 ; directioDS for making, 71; 
measuring, 6. 

SaO-making, canvass for, 88 ; to tiet the 
quality ox canvass fur, 89. 

Sails, defined, 1; described, 2; ccnstiuet- 
ing, practical methods of, 181 ; courses, 
7; cutting out, 80; derivation of the 
names of, 8; ^bbnensions of, 5; forms 
of, 1; head, 4; jibs, 4; parts of de- 
scribed, 2; pliuQS of, to draw, 129; 
power of, to raise or depress a diip's 
head, 146; ropes for expanding, 4; 
twine for sewing, 89 ; preparation of 
twine, 89. 

Sails, flat, advantages of, 76 ; principles 
of, 81 ; fore-and-aft, main, mizen, &c.» 
measuring, 10; to find the cloths for 
ditto, 16 ; gunboat, dimenaions of the, 
of a screw, 109; hexxing boat, 126; 
Uteen, 127 ; main, 8, 56 ; ringtail, 163 ; 
royals, measuring, 6; self-reefing, 166, 
176; settee, 127; shoulder of mutton, 
119; sliding gunter, 127; sprit, 121; 
stay, 8; diroctions for measuring 
ditto, 8; steam vessels, sails of, 106; 
studding, 8 ; directimis for meaaoring 
ditto, 11; triangular lower studding, 
188 ; topgallant, directions for measur- 
ing, 6 ; top, measuring, 6 ; yachts, 190 ; 
dimensions of ditto, 191 ; vards, to find 
the number of, in, 22 ; to find the num- 
ber of, in triangular, 26. 

Sails, after, 4. 

Sails, areas of, to find the, 187. 

Sails, Bermuda, 126. 

Sails, boat, 121. 

Sails that have bonnets, cutting out, 83. 

Sails, calculation of canvass required for, 
13; to find the canvass contained in 
drivers' mizen, &c., 27; to find the 
canvass contained in main and fore- 
stay sails, 27 ; to find the canvass con- 
tained in mizen and main topmast sails, 
29. 

Sails, centre of effort of, 185; centre of 
gravity of, 135 ; clues of, 48; sails of a 
screw collier described, 113; foresail. 
116; fore staysail, 114; inner jib, 114; 
mainsail, 117: mizen, 118; outer jib, 
118: squareHsail, 117; topsail, 115. 

Sails, Colling and Pinkney's, 175. 

Sails, self-reefing and furling, described, 
175. 

Schooner, Bermuda-ngged, 125; Ber- 
muda-rigged, with snare gaffs, 126; 
common rigged, 125. 

Schooner, dimensions of a, 163. 

Screw-coUiers, rigging of. 111. 

Screw steamer's stay foresails, 161. 

Screw steamers, French rig of. 119. 

Screw, three-deckers, dimensions of the 
masts and spars of, 107. 

Seams, described, 89; creasing of, 40; 
allowance for, 18. 

Self-reefing and furling safls, Ck>lling and 
Pinkney's, 175. 

Self-reefing topsail, Cunningham's, 166. 

Settee sails, 127. C^r\nin]i> 

Sheets, towcallsnt, 8.by^^OOgie 



196 



INDEX. 



Ship, principal sails of a. 2. 

Shus, defined, 3. 

8k7Balla.& 

SUdiOff gnnter sails. 127. 

yaam^ deUned, 87 n. 

Spanker, 3; dimensions for catting out, 
84; holes and bolt ropes, 86; Unings, 
86: table of tlie dimensions of, 166 ; 
measurements for a, with ffaff fixed, 
187; flffores for cntttaff out, 188. 

Spar, chaBng for CiinniTigham^s apparatus, 
170; sizes of, 170. 

Span of a screw three-decker, dimen- 
sions, 107. 

Spectacle clue, 48. 

Spenoen, fore, dimensions of, 180; main 
dimensions of, 168. 

Splice, eye, 48. 

Splices, 61. 

Sprits, described, 131. 

Sprit sails, 131. 

Sprit sails, boats', 131. 

Square^eaded sails, cutting out, 80. 

Squares, table of, 189. 

Standing jib, 90 ; clue piece, 91 ; clue rope, 
01 ; table of the dimensions of, 146. 

StargBcers, 8. 

Stajniails, 3 ; dues of, 49 ; dimensions of, 
161; measuring, 8, 97; shapes and 
sizes of, 97. 

Steam vessels, masting of, 106 ; rigging 
of, 106. 

Storm mizen, S. 

Studding-sails, described, 3, 4, 74; clues 
of, 9 ; directions for measuring, 11. 

Studding-stails, fore topmast, 76 ; main 
and fore topgallant, 76; main top- 
mast, 76; royal, 76; dimensions of 
triangular lower, 164; directions for 
cutting out ditto, 188. 

Table, Pittard's cutting, 179; method of 
using, 183. 

Tables, showing the cloths required for 
topsails and courses, 17 ; showing the 
number of cloths required for a certain 
length on the foot of courses, topsails, 
&c., 30 ; of the givings of gores, 84, 86 ; 
use of ditto, 36; examples. 87; of the 
dimensions of angulated jibs, 148; of 
the dimensions of, jibs with long tack 
cloths, 153; of the dimensions of 
standing jibs, 146 ; of the dimensions 
of Taylor's jibs, 163 ; of the dimensiona 
of mainsails, 164 ; of the circumference 
of bolt rope, 44; of the wei^^t of one 
fathom of bolt rope of various sizes, 43 ; 
of the dimensions of a clipper schooner, 
163 ; of the dimensions of the stay fore- 
sails of screw steamers, 161 ; of the 



dimensions of spankers, 166; of tlie 
dimensions of fore-spencers, 160 ; of the 
dimensions of nuun-spencers, 158; of 
squares, 189; of the dimensions of 
staysails, 161; of the dimensions of 
triangular lower studding-sails, 164 ; of 
the dmiensions of gaff topsails, 163. 

Tablings, 40. 

Tack of a sail, 3. 

Tacks. 47. 

Taylor's jib, 95 ; table of the dimensiona 
of, 163 ; improvements on the jib, 90. 

13iree-decker, screw, dimensions of tlM 
masts and spars of a, 107. 

Topgallant sails, 68; directions fur 
measuring, 68; clues of, 49; rules for 
cutting out, 68. 

Towallant sails, main, to draw the plan 

Topgallant studding-sails, measuring, 11. 

Toi^allant sheets, 3. 

Topmasts, measuring, 5. 

Topsails, described, 61; directions for 
cutting out, 63; importance of, 4; 
measuring, 6; to find the hollow re- 
quired in, 17. 

Topsails, brig's, to determine the size of, 
66 ; measurements, 67 ; dimensums for 
cutting out, 67. 

Topsails, Cunningham's self-reefing, 166; 
Howes', 174 ; gattt dimensions w, 163 ; 
main, to draw the plan of, 133. 

Transverse sails, cuttmg out, 30. 

Trapezium, to find the area of a, 137. 

Triangular saDs, parts of, described, 3; 
to find the areas of, 137. 

Triangular lower studding-sails, 74: di- 
mensions of, 164; figures for cutting, 
188. 

Trysail described, 85; depth of luff, 86; 
dimensions for cutting out, 86; mizen, 
86; to draw the plan of, 133; lnigS%87. 

TrysaO mast, 87. 

Twine for sewing sails, preparatimi of, 89. 

Ventilator, or windsail described, 77. 
Vessels, rigging of steain, 106 ; to find 
the proportionB for masting in, 146. 

Whidsails described, 77. 

Width of sails, 6. 

Xebec, with three lateen sails, 137. 

Yachts, saUs of, 190 ; dimensions oi, 191. 

Yards, dimensions of masts, and for a 

screw collier, 113. 
Yards, measuring, 6. 
Yards, to find the number of, in sails, 2% 
Yards, to ihid the number of, in trian 

guhur sails, 86, 37. 



PEnrTBD BT J. 8. VIRTDB AND CO., UMITSP, ^Iffg^^ 



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A Grammar of Colouring, 

Applied to Decorative Painting and the Arts. By Gborgb Fibld. New 
Edition, enlarged, by Ellis A. Davidson. With Coloured Plates . 3/0 

Blementary Decoration 

Asapplied to Dwelling Houses, &c. By Jambs W. Facby. Illustrated 2/0 

Practical House Decoration. 

A Guide to the Art of Ornamental Painting, the Arrangement of Colours in 
Apartments, and the Principles of Decorative Design. By Jambs W. Facbv. 

2/6 
V The last two Work* in One hamUome Vol., half-bound, entitled '* House 
Dbcoration, Elbmbntarv and Practical," j^ce $$, 

Warming and Ventilation 

Of Domestic and Public Buildings, Mines, Lighthouses, Ships, ftc. Bjr 
Charlbs Tomlinson, F.R.S 3/0 

Portland Cement for Users. 

By Hbnrv Faija, A.M. Inst. C.E. Third Edition, Corrected . 2/0 

Limes, Gements, Mortars, Concretes, Mastics, Plas- 
teHng, &C. 

By G. R. BuRNBLL, C.E. Thirteenth Edition . ^ • t • 1 /6 

Digitized by CnOOg IC 



8 weale's scientific and technical series. 
Haaonry and Stone-Cuttinj^. 

The Principles of Masonic Proiection uid their application to Construction. 
ByEDWARD DoBSON, M.R.I.B.A 2/6 

Arches, Piers, Buttresses, Ac: 

Experimental Essays on the Principles of Construction. By W. Blakd. 

Quantities and Measurements, 

In Bricklayers', Masons', Plasterers', Plumbers', Painters', Paperhangers*, 
Gilders', Smiths', Carpenters' and Jomers' Work. By A. C. Beaton 1 /6 

The Complete Measurer: 

Setting forth the Measurement of Boards, Glass, Timber and Stone. By R. 

HoKTON. Fifth Edition 4/0 

•«* 7** miavet ttromgly bound in Uaihtr^ frict 5*. 

Litfht: 

An Introduction to the Science of Optics. Designed for the Use of Students 
of Architecture, Engineering, and other Applied Sciences. By E. Wynd- 
HAM Tarn, M. A., Author of " The Science of Building," &c. . .1/6 

Hints to Toung Arohiteots. 

By Gborgb WiGHTWicK, Architect, l^'ifth Edition, revised and enlar^red 
by G. HusKissoN GuiLLAUMB, Architect 3/6 

Arohiteoture— Orders : 

The Orders and their iGsthetic Principles. By W. H. Lbbds. Illustrated. 

1/6 
JLrohiteoture— Styles : 

The History and Description of the Styles of Architecture of Various ^ 
Countries, from the Earliest to the Present Period. By T. Talbot Bprv, ' 

F.R-I.B.A. Illustrated 2/0 

*«* Ordbrs and Styles op Architbcturb, in One Vol.y y. 6d. 

Arohiteoture— Desig^ : 

The Principles of Design in Architecture, as deducible from Nature and 
exemplified in the Works of the Greek and Gothic Architects. By Edw. 

Lacy Garbbtt, Architect. Illustrated 2/6 

V TAe three precedii^ Works in On* handsome Vol,, half bound, entitled 
"MoDSRN Architbcturb," /ricr 6«. 

Perspective for Be^nners. 

Adapted to Young Students and Amateurs in Architecture, Painting, &c 
By Gborgb Pvne 2/0 

Arohiteotural Modelling in Paper. 

By T. A. Richardson. With Illustrations, engraved by O. Jbwitt 1 /6 

Glass Staining, and the Art of Painting on Oiass. 

From the German of Dr. Gessert and Emanuel Otto Frombbrg. With 
an Appendix on The Art of Enamelling 2/6 

Yitruirius— The Arohiteoture of. 

In Ten Books. Translated from the Latin by Joseph Gwilt, F.S.A., 

F.R.A.S. With 33 Plates 6/0 

N.B.—This is the only Edition ^/Vitruvius ^ocurable at a moderate ^rice, 

Grecian Arohiteoture, 

An Inquinr into the Principles of Beauty in. With an Historical View of the 
Rise and Progress of the Art in Greece. By the Earl op Aberdeen \ fQ 

*•* The two preceding fVorks in One handsome Vol., ha^ bound, entitled 
"Ancient Architbcturb, " price 6*. r^^^^T^ 

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INDUSTRIAL AND USEFUL ARTS. 
Cements, Pastes, Glues, and Gums. 

A Practical Guide to the Manufacture and Application of the various 
Agi^lutinants required for Workshop, Laboratory, ot Office Use. Witk 
upwards ofooo Recipes and Formulae By H. C. Standagb . . 2/0 

Clocks and Watohes, and Belts, 

A Rudimentary Treatise on. By Sir £dmund Beckett, Q.C (Lord 
Grimthorpb). Seventh Rdition 4/6 

The Goldsmith's Handbook. 

Coutaiiung full Instructions in the Art of Alloying, Melting, Reducing, 
Colouring, CoUei.ting and Refining, Rrcovery of Waste, Solders, Enamels, 
&c., &c. By Gemrck E. Gee. Third Edition, enlarged . . .3/0 

The Silversmith's Handbook, 

On the same plan as the G>'Lusmith's Handbook. By George E. Gbb. 

Second Edition, Revised 3/0 

*♦* /'he I -St hvo ^orksy in One handsome Vol,^ half-bound^ 7*. 

The Hall-Marking of Jewellery. 

Comprising an account of all the different Assay Towns of the United 
Kingdom ; with the Stamps and Laws relating to the Standards and Hall- 
Mark.s at the various Assay Offices. By Gborob E. Gee . . 3/0 

Practical Organ Building. 

By W. E. Dickson, M.A. Second Edition, Revised, with Additions 2/6 

Coach-Building : 

A Practical Treatise. By Jambs W. Burgess. With 57 Illustrations 2/6 

The Brass Founder's Manual: 

Instructions for Modelling, Pattern Making, Moulding, Turning, &c. By 
W. Gkaham 2/0 

The Sheet-Metal Worker's Guide. 

A Practical Handbook for Tinsiuiths, (Coppersmiths, Zincworkers, &c, with 
46 Diagrams. By W. J. E. Crane. Second Edition, revised . 1 /6 

Seving Machinery: 

Its Construction, History, &c. With full Technical Directions for Adjust- 
ing &c By J. W. Urquhart, CE 2/0 

Gas Fitting: 

A Practical Handbook. By John Black. Second Edition, EnlaiYed. 
With 1^0 illustrations ... 2/6 

Construction of Door Locks. 

From the Papers of A. C. Houbs. Edited by Charles Tomlinson, F.R.S. 
With a Note upon Iron Safes bv Robert Mallet. Illustrated . 2/6 

The Model Locomotive iSngineer, Fireman, and 
Engine-Boy. 

C- 'mpn.-«iiiK an Historical Notice of the Pioneer Ixx»motive Engines and 
their Inventors. By Michael Reynolds. Second Edition. With 
numeroui> Illustrations, and Portrait ot George Stephenson . . 3/6 

The Art of Letter Painting made Easy. 

By J. G. Bauenoch. With 12 mil-page Engravings of Examples . 1/6 

The Art of Boot and Shoemaking. 

Including Measurement, Last-fitting, cutting-out. Closing and Making. By 
John BkDFORO Leno. With numeroo-s Illustrations. Third Edition 2/0 

Mechanical Dentistry: 

A Practical Treatise on tite Construction of the Various Kinds of Artificial 
Dentures. By Charles Huntbk. Third Edition, revised . . 3/0 

Wood Engraving: 

A Practical an Easy IntKxlaction to the Art. By W. N. Brown . 1 /6 

Laundry Management. 

A Handbook tor Use in Private and Public Laundries. Including Accounts 
of Modem Machinery and Appliances. By the Editor of " The Laundrr 
Journal." With numerous Illustrations. Second Edition . 2/0 



10 WEALE'S SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL SERIES. 



AGRICULTURE, GARDENING, ETC. 
Draining and SSmbanking: 

A Practical Treatise. By Prof. John Scott. With 68 Illustrations 1 /6 

Irrigation and Water Supply: 

A Practical Treatise on Water Meadows, Sewage Irrigation, Warping, &C.; 
on the Construction of Wells, Ponds, Reservoirs, &c By Prof. Johk 
Scott. With 34 Illustrations t /6 

Farm Roads, Fences, and Gates: 

A Practical Treatise on the Roads, Tramways, and Waterways of the 
Farm ; the Principles of Enclosures ; and the different kinds of Fences, 
Gates, and Stiles. By Prof. John Scott. With 75 Illustrations . 1 /6 

Farm Buildings: 

A Practical Treatise on the Buildings necessary for various kinds of Farms, 
their Arrangement and Construction, with Plans and Estimates. By Prof. 
John Scott. With 105 Illustrations 2/0 

Bam Implements and Machines: 

Treating of the Application of Power and Machines used in the Threshing- 
bam, Stockyard, Dairy, &c. By Prof. J. Scott. With 123 Illustrations. 

2/0 
Field Implements and Machines: 

With Principles and Details of Construction and Points of Elxcellence, their 
Management, &c. By Prof. John Scott. With X38 Illustrations 2/0 

A^icultural Surveying: 

A Treatise on Land Surveying 

for Valuing Estates. By Prof. J. Scott. With 62 fllustrations . 1 /6 



A Treatise on Land Surveying, Levelling, and Setting-out ; with Directions 
- "^ Prof. J. Scott. With 62 Illi 



Farm Bngineering. 

By Professor John Scott. Comprising the above Seven Volumes in One, 
1,150 pages, and over 600 Illustrations. Half-bound ... 1 2/0 

Outlines of Farm Management. 

Treating of the General Work of the Farm ; Stock ; Contract Work ; 
Labour, &c. By R. Scott Burn 2/6 

Outlines of lianded SSstates Management. 

Treating of the Varieties of Lands, Methods of Farming, Setting-out of 
Farms, Roads. Fences, Gates, Drainage, &c By R. Scott Burn . 2/6 
*»* TAs above Two Vols, in One^ handsomely half-bound^ price 6*» 

Soils, Manures, and Crops. 

(Vol. I. Outlines of Modern Farming.) By R. Scott Burn . 2/0 

Farming and Farming Economy. 

(Vol. II. Outlines op Modern Farming.) By R. Scott Burn 3/0 

Stock: Cattle, Sheep, and Horses. 

(Vol. III. Outlines ok Modern Farming.) By R. Scott Burn 2/6 

Dairy, Pigs, and Poultry. 

(Vol. IV. Outlines op Modern Farming.) By R. Scott Burn 2/0 

Utilization of Sevage, Irrigation, and Beclaniation 
of Waste Land. 

(Vol. V. Outlines of Modern Farming.) By R. Scott Burn . 2/6 

Outlines of Modem Farming. 

By R. Scott Burn. Consisting of the above Five Volumes in One, 
1,950 pp., profusely Illustrated, half-bound . oig^i.ed b-yGoO^ 12/0 



WEALE'S SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL SERIES. 11 
B€>ok-keepin^ for Farmers and SS state Owners. 

A Practical Treatise, presenting, in Three Plans, a System adapted for all 
classes of Farms. By J. M. Woodman. Third Edition, revised . 2/6 

Ready Reckoner for the Admeasurement of liand. 

By A. Arman. Third Edition, revised and extended by C Norris 2/0 

Miller's, Gom Merchant's, and Farmer's Ready 
Reckoner. 

Second Edition, revised, with a Price List of Modem Floor Mill Machinery 
by W. S. HuTTON, C.E .... 2/0 

The Hay and Strav Measurer. 

New Tables for the Use of Auctioneers, Valuers, Farmers, Hay and Straw 
Dealers, &c. By John Stbblb 2/0 

Meat Producstion. 

A Manual for Producers, Distributors, and Consumers of Butchers' Meat. 
By John Ewart 2/6 

Sheep: 

The History, Structure. Economy, and Diseases of. By W. C. Spoonbr, 
M.R.V.S. Fifth Edition, with fine Engravings 3/6 

Market and Kitchen Gardening. 

By C. W. Shaw, late Editor of " Gardening Illustrated " . . . 3/0 

Kitchen Gardening Made Basy. 

Showing the best means of Cultivating every known Vegetable and Herb, 
&c., with directions for management all the year round. By George M. F. 
Glbnnv. Illustrated . 1 /S 

Cottage Gardening: 

Or Flowers, Fruits, and Vegetables for Small Gardens. By £. Hobday. 

1/6 

Garden Receipts. 

Edited by Charles W. Quin ^ , t /S 

Fruit Trees, 

The Scientific and Profitable Culture of. From the French of M. Du 
Brbuil. Fourth Edition, carefulty Revised by George Glbnnv. With 
x87 Woodcuts 3/6 

The Tree Planter and Plant Propagator: 

With numerous Illustrations of Grafting, Layering, Budding, Implements, 
Houses, Pits, &c. By Samuel Wood 2/0 

The Tree Pruner: 

A Practical Manual on the Pruning of Fruit Trees. Shrubs, Qimbers, and 
Flowering Plants. With numerous Illustrations. By Samuel Wood 1 /S 

*«* TAe abovt Two Vols, m One^ kandsonuly half-bound, ^rict 3'* 6^. 

The Art of Grafting and Budding. 

By Charles Baltet, With Illustrations . . . ^ . i. 2/6 

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12 WEALE'S SCIENTIFIC AKD TECHNICAL SERIES. 



MATHEMATICS, ARITHMETIC, ETC. 
DesoriptiTe Geometry, 

An Elementary Treatise on ; with a Theory of Shadows and of Perspectire, 
extracted from the French of G. Mongb. To which is added a Description 
of the Principles and Practice of Isometrical Projection. By J. F. Hbathbr, 
M.A. With 14 Plates 2/0 

Fraotioal Plane Geometry: 

Giving the Simplest Modes of Constructing Figures contained in one Plane 
and Geometrical Construction of the Ground. By J. F. H bather, M.A. 
With ai5 Woodcuts 2/0 

JLnalytioal Geometry and Gonio Sections, 

A Rudimentary Treatise on. By Jambs Hann. A New Edition, re- 
written and enlarged hy Professor J. R. Young .... 2/0 

Buolid (The Elements of). 

With many Additional Propositions and Explanatory Notes ; to which is 

prefixed an Introductory Essay on Logic. By Hbnrv Law, C.E. . 2/6 

%* Sold also separately ^ vim : — 

ExLOlid. The First Three Books. By Hbnky Law, C.£. . .1/6 

BxLOlid. Books 4, 5, 6, xz, x3. By Hbnrv Law, CE. . * 1/6 

Plane Trigonometry, 

The Elements of. By Jambs Hann 1/6 

Spherical Trigonometry, 

The Elements of. By JambIs Hann. Revised hy Charlbs H. Dow* 

LING, CE 1/0 

V Orwith " The Elements of Plane Trigonometry" in One Volume, a*. 6d. 

Differential Calculus, 

Elements of the. By W. S. B. Woolmousb, F.R.A.S., &c. . .1/6 

Integral Calculus. 

By HoMBRSHAM Cox, B.A. 1/0 

Algebra, 

The Elements of. By James Haddon, M.A. With Appendix, contain- 
ing Miscellaneous Investigations, and a collection of Problems . . 2/0 

A Key and Companion to the Above. 

An extensive repository of Solved Examples and Problems in Algebra. 
By J. R. Young 1/6 

Commercial Book-keeping. 

With Commercial Phrases and Forms in English, French, Italian, and 
German. By Jambs Haddon, M.A 1/6 

Arithmetic, 

A Rudimentary Treatise on. With full Explanations of its Theoretical 
Principles, and numerous Examples for Practice. For the Use of Schools 
and for Self-Instruction. By J. R. Young, late Professor of Mathematics 
in Belfast College. Eleventh Edition 1/6 

A Key to the Above. 

By J. R. Young 1/6 

Bquational Arithmetic, 

Applied to Questions of Interest, Annuities, Life Assurance, and Genera 
Commerce ; with various Tables by which all Calculations may be greatly 
facilitated. By W. Hipslbv 2/0 

Arithmetic, 

Rudimentarv, for the Use of Schools and Self-Instruction. By Jambs 
Haddon, M.A. Revised by Abraham Arman . . .1/6 

A Key to the Above. 

By A- Arman . . . ^-^^^^^^ ^y Cj(30gle 1 /6 



weale's scientific and technical series. 13 

Mathematical Instraments : 

Their Constrnction, Adjustment, Testing, and Use concisely explained. 

By J. F. Hbathbr, M.A., of the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich. 

Fourteenth Edition, Revised, with Additions, by A. T. Walmislby» 

M.I.C.E. Original Edition, in 2 vol., Illustrated .... 2/0 

*«* In ordering the abcve^ be careful to say *\Original Edition^ or give the 

number in the Set ies {311^ to distinguish it from the Enlarged Editum in 

3 vols. {Nos. 168-9-70X 

Drawing and Measuring Instnunents. 

Including— I. Instruments employed in Geometrical and Mechanical Draw, 
ing, and in the Construction, Copying, and Measurement of Maps and 
Plans. II. Instruments used for the purposes of Accurate Measurement, 
and for Arithmetical Computations. By J. F. Hkathbr, M. A . \ /S 

Optical Instruments. 

Including (more especially) Telescopes, Microscopes, and Apparatus for 



producing copies of Maps and Plans by Photography. By J. F. Hkathsr. 
M.A. Illustrated 1/6 

Surveying and Astronomical Instruments. 

Includmg[ — I. Instruments used for Determining the Geometrical Features 

of a portion of Ground. II. Instruments employed in Astronomical Ob« 

servations. By J. F. Hbathbr, M.A. Illustrated . . . .1/6 

\* The above three volumes form an enlargement of the Author* s original worh, 

" Mathematical Instruments : ** price %s. {See No. 33 in the Series.) 

Mathematical Instruments: 

Their Construction, Adjustment, Testing and Use. Comprising Drawing, 
Measuring, Optical, Surveying, and Astronomical Instruments. By J. F. 
Hbathbk, M.A Enlarged Edition, for the most part entirely re-written. 
The Hiree Parts as above, in One thick Volume . . . • 4/6 

The Slide Rule, and How to Use It. 

Containing full, easy, and simple Instructions to perform all Business Cal> 
culations with unexampled rapidity and accuracy. By Charlbs Hoarb, 
C.E. With a Slide Rule, in tuck of cover. Fifth Edition . . 2/6 

Logarithms. 

With Mathematical Tables for Trigonometrical, Astronomical, and Nautical 
Calculations. By Hbnry Law, C.E. Revised Edition . . . 3/0 

Compound Interest and Annuities (Theory of). 

With Tables of Logarithms for the more Difficult Computations of Interest, 
Discount, Annuities, &c., in all their Applications ancl Uses for Mercantile 
and State Purposes. By Fbdor Thoman, Paris. Fourth Edition . 4/0 

Mathematical Tables, 

For Trigonometrical, Astronomical, and Nautical Calculations ; to which is 
prefixed a Treatise on Logarithms. By H. Law, C.E. Together with a 



Series of Tables for Navigation and Nautical A.<(tronomy. By Professor J. 



R. Young. New Edition 



Mathematics, 

As applied to the Constnictive Arts. By Francis Campin, CE., ftc 
Second Edition .... . . 3/0 

Astronomy. 

By the late Rev. Robbrt Main, F.R.S. Third Edition, revised and cor- 
rected to the Present Time. By W. T. Lynn, F.R.A.S. . . . 2/0 

Statics and Dynamics, 

The Principles and Practice of. Embracing also a dear development ot 
Hydrostatics, Hydrodynamics, and Central Force*. By T. Bakbk, C.E. 
Fourth Edition digitized by GoOgk 1/© 



14 WE axe's scientific and technical sebies. 

BOOKS OF REFERENCE AND 

MISCELLANEOUS VOLUMES. 

A Diotionary of Painters, and Handbook for Pictupe 
Amateurs. 

Being a Guide for Visitors to Public and Private Picture Galleries, and for 
Art-Students, including Glossary of Terms, Sketch of Principal Schools of 
Painting, &c. By Philippe Darvl, B.A 2/6 



Painting Popularly Explained. 

By T. J. GuLLiCK, Painter, and John Timbs, F.S.A Including Fresco, 
Oil, Mosaic, Water Colour, Water-GIass, Tempera, Encaustic, Miniature, 
Painting on Ivory, Vellum, Pottery, Enamel, Glass, &c Fifth Edition 5/0 



A Diotionary of Terms used in Architecture, Build- 
ing, Bngineering, Mining, Metallurgy, ArchflB- 
ology, the Fine Arts, &c. 

By John Wealb. Sixth Edition. Edited by Robt. Hunt, F.R.S. 
Numerous Illustrations 6/0 

Music : 

A Rudimentary and Practical Treatise. With numerous Examples. By 
Charles Child Spbncek 2/6 

Pianoforte, 

The Art of Playing the. With numerous Exercises and Lessons. By 
Charles Child Spencer • • * 1 /6 

The House Manager. 

Being a Guide to Housekeeping, Practical Cookery, Pickling and Preserv- 
ing, Household Work, Dauy Management, Cellarage of Wines, Home- 
brewing and Wine-making, Stable Economy, Gardening Operations, &c 
By An Old Housekeeper 3/6 

Manual of Domestic Medicine. 

By R. Gooding M.D. Intended as a Family Guide in all cases of 

. Accident and Emergency Third Edition, carefully revised . . 2/0 

Management of Health. 

A Manual of Home and Personal Hygiene. By Rev. Jambs Baird 1 /O 

Natural Philosophy, 

For the Use of Beginners. By Charles Tomlinson, F.R.S. . .1/6 

The Silectric Telegraph, 

Its History and Progress. With Descriptions of some of the Apparatus. 
By R. Sabine, C.E., F.S.A., &c 3/0 

Handbook of Field Fortification. 

ByMajorW. W. Knollvs, F.R.G.S. With 163 Woodcuts . . 3/0 

Logic, 

, Pure and Applied. By S. H. Emmbns. Third Edition . -1/6 

Locke on the Human Understanding, 

Selections from. With Notes by S. H. Emmens . . * 1 /6 

The Ck>mpendions Calculator 

{Intuitive Calculations). Or Easy and Concise Methods of Performing the 
various Arithmetical Operations required in Commercial and Business 
Transactions ; together with Useful Tables, &c By Danifl O'C^^rman. 
"" mth Editi ' 



Twenty-seventh Edition, carefully revised by C. Morris . 

Digitized by 



WE ALE'S SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAX SERIES. 15 



Measures, Weights, and Moneys of all Nations. 

With an Analysis of the Christian, Hebrew, and Mahometan Calendars. 
By W. S. B. WooLHous«, F.R.A.S., F.S.S. Seventh Edition . 2/6 

Onunmar of the SSn^Iish Tongue, 

Spoken and Written. With an Introduction to the Study of Comparative 
Philology. By Hydb Clarkb, D.C.L. Fifth Editioa . .1/6 

Dicstionary of the Bnglish I^anguage, 

As Spoken and Written. Containing above 100,000 WordK. By HvDS 

Clarkb, D.C.L. ... 3/6 

CompUtt tvith the Gkammak . ... 5/6 

Composition and Punctuation, 

Familiarly Explained for those who have neglected the Study of Grammar. 
By Justin Brbnan. z8th Edition ... • • • 1 /6 

French Grammar. 

With Complete and Concise Rules on the Gendert of French Nouns. By 
G. L. Strauss, Ph. D • . . . l/o 

French-English Dictionary. 

Comprising a large number of ^lew Terms used in Engineering, Mining, 
&c. By Alfred Elwbs 1/6 

Bnglish-Frenoh Dictionary. 

By Alpkbd Elwbs 2/0 

French Dictionary. 

The two Parts, as above, complete n One VoL 3/0 

•»• Or with the Grammar, 4/6* 

French and English Phrase Book. 

Containing Introductory Lessons, with Translations, Vocabularies of Words, 
Collection of Phrases, and Easy Familiar Dialogues . . . '1/6 

German Grammar. 

Adapted for English Students, from Heyse's Theoretical and Practical 
Grammar, by Dr. G. L. Strauss 1/6 

German Triglot Dictionary. 

By N. E. S. A. Hamilton. Part I. German- French-English. Part II 
English-German- French. Part III. French-German-English . . 3/0 

German Triglot Dictionary 

(As above). Together with German Grammar in One Volume . . 6/0 

Italian Granimar 

Arranged in Twenty Lessons, with Exercises. By Alprbd Elwbs . 1 /6 

Italian Triglot Dictionary, 

Wherein the Genders of all the Italian and French Nouns are carefully 
noted down. By Alfred Elwbs. Vol. x. Italian-English-French . 2/6 

Italian Triglot Dictionary. 

By Alfred Elwbs. Vol. a. English-French-Italian . . . 2/6 

Italian Triglot Dictionary. 

By Alfred Elwbs. Vol. 3'. French-Italian-EngUsh . . . 2/6 

Itaiian Triglot Dictionary 

(AsaboveX In One Vol. ... ... 7/6 

Spanish Granunar. 

In a Simple and Practical Form. With Exercises. By Alfred Elwbs 1/6 

Spanish-English and English-Spanish Dictionary. 

Including a large number of Technical Terms used in Mining, Engineering, 
&c., with the proper Accents and the Gender of every Noun. By Alfred 

Flwbs 4/0 

*«"* Or «r<M/>l# Grammar, 6/0- ^ t 

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16 WEALS'S SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL SERIES. 
Portn^esa Orammap, 

In a Simple and Practical Form. With Exercises. By Alfred Elwks 1 /Q 

Portugese -English and SSnglish- Portuguese Dic- 
tionary. 

Including a large number of Technical Terms used in Mining, En^neering, 
&c., with the proper AccenL<; and the Gender of every Noun. By Alfrki> 

Elwks. Third Edition, revised 5/O 

%* Or with the Grammar, 7/0* 

JLnimal Physics, 

Handbook of. By DiONVsrus Lardnbr, D.CL. With 530 Illustrations. 

In One Vol. (732 pages), cloth boards 7/0 

*»* Sold also in Two Parts, as follows: — 
Animal Physics. By Dr. Lardner. Part I., Chapters I.— VII. 4/O 
Animal Physics. By Dr. Lardnbr. Part II., Chapters VIII.— XVIil. 

3/0 



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CROSBY LOCKWOOD & SON'S 
Catalo0tt« of 

Scientific, Technical and 
Industrial Books. 



PAGE 

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . 1 

CIVIL ENGINEERING .... 9 

MARINE ENGINEERING, &g. . 17 

MINING A METALLURGY ... 19 

ELECTRICITY 23 

ARCHITECTURE A BUILDING . 26 

SANITATION & WATER SUPPLY 27 

CARPENTRY A TIMBER ... 28 



PAQK 

DECORATIVE ARTS 80 

NATURAL SCIENCE 82 

CHEMICAL MANUFACTURES . 84 

INDUSTRIAL ARTS 86 

COMMERCE. TABLES, Ac. . . 41 

AGRICULTURE A GARDENING- 48 

AUCTIONEERING. VALUING, Ao. 46 

LAW & MISCELLANEOUS. . . 47 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, &c. 



THE MECHANICAL ENGINEER'S POCKET-BOOK. 

Comprising Tables, Formulae, Rules, and Data : A Handy Book of Reference 
for Daily Use in Engineering Practice. By D. Kinnear Clark, M. Inst. C.E., 
Third Edition, Revised. Small 8vo, 700 pp., bound in flexible Leather Cover, 
rounded corners 6/0 

summary of contents:— mathematical tables.— measurement of sur- 
faces and solids.— english and foreign weights and measures.— moneys.— 
Specific gravity, weight, and volume.— Manufactured Metals.— Steel Pipes. 

— BOLTS and nuts. — sundry ARTICLES IN WROUGHT AND CAST IRON, COPPER. 

BRASS, Lead, Tin, Zinc— Strength of Timber.— Strength of Cast Iron.— 
strength of wrought iron.— strength of steel.— tensile strength of 
Copper, Lead, &c.— Resistance of stones and other Building Materials.— 
RIVETED Joints in Boiler Plates.— Boiler shells.— wire Ropes and Hbmp 
ROPES.— Chains and Chain Cables.— Framing.— Hardness of Metals, Alloys, and 
stones.— Labour of animals.— Mechanical Principles.— Gravity and Fall of 
Bodies.— Accelerating and Retarding Forces.— Mill Gearing, Shafting, Ac- 
Transmission OF Motive power.— Heat.— Combustion : Fuels.— Warming, Venti 
LATiON, Cooking Stoves.— Steam.— Steam engines and Boilers.— Railways.— 
Tramways.— Steam Ships.— pumping Steam Engines and pumps.— Coal Gas, Gas 
Engines, &c.— Air in motion.— Compressed Air.— Hot Air engines.— Water 
power.— Speed of cutting Tools.— Colours.— Electrical Engineering. 

•• Mr. Clark manifests what is an innate perception of what is likely to be useful in a pocket- 
book, and he is really unrivalled in the art of condensation. It is very difficult to hit upon any 
mechanical engineering subject concerning which this work supplies no information, and the 
excellent index at the end adds to its utility. In one word, it is an exceedingly handy and efficient 
tool, possessed of which the engineer will be saved many a wearisome cdculation, or yet more 
wearisome hunt through various text-books and treatises, and, as such, we can heartily recommend 
it to our readers."— 7«« Engineer. 

" It would be found difficult to compress more matter within a similar compass, or produce 
book of 650 pae'es which should be more compact or convenient for pocket reference. . . . W 
be appreciated Dy mechanical engi eers of all cla&ses."— Practical Engineer. 



2 CROSBY LOCKWOOD S- SON'S CATALOGUE. 

MR. MUTTON'S PRACTICAL HANDBOOKS. 
THE WORKS' MANAQER'5 HANDBOOK. 

Comprising Modern Rules, Tables, and ^ Data. For Engineers, Millwrights, 
and Boiler Makers ; Tool Makers, Machinists, and Metal Workers ; Iron and 
Brass Founders, &c. By W. S. Hutton, Civil and Mechanical Engineer, 
Author of "The Practical Engineer's Handbook." Fifth Edition, carefully 
Revised, with Additions. In One handsome Volume, medium 8vo, strongly 
bound 16/(j 

B^^ The Author having compiled Rules and Data for his own use in a great 
variety of modern engineering work, and having found hts notes extremely useful^ 
decided to publish them— revised to date—believtng that a practical work, suited to 
the DAILY REQUIREMENTS OF MODERN ENGINEERS, would be favourably received. 

" Of this edition we may repeat the appreciative remarks we made upon the first and third. 
Since the appearance of the latter very considerable modifications have been made, although the 



'ery c 
total number of pages remains almost the same. It is a very useful collection of rules, tables, and 

^•-hop and drawing office data."— 7"-** Engineer, May lo, 1895. 

" The author treats every subject from the point of view of one who has collected workshop 



notes for application in workshop practice, rather than from the theoretical or literary aspect. The 
volume contains a great deal of that kind of information which is gained only by practical experience, 
and is seldom written in books."— TA* Engineer, June 5, 1885. 

" The volume is an exceedingly useful one, brimful with engineer's notes, memoranda, and 
rules, and well worthy of being on every mechanical engineer's hoo^ishfM."— Mechanical World. 

•* The information is precisely that likely to be required in practice. . . . The work forms 
a desirable addition to the librai^ not only of the works' manager, but of any one connected with 
general enpneering."— iV/«t«^ Journal. 

" Bnmful of useful information, stated in a concise form, Mr. Hutton's books have met a 
pressing want among engineers. The book must prove extremely useful to every practical man 
possessmg a copy."— Practical Engineer. ' 

THE PRACTICAL ENGINEER'5 HANDBOOK. 

Comprising a Treatise on Modern Engines and Boilers, Marine, Locomotive, 
and Stationary. And containing a large collection of Rules and Practical 
Data relating to Recent Practice in Designing and Constructing all kinds of 
Engines, Boilers, and other Engineering work. The whole constituting a com- 
prehensive Key to the Board of Trade and other Examinations for Certificates 
of Competency in Modern Mechanical Engineering. By Walter S. Hutton, 
Civil and Mechanical Engineer, Author of ** The Works' Manager's Handbook 
for Engineers," &c. With upwards of 370 Illustrations. Fifth Edition, 
Revised with Additions. Medium 8vo, nearly 500 pp., strongly bound. 

[Just Published. 18/0 

B^^ This Work is designed as a companion to the Author's "Works* 
Manager's Handbook." It possesses many new and original features, and con- 
tains, like its predecessor, a quantity of matter not originally intended for publication, 
but collected oy the Author for hts own use in the construction of a great variety of 
Modern Engineering Work. 

The information is given in a condensed and concise form, and is illustrated by 
upwards of 370 Woodcuts ; and comprises a quantity of tabulated matter of great 
value to all engaged in designing, constructing, or estimating for Engines, Boilers, 
and other Engineering Work. 

"We have kept it at hand for several weeks, referring to it as occasion arose, and we have not 
on a single occasion consulted its pages without finding the information of which we were in quest." 
—Athenaum. 

" A thoroughly good practical handbook, which no engineer can go through without leammg 
something that will be of service to him."— Marifte Enjsineer. 

" An excellent book of reference for engineers, and a valuable text-book for students of 
enpneetine."— Scotsman. 

"This valuable manual embodies the results and experience of the leading authorities on 
mechanical engineering."— i?«»Vrft«^ News. 

" The author has collected together a surprising quantity of rules and practical data, and has 
shown much judgment in the selections he has made. . . . There is no doubt that this book is 
one of the most useful of its kind published, and will be a very popular compendium."— Enginetr. 

*' A mass of information set down in simple language, and in such a form that it can be easily 
referred to at any time. The matter is uniformly good and well chosen, and is greatly elucidated 
by the illustrations. The book will find its way on to most engineers' shelves, where it will rank as 
one of the most useful books of reference."— Practical Engineer. 

" Full of useful information, and should be found on the office shelf of all practical engineers." 
—English Mechanic. 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, <^c. 
MR. MUTTON'S PRACTICAL HAUDBOOKS-continued. 



STEAM BOILER CONSTRUCTION. 

A Practical Handbook for Engineers, Boiler-Makers, and Steam Users. 

Containing a large Collection of Rules and Data relating to Recent Practice 

in the Design, Construction, and Working of all Kinds of Stationary, Loco- 

motive, and Marine Steam-Boilers. By Walter S. Hutton, Civil and 

Mechanical Engineer, Author of "The Works' Manager's Handbook," "The 

Practical Engineer's Handbook," &c. With upwards of 500 Illustrations. 

Third Edition, Revised and much Enlarged, meduim 8vo, cloth . . 1 8/0 

B^^ This Work is issued in continuation of the Series of Handbooks written 

by the Author, viz. : — " The Works' Manager's Handbook " and " The Practical 

Engineer's Handbook," which are so highly appreciated by engineers for the 

practical nature of their information ; and is consequently written in the same styU 

as those works. 

The Author believes that the concentration, in a convenient form for easy 
reference, of such a large amount of thoroughly practical information on Steam- 
BoiUrs, will be of considerable service to those for whom it is intended, and he trusts 
the book may be deemed worthy of as favourable a reception as has been accorded to 
its predecessors. 

*'Miur r.if [Eie bfiit, iTjiot the fcwFit, books on boilers that has ever been published. The infor- 
matiutv a oL" (In- nght khul, Sn * aU^hMc r*iii! accessible form. So far as g^eneration is concerned, this 
is, undnubteiily, Um AtailiiFinl tuaolc cn ^n- 'tn ptKcik.G.''—Electncal Review, 

" Evaiy Eii^tnj]^ lioih in boiler de^„-l-^ . and management, is clearly laid before the reader. The 
-v^lumB shorn tJirit builcr coDstJUErriQn Lij . i>een reduced to the condition of one of the most exact 
adflDc^ i TUiil Euch a Look 19 nf tlia iitiijfr'>L value to they?;* de Steele En^neer and Works Manager.'* 
— jSiAfktie Eti£iiierr. 

*^T\\KT^ h.-i^ li)n|F Ineen rQQin frir a nindem handbook on steam boilers ; there is not that room 
now, ti'^i- TL-i -b^ Mr, IfiiiiiiFL li.iv nilivL ir, 1: i 5 a thoroughly practical book for those who are occupied 
ill : 5 of boilers."— A«^««r. 

.-.^i^-..j-. _. ..jnprehensive a character that it must find its way into the 

libraries of every one interested in boiler using or boiler manufacture if they wish to be thoroughly 
informed. We strongly recommend the book for the intrinsic value of its conXvnXs,"—Arachin€ry 
Market. 

PRACTICAL MECHANICS' WORKSHOP COMPANION. 

Comprising a great variety of the most useful Rules and Formulae in Mechanical 
Science, with numerous 'Tables of Practical Data and Calculated Results for 
Facilitating Mechanical Operations. By William Templeton, Author of 
" The Engineer's Practical Assistant," &c., &c. Seventeenth Edition, Re>-ised, 
Modernised, and considerably Enlarged by Walter S. Hutton, C.E., Author 
of "The Works' Manager's Handbook,'^ "The Practical Engineer's Hand- 
book," &c. Fcap. 8vo, nearly 500 pp., with 8 Plates and upwards of 250 Illus- 
trative Diagrams, strongly bound for workshop or pocket wear and tear. 6/0 
" In its modernised form Hutton 's * Templeton ' should have a wide sale, for it contains much 
valuable information which the mechanic will often find of use. and not a few tables and notes which 
he might look for in vain in other works. This modernised edition will be appreciated by all who 
have learned to value the original editions of ' Templeton.'" — English Mechanic. 

" It has met with great success in the engineering workshop, as we can testify ; and there are 
a great many men who, in a great measure, owe their rise in life to this little hook."— Building 

" This familiar text-book— well known to all mechanics and engineers— is of essential service 
to the every-dav requirements of engineers, niillwri]^hts, and the various trades connected with 
engineering ancf building. The new modernised edition is worth its weight in golA."— Building 
News. (Second Notice.) 

" This well-known and largely-used book contains information, brought up to date, of the 
sort so useful to the foreman and draughtsman. So much fresh information has been introduced a 
to constitute it practically a new book. It will be largely used in the office and workshop." — 
Mechanical World. 

*• The publishers wisely entrusted the task of revision of this popular, valuable, and useful 
book to Mr. Hutton, than whom a more competent man they could not have found."— /r<m. 



ENGINEER'S AND MILLWRIGHT'S ASSISTANT. 

A Collection of U.seful Tables, Rules, and Data. By William Templeton. 
Seventh Edition, with Aditions. iBmo, cloth 2/6 

"Occupies a foremost place among books of this kind. A more suitable present to an 
apprentice to any of the mechanical trades could not possibly be ina<ie.''— Bui/ding News. 

"A deservedly popular work. It shoukl be in the 'drawer' of every mechanic." — English 
Mechanic. 



CROSBY LOCKWOOD «• SON'S CATALOGUE. 



THE MECHANICAL ENQINEER'5 REFERENCE BOOK. 

For Machine and Boiler Construction. In Two Parts. Part I. General 

Enginkering Data. Part II. Boiler Construction. With 51 Plates and 

numerous Illustrations. By Nelson Foley, M.I.N.A. Second Edition, 

Revised throughout and much Enlarged. Folio, half-bound, net . £3 3sa 

PART I.— Mrasvres.— Circi'mfrrrnces and Areas, &c.. Squares, Cubes. 

Fourth powers.— Sqi'are and Ci'be roots.— surface of Tubes.— Reciprocals. — 

Logarithms. — Mensuration. — Specific Gravities and Weights.— Work and 

Power. — Heat. — CoMBi'STioN.— expansion and Contraction.— Expansion ok 

Cases.— Steam.— .Static Forces.— Gravitation and Attraction.— Motion and 

Computation OF Resulting I'orces.— Acci'mi;latei) work.— Centre and Radius 

OF Gyration.— moment of Inertia.- Centre of Oscillation.— Electricity.— 

Strength of Materials.— Elasticity.— Test Sheets of Metals.— Friction.— 

Transmission of Power.— Flow of Liquids.— Flow of Gases.— Air Pumps, Surfacb 

Condensers. *c.— Speed of Steamships.— Propellers.— Cutting Tools.— Flanges. 

—Copper sheets and tubes.— Screws, Nuts, Bolt heads, &c.— Various Recipes 

and Miscellaneous Matter.— With DIAGRAMS for Valve-Gear, Belting and 

Ropes. Discharge and suction Pipes, Screw Propellers, and copper Pipes. 

part II.— Treating of Power of Boilers.— Useful Ratios.— Notes on 
Construction. — cylindrical Boiler Shells. — Circular Furnaces. — Flat 
Plates.— Stays. — Girders.— screws. — hydraulic Tests. — Riveting. — Boiler 
Setting. Chimneys, and Mountings.— Fuels, &c.— Examples of Boilers and Speeds 
OF Steamships.— Nominal and Normal Horse power.— With DIAGRAMS for all 
Boiler Calculations and Drawings of many Varieties of Boilers. 

"The book is one which every mechanical engineer may, with advantage to himsdf, add to 
his Vi\it»xy."—Indtistri€s. 

" Mr. Foley is well fitted to compile such a work. . . . The diagrams are a great feature 
of the work. . . . Regarding the whole work, it may be very fairly stated that Mr. Foley has 
produced a volume which will undoubtedly fulfil the desire of the author and become indispensable 
to all mechanical engineers."— A/ari«* Engineer. 

•• We have carefully examined this work, and pronounce it a most excellent reference book 
for the use of marine engineers."— yo«r^*tf/ 0/ American Society 0/ Naval Engineers. 

COAL AND SPEED TABLES. 

A Pocket Book for Engineers and Steam Users. By Nelson Foley, Author 

of " The Mechanical Engineer's Reference Book." Pocket-size, cloth . 3/6 

" These tables are designed to meet the requirements of every-day use ; are of sufficient scope 

for most practical purposes, and may be commended to engineers and users of steam."— /tvM. 

TEXT-BOOK ON THE 5TEAM ENGINE. 

With a Supplement on Gas Engines, and Part II. on Heat Engines. By 
T. M. Goodeve, M.A., Barrister-at-Law, Professor of Mechanics at the Roysu 
College of Science, London ; Author of " The Principles of Mechanics," " The 
Elements of Mechanism," &c. Foiurteenth Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth . 6/0 
" Professor Goodeve has given us a treatise on the steam engine which will bear comparison 
with anything written by Huxley or M.ixwell, and we can award it no higher praise."— fn^M^er. 

** Mr. Goodeve's text-book is a work of which every young engineer should possess himself." 
'—Mining youmal, 

ON OAS ENGINES. 

With Appendix describing a Recent Engine with Tube Igniter. By T. M. 

Goodeve, M.A. Crown 8vo, cloth 2/6 

" Like all Mr. Goodeve's writings, the present is no exception in point of general excellence. 
It is a valuable little yo\\xme."— Mechanical n'orld. 

A TREATISE ON STEAM BOILERS. 

Their Strength, Construction, and Economical Working. By R. Wilson, C.E. 

Fifth Edition. lamo, cloth 6/0 

" The best treatise that has ever been published on steam boilers. —Engineer. 
" The author shows himself perfect master of his subject, and we heartily recommend aD 
employing steam power to possess themselves of the v/ork."—Rjfland's Iron Traae Circular. 

THE MECHANICAL ENGINEER'S COMPANION 

of Areas, Circumferences, Decimal Equivalents, in inches and feet, millimetres, 
scjuares, cubes, roots, &c. ; Weights, Measures, and other Data. Also Prac- 
tical Rules for Modem Engine Proportions. By R. Edwards. M.Inst.C.E. 
Fcap. 8vo, cloth. [Just Puhlish^d. 3/6 

"A very useful little volume. It contains many tables, classified data and memoranda, 
generally useful to engineers."— /;»;?«««''• 

" This small book is what it professes to be, viz. :— • a handy office companion,' giving as it 
does, in a succinct form, a variety of information likely to be required by mechanical engineers in 
their everyday office •work.."— Nature. 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, S-c. 



A HANDBOOK ON THE STEAM ENGINE. 

With especial Reference to Small and Medium-sized Engines. For the Use of 
Engine Makers, Mechanical Draughtsmen, Engineering Students, and users 
of Steam Power. By Herman Haeder, C.E. Translated from the German 
with considerable additions and alterations, by H. H. P. Powles, A.M.I.C.E., 
M.I.M.E. Second Edition, Revised. With nearly i,ioo Illustrations. 
Crown 8vo, cloth 9/0 

" A perfect encyclopaedia of the steam eneine and its details, and one which must take a per- 
manent place in Enghsh drawine-offices and workshops."—^ Forenuxn Pattern-maker. 

"This is an excellent book, and should be in tlie hands of all who are interested in the con- 
struction and desi^ of medium-sized stationary engines. ... A careful study of its contents and 
the arrangement of the sections leads to the conclusion that there is probably no other book like it 
in this country. The volunie aims at sliowing the results of practical experience, and it certainly 
may claim a complete achievement of this \d&A."— Nature. 

"There can be no Question as to its value. We cordially commend it to all concerned in the 
design and construction of the steam en^nc." —Mechanical Horld. 



BOILER AND FACTORY CHIMNEYS. 

Their Draught-Power and Stability. With a chapter on Lightning Conductors. 
By Robert Wilson, A.I.C.E., Author of *' A Treatise on Steam Boilers," &c. 

Crown 8vo, cloth 3/6 

" A valuable contribution to the literature of scientific building."— TA* Builder. 

BOILER MAKER'S READY RECKONER & ASSISTANT. 

With Examples of Practical Geometry and Templating, for the Use of Platers, 
Smiths, and Riveters. By John Courtney, Edited by D. K. Clark. 
M.I. C.E. Third Edition, 480 pp., with 140 Illustrations. Fcap. Bvo . 7/0 
" No workman or apprentice should be without this book."— /ro« Trade Circular. 

REFRIQERATINQ & ICE-MAKINQ MACHINERY. 

A Descriptive Treatise for the Use of Persons Employing Refrigerating 
and Ice-Making Installations, and others. By A. J. Wallis-Tayler, 
A.-M. Inst. C.E. Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged. With Illustrations. 
Crown Bvo, cloth. [Just Published. 7/6 

"Practical, explicit, and profusely illustrated."— C/ax^dw Herald. 

" We recommend the book, which gives the cost of various systems and illustrations showingf 
details of parts of machinery and general arrangements of complete \nsXdX\aX\ons."— Builder. 

" May be recommended as a useful description of the machinery, the processes, and of the 
fiKts, figures, and tabulated physics of refrigerating. It is one of the best compilations on the 
•ubject. — £«^'««r. 

THE LOCOMOTIVE ENGINE AND ITS DEVELOPMENT. 

A Popular Treatise on the Gradual Improvements made in Railway Engines 
between 1803 and 1806. By Clement E. Stretton, C.E. Fifth Edition, 
Enlarged. With 120 Illustrations. Crown 8vo, cloth. [Just Published, 3/6 

" Students of railway history and all who are interested in the evolution of the modem loco* 
uotiTe will find much to attract and entertain in this volume."— TA^ Times. 

"The author of this work is well known to the railway world, and no one, probably, has a 
better knowledge of the history and development of the locomotive. The volume before us should 
be of value to all connected with the railway system of this country."— A'a/iov. 



ENQINEERING ESTIMATES, COSTS, AND ACCOUNTS, 

A Guide to Commercial Engineering. With numerous examples of Estimates 
and Costs of Millwright Work, Miscellaneous Productions, Steam Engines and 
Steam Boilers ; and a Section on the Preparation of Costs Accounts. By 
A General Manager. Second Edition. 8vo, cloth. [Just Published. 12/0 

" This is an excellent and very useful book, coverin? subject-matter in constant requisition in 
every factory and workshop. . . . The book is invaluable, not only to the young engineer, but 
also to the estimate department of every works." — Builder. 

" We accord the work unqualified praise. The information is given in a plain, straightforward 
maimer, and bears throughout evidence of the inthnate practical acquaintance of the author with 
every phase of commercial engineering."— /WifcAa«»ca/ iVorld. 



CROSBY LOCK WOOD S- SON'S CATALOGUE. 



AERIAL OR WIRE- ROPE TRAMWAYS. 

Their Construction and Management. ByA.J.WALLis-TAYLER,A.M.Inst.C.E. 

With 8i Illustrations. Crown 8vo, cloth. [/usi Published, TIG 

"This is in its way an excellent volume. Without goingr into the minutiae of the sub|ect, it 

yet lays before its readers a very gfood exposition of the vanous systems of rope transmission m use, 

and ^ves as well not a little valuable information about their working, repair, and managrement. 

We can safely recommend it as a useful general treatise on the subject."— /A^ Ensinetr. 

" Mr. Tayler has treated the subject as concisely as thoroughness would permit. The book 
will rank with the best on this useful topic, and we recommend it to those whose business is the 
transporting of minerals and goods."— A/iniH^' yoitrtial. 

MOTOR CARS OR POWER-CARRIAQES FOR COMMON 
ROADS. 

By A. J. Wallis-Tayler, Assoc. Memb. Inst. C.E., Author of "Modem 
Cycles, ' &c. 212 pp., with 76 Ilhistrations. Crown 8vo, cloth . . 4/6 
" Mr. Wallis-Tayler "s book is a welcome addition to the literature of the subject, as it is the 
production of an Engineer, and has not been written with a view to assist in the promotion of 
companies. . . , The book is clearly expressed throughout, and is just the sort of work that 
an engineer, thinking of turning his attention to motor-carriage work, would do well to read a$ a 
preliminary to starting operations."— ZTwiiV/tf^nw^T- 

PLATING AND BOILER MAKING. 

A Practical Handbook for Workshop Operations. By Joseph G. Horner, 
A.M.I.M.E. 380 pp. with 338 Illustrations. Crown 8vo, cloth . . 7/6 
" The latest production from the pen of this writer is characterised by that evidence of close 
acquaintance with workshop methods which lyill render the book exceedingly acceptable to the 
practical hand. We have no hesitation in conmiending the work as a serviceable and practical 
Handbook on a subject which has not hitherto received much attention from those qualified to deal 
with it in a satisfactory mana^x."— Mechanical World. 

PATTERN MAKING. 

A Practical Treatise, embracing the Main Types of Engineering Construction, 
and including Gearing, both Hand and Machine-made, Engine Work, Sheaves 
and Pulleys, Pipes and Columns, Screws, Machine Parts, Pumps and Cocks, 
the Moulding of Patterns in Loam and Greensand, &c., together with the 
methods of estimating the weight of Castings ; with an Appendix of Tables for 
Workshop Reference. By Joseph G. Horner, A. M.I. M.E. Second Edition. 
Enlarged. With 450 Illustrations. Crown 8vo, cloth .... 7/o 
•• A well-written technical guide, evidently written by a man who understands and has prac- 
tised what he has written about. . . . WecordiaUy recommend it to engineering students, y 



Journeymen, and others desirous of being initiated into the mysteries of pattern-making."— 5«<W«r. 
*' More than 400 illustrations help to explain the text, which is, however, always clear and ex- 
plicit, thus rendering the work an excellent vadt mtcum for the apprentice who desires to bec<«M 
master of his XxdA'&.^—Enghsh Mechanic. 

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING TERMS 

(Lockwood's Dictionary of). Embracing those current in the Drawing Office, 
Pattern Shop, Foundry, Fitting, Turning, Smiths*, and Boiler Shops, &c, &c 
Comprising upwards of 6,000 Definitions. Edited by Joseph G. Horner. 
A.M.I.M.E. Second Edition, Revised, with Additions. Crown 8vo, cl6th 7/6 
"Just the sort of handy dictionary required by the various trades engaged in mechanical eo* 



g. The practical engineering pupil will find the book of great value m his studies, a 



foreman engineer and mechanic should have a copy."— Building News. 

" Not merely a dictionary, but, to a certain extent, also a most valuable guide. It si 

as a happy idea to combine with a definition of the phrase useful information on the subject ol 
which It Ueax&:'— Machinery Market. 

TOOTHED GEARING. 

A Practical Handbook for Offices and Workshops. By Joseph Hornrk, 

A.M.I.M.E. With 184 Illustrations. Crown 8vo, cloth . . 6/0 

1* ^® "*"S* S^v® t*^® hooln our unqualified praise for its thoroughness of treatment, and we can 

heartily recommend it to aU interested as the most practical book on the subject yet written."— 

Mechanical World. 

PIRE5, FIRE-ENGINES, AND FIRE BRIGADES. 

With a History of Fire-Engines, their Construction, Use, and Manage- 
ment ; Foreign Fire Systems ; Hints on Fire-Brigades, &c. By Charlbs 
F. T. Young, C.E. 8vo, cloth . . . . . JT . £1 4s. 

•• To such of our readers as are interested in the subject of f^Si^'^ildf'^rtlpparatus we can 
most heartily commend this booli."— Engineering. 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING. S-c, 



STONE-WORKINQ MACHINERY. 

A Manual dealing with the Rapid and Economical Conversion of Stone. With 
Hints on the Arrangement and Management of Stone Works. By M. Powis 
Bale, M.I.M.E. Second Edition, enlarged. With Illustrations. Crown 8vo, 
cloth. [Just Published. g/Q 

"The book should be in the hands of every mason or student of ston&work."—C0Uiefy 
Guardian. 

" A capital handbook for all who manipulate stone for building or ornamental purposes."— 
Machinery Market. 

PUMPS AND PUMPING. 

A Handbook for Pump Users. Being Notes on Selection, Construction, and 

Management. By M. Powis Bale, M.I.M.E. Third Edition. Revised. 

Crown 8vo, cloth. [Just Published. 2/6 

" The matter is set forth as concisely as possible. In fact, condensation rather than difiiise- 

ness has been the author's aim throughout ; yet he does not seem to have omitted anything likely to 

be of MSit."—y0urttal of Gas Liehting. 

" Thoroughly practical and simply and clearly written."— (P^Iem^i^w Herald. 

MILLING MACHINES AND PROCESSES. 

A Practical Treatise on Shaping Metals by Rotary Cutters. Including 
Information on Making and Grinding the Cutters. By Paul N. Hasluck, 
Author of ** Lathe-Work. " 352 pp. With upwards of 300 Engravings. Large 

crown 8vo, cloth 12/6 

" A new departure in engineering literature. . . . We can recommend this work to aD in- 
terested in milling machines ; it is what it professes to be— a practical \xea!asib."—Engitie€r. 

" A capital and reliable book which will no doubt be of considerable service both to those 
who are already acquainted with the process as well as to those who contemplate its adoption."— 
Industries. 

LATHE-WORK. 

A Practical Treatise on the Tools, Appliances, and Processes employed in 
the Art of Turning. By Paul N. Hasluck. Fifth Edition. Crown 8vo, 

cloth 6/0 

" Written by a man who knows not only how work ought to be done, but who also knows how 
to do it, and how to convey his knowledge to others. To aUtumers this book would be valuable."— 
Engineering. 

" We can safely recommend the work to young engineers. To the amateur it will simply be 
Invaluable. To the student it will convey a great deal of useful information."— ^H^'Mefr. 

SCREW-THREADS, 

And Methods of Producing Them. With numerous Tables and complete 
Directions for using Screw-Cutting Lathes. By Paul N. Hasluck, AutJhor 
of " Lathe- Work," &c. With Seventy-four Illustrations. Fourth Edition. 

Re-written and Enlarged. Waistcoat-pocket size 1/6 

•' Full of useful information, hints and practical criticism. Taps, dies, and screwing tools 
generally are illustrated and their actions described."— iW^cA<i«fV«/ VVorld. 

" It is a complete compendium of all the details of the screw-cutting lathe ; in feet a muUufn- 
in-farvo on all the subjects it treats u^n."— Carpenter and Builder. 

TABLES AND MEMORANDA FOR ENGINEERS, 

MECHANICS, ARCHITECTS, BUILDERS, &c. 

Selected and Arranged by Francis Smith. Sixth Edition, Revised, including 
Electrical Tables, FoRMULi«, and Memoranda. Waistcoat-pocket size, 
limp leather. [Just Published. 1/6 

" It would, perhaps, be as difficult to make a small pocket-book selection of notes and formulae 
to suit ALL engineers as it would be to make a universal medicine ; but Mr. Smith's waistcoat- 
pocket collection may be looked upon as a successful attempt."— Engineer. 

" The best example we have ever seen of 270 pages of useful matter packed into the dimen- 
sions of a caid<ase."— Building News. •• A veritable pocket treasury of knowledge."— /r»«. 

POCKET GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS. 

English-French, French -English ; with Tables suitable for the ArchitectuiaJ, 
Engineering, Manufacturing, and Nautical Professions. By John Tames 
Fletcher, Engineer and Surveyor. Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged. 

200 pp. Waistcoat-pocket size, limp leather 1/6 

" It is a very great advantage for readers and correspondents in France and England to have 
so large a number of the words relating to engineering and manufacturers collected m a Ulliputian 



" It is a very great advantage for readers and correspondents in France and England to have 

je a number of the words relating to engineering and manufacturers collected 

volume. The little book will be useful both to students and travellers."— ^rcAfti^r/. 

" The glossary of terms is very complete, and many of the Tables are new and well anai^fed. 
We cordially commend the hook."— MecM»ical JVorld. 



8 CROSBY LOCK WOOD S- SON'S CATALOGUE, 

THE ENGINEER'S YEAR BOOK FOR 1899- 

Comprising Formulae, Rules, Tables, Data and Memoranda in Civil, Mechanical, 
Electrical, Marine and Mine Engineering. By H. R. Kempe, A.M. Inst. C.E., 
M.I.E.E., Technical Officer of the Engineer-in-Chief's Office, General Post 
Office, London, Author of "A Handbook of Electrical Testing." "The 
Electrical Engineer's Pocket-Book," &c. With about 900 Illustrations, specially 
Engraved for the work. Crown 8vo, 750 pp., leather. [Just Published. 8/0 
" Represents an enormous quantity of work, and forms a desirable book of reference."— TTx 
Efigimer. 

"The volume is distinctly in advance of most similar publications in this country."— 
EHjiiHeerin£'. 

" This valuable and well-designed book of reference meets the demands of all descriptions of 
eafpxieen."—Saturday Review. 

"Teems with up-to-date information in every branch of engineering and construction.' — 
BuiMinsr News. 

" The needs of the engineering profession could hardly be supplied in a more admirable, 
complete and convenient form. To say that it more than sustains all comparisons is praise of the 
highest sort, and that may justly be said of it." — Mining youmal. 

" There is certainly room for the newcomer, which supplies explanations and directions, as 
well as formulae and tables. It deserves to become one of the most successful of the technical 
innua]s."—u4rchiUct. 

" Brings together with great skill all the technical information which an engineer has to use 
day by day. It is in every way admirably equipped, and is sure to prove successful."— Scfl/lrwan. 

" The up-to-dateness of Mr. Kempe's compilation is a quality that will not be lost on the busy 
people for whom the work is intended."— Gtoj^<7w Herald. 

THE PORTABLE ENGINE. 

A Practical Manual on its Construction and Management. For the use 
of Owners and Users of Steam Engines generally. By William Dyson 

Wansbrough. Crown 8vo, cloth 3/6 

" This is a work of value to those who use steam machinery. . . . Should be read by every 
one who has a steam engine, on a farm or elsewhere."— Afar>fe Lane Express. 

" We cordially commend this work to buyers and owners of steam-engines, and to those who 
have to do with their construction or use." — Timber Trades youmal. 

" Such a general knowledge of the steam-engine as Mr. Wansbrough furnishes to the reader 
should be acquired by all intelligent owners and others y/housethesteaaa-enpne."— Building News. 
" An excellent text-book of this useful form of engine. The ' Hints to Purchasers' contain a 
good deal of common-sense and practical wisdom."— J^n^/trA Mechanic. 

IRON AND STEEL. 

A Work for the Forge, Foundry, Factory, and Office. Containing ready, 
useful, and trustworthy Information for Ironmasters and their Stock-takers ; 
Managers of Bar, Rail, Plate, and Sheet Rolling Mills; Iron and Metal 
Founders; Iron Ship and Bridge Builders; Mechanical, Mining, and Con- 
sulting Engineers ; Architects, Contractors, Builders, &c. By Charles Hoare, 
Author of "The Slide Rule," &c. Ninth Edition, aamo, leather . 6/0 

" For comprehensiveness the book has not its equal"- /row. 

" One of the best of the pocket hooks."— English Mechanic. 

CONDENSED MECHANICS. 

A Selection of Formulae, Rules, Tables, and Data or the Use of Engineering 
Students, Science Classes, &c. In accordance with the Requirements of the 
Science and Art Department. By W. G. Crawford Hughes, A.M.I.CE. 

Crown 8vo, cloth 2/6 

" The book is well fitted for those who are either confronted with practical problems in 
their work, or are preparing for examination and wish to refresh their knowledge by gomg through 
their formulae azzxa."— Marine Engineer. 

" It is weU arranged, and meets the wants of those for whom it is intended."— ^ai/w«iy News. 

THE SAFE USE OF STEAM. 

Containing Rules for Unprofessional Steam Users. By an Engineer. Seventh 

Edition. Sewed 60. 

•• If steam-users would but learn this little book by heart, boiler explosions would become 
sensations by their raxity."— English Mechanic. 

HEATING BY HOT WATER. 

With Information and Suggestions on the best Methods of Heating Public, 

Private and Horticultural 'Buildings. By Walter Jones. Second Edition. 

With 96 Illustrations, crown 8vo, cloth ... Net 2/6 

"We confidently recommend all mterested in heating by hot water to secure a copy of this 

valuable little treatise. —rA« Plumber and Decorator. 



CIVIL ENGINEERING, SURVEYING, S-c. g 

CIVIL ENGINEERING, SURVEYING, &c. 

LIQHT RAILWAYS FOR THE UNITED KINGDOM, 
INDIA, AND THB COLONIES. 

A Practical Handbook setting forth the Principles on which Light Railways 
should be^ Constructed, Worked, and Financed ; and detailing the Cost of 
Construction, Equipment, Revenue and Working Expenses of Local Railways 
already established m the above-mentioned countries, and in Belgium, France, 
Switzerland, &c. By J. C. Mackav, F.G.S., A.M. Inst. C.E. Illustrated 
with Plates and Diagrams. Medium 8vo, cloth. [Jt^st Published. 1 6/0 

"Mr. Mackay's volume is clearly and concisely written, adiuirably arranged, and freely 

illustrated. The book is exactly what has been long wanted. We recommend it to all interested 

in the sublect. It is sure to have a wide sale." — Rainvav News. 

" Tnose who desire to have within reach general information concerning almost all the light 

railway systems in the world will do well to buy Mr. Mackay's hook."— Enj^fuer. 

" This work appears very opportunely, when the extension of the system on a large scale to 

England is at last being mooted. In its pages we find all the information that the heart of man can 

desire on the subject. . . . every detail m its story, founded on the experience of other countries 

and applied to the possibilities of England, is put before us."—S^ectafo^. 

PRACTICAL TUNNELLING. 

Explaining in detail Setting-out the Works, Shaft -sinking, and Heading-driving, 
Ranging the Lines and Levelling undereround, Sub-Excavating, Timbering 
and the Construction of the Brickwork of Tunnels, with the amount of Labour 
required for, and the Cost of, the various portions of the work. By Frederick 
W. SiMMS. M.Inst. C.E. Fourth Edition, Revised and Further Extended, 
including the most recent (1895) Examples of Sub-aqueous and other Tunnels, 
by D. KiNNEAR Clark, M. Inst. C.E. Imperial 8vo, with 34 Folding Plates 
and other Illustrations. Cloth. [Ji*st Pubhshed. £2 2s. 

" The present (1896) edition has been brought right up to date, and is thus rendered a work to 
which civil engineers generally should have ready access, and to which engineers who have con- 
struction work can hardly afford to be without, but which to the younger members of the profession 
is invaluable, as from its pages they can learn the state to which the science of tunnelling has 
attained."— iCat/zfoy News. 

" The estimation in which Mr. Simms's book has been held for many years cannot be more 
truly expressed than in the words of the late Prof. Kankine: 'The best source of information on 
the subject of tunnels is Mr. F. W. Simms's work on Practical Tunnelling.' "— Architect. 

THE WATER 5UPPLY OF TOWNS AND THE CON- 
STRUCTION OP WATBR-WORKS. 

A Practical Treatise for the Use of Engineers and Students of En^fineering. 
By W. K. Burton, A.M. Inst. C.E., Professor of Sanitary Engineenng in the 
Imperial University, Tokyo, Japan, and Consulting Engineer to the Tokyo 
Water-works. Second Edition, Revised and Extended. With numerous 
Plates and Illustrations. Super -royal Svo, buckram. [Just Published. 26/0 
I. Introductory. — II. Different Qualities of Water. — III. quantity of 
water to be provided.— iv. on ascertaining whether a proposed source of 
Supply is Sufficient.— v. on Estimating the Storage Capacity required 
TO BB Provided.- VI. Classification of Water-works.— Vll. impounding reser- 
voirs.— Vlll. EARTHWORK DAMS.— IX. MASONRY DAMS.— X. THE PURIFICATION OF 

Water.— XI. Settling Reservoirs.— XII. Sand Filtration.— XIII. Purification 
OF Water by Action of iron, Softening of Water by action of Lime, Natural 
Filtration.— XIV. Service or Clean water Reservoirs- Water Towers— Stand 
Pipes.— XV. The Connection of Settling reservoirs. Filter Beds and Service 
Reservoirs.— XVI. Pumping Machinery.— XVII. flow of water in Conduits- 
Pipes and Open Channels.— XVIII. Distribution Systems.— XIX. Special Pro- 
visions FOR THE Extinction of Fire.— XX. pipes for Water-works.— XXI. pre- 
vention OF Waste of Water.— XXII. Various Applications used in Connection 
with water-works. 

APPENDIX I. By PROF. JOHN MILNE. F.R.S.— CONSIDERATIONS CONCERNING THE 
PROBABLE EFFECTS OF EARTHQUAKES ON WATER-WORKS, AND THE SPECIAL PRE- 
CAUTIONS TO BE TAKEN IN EARTHQUAKE COUNTRIES. 

Appendix II. By JOHN DE RIJKE, C.E.— ON Sand Dunes and Dune Sand as 
A Source of water Supply. 

•• The chapter upon filtration of water is very complete, and the details of construction well 
illustrated. . . . The work should be specially valuable to civil engineers engaged in work in 
Japan, but the interest is by no means confined to that locality." — Engineer. 

" We congratulate the author upon the practical comraonsense shown in the preparation of 
this work. . . . The plates and aiagrams have evidently been prepared with great care, and 
cannot fail to be of great assistance to the student."— 5;<«Vflfe»^. 

" The whole art of water-works construction is dealt with in a clear and comprehensive fashion 
in this handsome volume. . . . Mr. Burton's practical treatise shows in all its sections the fruit 
of independent study and individual experience. It is larjg^ely based upon his own practice in the 
branch of engineering of which it tteaXs." Saturday Review. 



CROSBY LOCKWOOD 6* SON'S CATALOGUE. 



THE WATER SUPPLY OF CITIES AND TOWNS. 

By William Humber, A. M. Inst. C.E., and M. Inst. M.E., Author of "Cast 
and Wrought Iron Bridge Construction," &c., &c Illustrated with 50 Double 
Plates, I single Plate, Coloured Frontispiece, and upwards of 250 Woodcuts, 
and containing 400 pp. of Text. Imp. 4to, elegantly and substantially 

balf-bound in morocco Net £6 6s. 

List of Contents. 
I. HISTORICAL Sketch of some of the means that have been adopted for 

THE SUPPLY OF WATER TO CITIES AND TOWNS.— II. WATER AND THE FOREIGN MATTER 
USUALLY ASSOCIATED WITH IT.— III. RAINFALL AND EVAPORATION.— IV. SPRINGS AND 

THE Water-bearing Formations of various Districts.— v. Measurement and 

ESTIMATION of THE FLOW OF WATER.— VI. ON THE SELECTION OF THE SOURCE OF 
SUPPLY.— VII. WELLS.— VIII. RESERVOIRS.— IX. THE PURIFICATION OF WATER.— 
X. PUMPS.— XI. PUMPING MACHINERY.— XII. CONDUITS.— XIII. DISTRIBUTION OF WATER. 
—XIV. METERS, SERVICE PIPES, AND HOUSE FITTINGS.— XV. THE LAW OF ECONOMY OF 

Water-works.- XVI. Constant and intermhtent Supply.— XVII. Description of 
PLATES.— Appendices, giving Tables of Rates of iSupply, Velocities, &c., &c., 

TOGETHER WITH SPECIFICATIONS OF SEVERAL WORKS ILLUSTRATED, AMONG WHICH 
WILL BE FOUND : ABERDEEN, BiDEFORD, CANTERBURY, DUNDEE, HALIFAX, LAMBETH, 
ROTHERHAM, DUBLIN, AND OTHERS. 

" The most systematic and valuable work upon water supply hitherto produced in English, or 
in any other language. . . . Mr. Humber's work is characterised almost throughout by an 
exhaustiveness much more distinctive of French and German than of English technical treatises." — 
Engineer. 

RURAL WATER SUPPLY. 

A Practical Handbook on the Supply of Water and Construction of Water- 
works for small Country Districts. By Allan Greenwell, A.M.I.C.E., 
and W. T. Curry, A.M.I.C.E., F.G.S. With Illustrations. Second Edition, 
Revised. Crown 8vo, cloth. {Just Published. 6/0 

" We conscientiously recommend it as a very useful book for those concerned in obtaining 
water for small districts, giving a great deal of i)ractical information in a small compass." — Builder. 
•* The volume contains valuable information upon all matters connected with water supply. 
. . It is full of details on points which are continually before water- works engineers." — 
Nature. 

HYDRAULIC TABLES, CO-EFFICIENTS, & FORMUL^C- 

For Finding the Discharge of Water from Orifices, Notches, Weirs, Pipes, and 

Rivers. With New Formulae, Tables, and General Information on Rain-fall. 

Catchment-Basins, Drainage, Sewerage, Water Supply for Towns and Mill 

Power. By John Neville, Civil Engineer, M.R.I.A. Third Edition, 

revised, with additions. Numerous Illustrations. Crown 8vo, cloth . 1 4/0 

" It is, of all English books on the subject, the one nearest to completeness. . . . From 

the good arrangement of the matter, the clear explanations and abundance of formulae, the carefully 

calculated tables, and, above all, the thorough acquaintance with both theory and construction, 

which is displayed from first to last, the book will be found to be an zcK!^\si'i\o\\J^— Architect. 

HYDRAULIC MANUAL. 

Consisting of Working Tables and Explanatory Te.xt. Intended as a Guide in 
Hydraulic Calculations and Field Operations. By Lowis D'A. Jackson, 
Author of "Aid to Survey Practice," "Modern Metrology," &c. Foiuth 

Edition, Enlarged. Large crown 8vo, cloth 1 6/0 

" The author has had a wide experience in hydraulic engineering and has been a careful 

observer of the facts which have come under his notice, and from the great mass of material at his 

command he has constructed a manual which may be accepted as a trustworthy guide to this 

branch of the engineer's profession."— £«^>»«r»«^''. 

" The most useful feature of this work is its freedom from what is superannuated, and its 

thorough adoption of recent experiments ; the text is in fact in great part a short account of the 

great modem experiments."— A^a^««. 

WATER ENGINEERING. 

A Practical Treatise on the Measurement, Storage, Conveyance, and Utilisa- 
tion of Water for the Supply of Towns, for Mill Power, and for other Purposes. 
By C. Slagg, a. M. Inst. C.E. Second Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth . 7/6 
" As a small practical treatise on the water supply of towns, and on some applications of water- 
power, the work is in many respects viiCfSL<&aX.."— Engineering. 

*• The author has collated the results deduced from the experiments of the most eminent 
authorities, and has presented them in a compact and practical form, accompanied by very clear 
and detailed explanations. . . . The apphcation of water as a motive power is treated very 
carefully and exhaustively."— i^t/tVoi^r. 



CIVIL ENGINEERING, SURVEYING, S-c. 



MA50NRY DAM5 PROM INCEPTION TO COMPLETION. 

Including numerous Formulae, Forms of Specification and Tender, Pocket 
Dii^am of Forces, &c For the use of Civil and Mining Engineers. By 
C. F. Courtney, M. Inst. C.E. 8vo, cloth. [Just Published, 9/0 



RIVER BAR5. 

The Causes of their Formation, and their Treatment by " Induced llda] 
Scour ; " with a Description of the Successful Reduction bv this Method of 
the Bar at Dublin. By I. J. Mann, Assist. £ng. to the Dublin Port and Docks 
Board. Royal 8vo, cloth 7/6 

" We recommend all interested in harbour works— and, indeed, those concerned in the 
Improvementsofriveis generally— to read Mr. Mann's interesting work on the treatment of lirer 

DRAINAGE OF LANDS, TOWNS AND BUILDINGS. 

By G. D. Dempsey, C.E. Revised, with large Additions on Recent Pkac- 

TiCE IN Drainage Engineering, by D. Kinnear Clark, M. Inst. C.E^ 

Author of * ' Tramways : their Construction and Working. " Cr. 8vo, cloth . 4/6 

" The new matter added to Mr. Dempsey 's excellent work is characterised by the compi*> 

hensive grasp and accuracy of deuil for which the name of Mr. D. K. Clark is a suflkient 

voucher. —Athenautn. 

TRAMWAYS: THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND WORKING. 

Embracing a Comprehensive History of the System ; with an exhaustiYe 

Analysis of the Various Modes of Traction, including Horse Power, Steam, 

Cable Traction, Electric Traction, &c. ; a Description of the Varieties of 

Rolling Stock ; and ample Details of Cost and Working Expenses. New 

Edition, Thoroughljr Revised, and Including the Progress recently made in 

Tramway Construction, &c., &c. By D. Kinnear Clark, M. Inst. CE. 

With 400 Illustrations. 8vo, 780 pp., buckram. [Just Published. 28/0 

" Although described as a new edition, this book is really a new one, a large part of it, which 

covers historical ground, having been re-written and amplified ; while the parts which relate to all 

that has been done since 1883 appear in this edition only. It is sixteen years since the first edir' 

appeared, and twelve years smce the supplementary volume to the first book was pubUsl 

After a lapse, then, of twelve years, it is obvious that the author has at his disposal a ^ 

quantity of descriptive and statistical information, with which he may, and has, produced a 

volume of great value to all interested in tramway construction and workmg. The new volume is 

one which will rank, among tramway engineers and those interested in tramway working, with Us 

world-famed book on railway machinery."— 77i* Engineer, March 8, 1895. 

PRACTICAL SURVEYING. 

A Text-Book for Students preparing for Examinations or for Survey-work in 
the Colonies. By George W. Usill, A.M.I.C.E. With 4 Plates and up- 
wards of 3%> Illustrations. Fifth Edition, Revised and Enlarged. Including 
Tables of Natural Sines, Tangents, Secants, &c. Crown 8vo, cloth 7/6 ; o«"» 
on Thin Paper, bound in limp leather, gilt edges, rounded comers, for 

pocket use 1 2/6 

" The best forms of instruments are described as to their construction, uses and modes 
of employment, and there are innumerable hints on work and equipment such as the author, in 
his experience as surveyor, draughtsman and teacher, has found necessary, and which the student 
in his mexperience will find most serviceable."— ^^M^'»««r. 

" The latest treatise in the English language on surveying, and we have no hesitation in say^ 
Ing that the student will find it a better guide than any of its predecessors. Deserves to be 
recognised as the first book which should be put in the hands of a pupil of Civil Engineering."^ 
Architect. 

AID TO 5URVEY PRACTICE. 

For Reference in Surveying, Levelling, and Setting-out; and in Route Sur- 
veys of Travellers by Land and Sea. With Tables, Illustrations, and Records. 
By Lewis D'A. Jackson, A.M.I.C.E. Second Edition, Enlarged. Large 

crown 8vo, cloth 1 Qj^ 

" Mr. Jackson has produced a valuable vade-nucutn for the surveyor. We can recommend 
this book as containing an admirable supplement to the teaching of the accomplished surreyor."— 
AUunaum. 

" As a text-book we should advise all survmrors to place it in their libraries, and stu^ wdl 
the matured instructions afforded in its pages."— Col/icry Guardian. 

" The author brings to his work a fortunate union of theory and practical experience wUch, 
aided by a clear and lucid style of writing, renders the book a very useful one."— Builder. 



12 CROSBY LOCKWOOD 6- SON'S CATALOGUE. 
ENQINEER'S & MINING SURVEYOR'S FIELD BOOK. 

Consisting of a Series of Tables, with Rules, Explanations of Systems, and 
use of Theodolite for Traverse Surveying and plotting the work with minute 
accuracy by means of Straight Edge and Set Square only ; Levelling with the 
Theodolite, Casting-out and Reducing Levels to Datum, and Plotting Sections 
in the ordinary manner; Setting-out Curves with the Theodolite by Tangential 
Angles and Multiples with Right and Left-hand Readings of the Instrument ; 
Setting-out Curves without Theodolite on the System of Tangential Angles by 
Sets of Tangents and Offsets ; and Earthwork Tables to 80 feet deep, calcu- 
lated for every 6 inches in depth. By W. Davis Haskoll, C.E. With 
numerous Woodcuts. Fourth Edition, Enlarged. Crown 8vo, cloth . 1 2/0 
•• The book is very handy ; the separate tables of sines and tangfents to every minute will make 

It useAil for many other purposes, the g^enuine traverse tables existing all the sa.me"—Athetueutn. 
"Every person engaged in en^neering field operations will estimate the importance of such 

a woik and the amount of valuable tune which will be saved by reference to a set of reliaUe tables 
'i with the accuracy and fulness of those given in this volume."— ^at'/waj^ News. 



LAND AND MARINE SURVEYING. 

In Reference to the Preparation of Plans for Roads and Railways ; Canals, 
Rivers, Towns' Water Supplies; Docks and Harbours. With Description 
and Use of Survejnng Instruments. By W. Davis Haskoll, C.E. Second 
Edition, Revised, with Additions. Large crown Svo, cloth . . . 8/0 
" This book must prove of great value to the student. We have no hesitation in recom- 
Qg it. feeling assured that it will more than repay a careful sXuAy."— Mechanical IVorld. 
"A most useful book for the student. We strongly recommend it as a carefully-written 
valuable text-book. It enioys a well-deserved repute among surveyors."— i?««V<fer. 

This volume cannot fail to prove of the utmost practical utility. It may be safely recom- 
" to aU students who aspire to become clean and expert surveyors."— A/»«t«^ youmal. 

PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF LEVELLING. 

Showing its Application to Purposes of Railway and Civil Engineering in 
the Construction of Roads ; with Mr. Telford's Rules for the same. By 
Frederick W. Simms, F.G.S., M. Inst. C.E. Eighth Edition, with the 
addition of Law's Practical Examples for Setting-out Railway Curves, and 
Trautwine's Field Practice of Laying-out Circular Curves. With 7 Plates 

and numerous Woodcuts, Bvo, cloth 8/6 

%* Trautwine on Curves may be had separate 6/0 

"The text-book on levelling in most of our engineering schools and colleges."— £«fii«<«r. 

"The publishers have rendered a substantial service to the profession, especisuly to the 
mbers, by bringing out the present edition of Mr. Simms's useful work." — Engineering. 



AN OUTLINE OF THE METHOD OF CONDUCTING 
A TRiaONOMBTRICAL SURVEY. 



For the Formation of Geoj 
tary Reconnaissance, 



)f Geographical and Topographical Maps and Plans, Mili- 
I, LEVELLING, &c., wth Useful Problems, Formulae, 
and Tables. By Lieut. -General Frome, R.E. Fourth Edition, Revised and 
mu-tly Re-written by Major-General Sir Charles Warren, G.C.M.G., R.E. 
With 19 Plates and 115 Woodcuts, royal Svo, cloth .... 16/0 
" No words of praise from us can strengthen the position so well and so steadily maintained 
by this work. Sir Charles Warren has revised the entire work, and made such additions as wers 
r to bring every portion of the contents up to the present AsXe."— Broad Arrow. 



TABLES OF TANGENTIAL ANGLES AND MULTIPLES 
FOR 5ETTING-OUT CURVB^S. 

From 5 to 200 Radius. By A. Beazelev, M. Inst. C.E. 6th Edition, 
Revised. With an Appendix on the use of the Tables for Measuring up 
Curves. Printed on 50 Cards, and sold in a cloth box, waistcoat-pocket size. 

[Just Published. 3/6 
" Each table is printed on a card, which, placed on the theodolite, leaves the hands free 
to manipulate the instrument— no small advantage as regards the rapidity oi ytorV.."— Engineer, 

" Wtxy handy : a man may know that all his day's work must fall on two of these cards, which 
be puts into his own card-case, and leaves the rest \>faa.nA."—Athe*taum. 

HANDY GENERAL EARTH-WORK TABLES. 

Giving the Contents in Cubic Yards of Centre and Slopes of Cuttings and 
Embankments from 3 inches to 80 feet in Depth or Height, for use with either 
66 feet Chain or 100 feet Chain. By J. H. Watson Buck, M. Inst C.E. 
On a Sheet mounted in cloth case. [/««* Published, 3/6 



CIVIL ENGINEERING, SURVEYING, &k, 13 



EARTHWORK TABLES. 

Showing the Contents in Cubic Yards of Embankments, Cuttings, &c., of 

Heights or Depths up to an average of 80 feet. By Joseph Broadbent, C.E., 

and Francis Cam pin, C.E. Crown 8vo, cloth ... . 6/0 

" The way in which accuracy is attained, by a simple division of each cross section into three 

elements, two in which are constant and one variable, is \ng&aXo\xs."—Athettaiim. 

A MANUAL ON EARTHWORK. 

By Alex. J. S. Graham, C.E. With numerous Diagrams. Second Edition. 
i8rao, cloth 2/6 

THE CONSTRUCTION OF LARGE TUNNEL SHAFTS. 

A Practical and Theoretical Essay. By T. H. Watson Buck, M. Inst. C.E., 

Resident Engineer, L. and N. W. R. With Folding Plates, Svo, cloth 1 2/0 

" Many of the methods given are of extreme practical value to the mason, and the obsenrsp 

tions on the form of arch, the rules for ordering the stone, and the construction of the temi ' ' 

wiU be found of considerable use. We commend the boolc to the engineering prof 

Building News. 

" Will be regarded by civil engineers as of the utmost value, and calculated to save much 
time and obviate many mistakes."— Coiliery Guardian. 

CAST & WROUGHT IRON BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION. 

(A Complete and Practical Treatise on), including Iron Foundations. In 
Three Parts. — Theoretical, Practical, and Descriptive. By William Humbbk, 
A. M.Inst. C.E., and M. Inst. M.E. Third Edition, revised and much im- 
proved, with 115 Double Plates (20 of which now first appear in this edition), 
and numerous Additions to the Text. In 2 vols., imp. 4to, half-bound in 

morocco £6 16s. 60. 

" A ve^ valuable contribution to the standard literature of civil engineering. In addition to 
elevations, plans, and sections, large scale details are given, which very much enhance the 
instructive worth of those \31usXT7itions."— Civil Engineer and Ardiitecfs yoiimal. 

"Mr. number's stately volumes, lately issued— in which the most important bridges 
erected during the last five years, under the direction of the late Mr. Brunei, Sir W. Cuntt, 
Mr. Hawkshaw, Mr. Page, Mr. Fowler. Mr. Hemans, and others among our most eminent 
engineers, are drawn and specified in great ^^tXx^"— Engineer. 

ESSAY ON OBLIQUE BRIDGES 

(Practical and Theoretical). With 13 large Plates. By the late Gborgb 
Watson Buck, M.I.C.E. Fourth Edition, revised hy his Son, J. H. Watson 
Buck, M.I.C.E. ; and with the addition of Description to Diagrams for 
F.icilitating the Construction of Oblique Bridges, by W. H. Barlow, M.I.CE. 

Royal Svo, cloth 1 2/0 

"The standard text-book for all engineers regarding skew arches is Mr. Buck's t 
and it would be impossible to consult a \i«t\.XKt."— Engineer. 

" Mr. Buck's treatise is recognised as a standard text-book, and his treatment has < 

the subject of manv of the intricacies supposed to belong to it. As a guide to the engii^ 

architect, on a confessedly difficult subject, Mr. Buck's work is unsurpassed."— ^wt/d(t»^ News. 

THE CONSTRUCTION OF OBLIQUE ARCHES 

(A Practical Treatise on). By John Hart. Third Edition, with Plates. 
Imperial Svo, cloth 8/0 

GRAPHIC AND ANALYTIC STATICS. 

In their Practical Application to the Treatment of Stresses in Roofs, Solid 
Girders, Lattice, Bowstring, and Suspension Bridges, Braced Iron Arches and 
Piers, and other Frameworks. By R. Hudson Graham, C.E. Containing 
Diagrams and Plates to Scale. With numerous Examples, many taken from 
existing Structures. Specially arranged for Class-work in Colleges and 
Universities. Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged. Svo, cloth . 1 6/0 
" Mr. Graham's book will find a place wherever graphic and analytic statics are used or 
studied. "—Engineer. 

" The work is excellent from a practical point of view, and has evidently been prepared 
with much care. The directions for working are simple, and are illustrated by an abundance of 
weU-selected examples. It is an excellent text-book for the practical draughtsman."— .<¥<Acm«hm. 

PRACTICAL GEOMETRY, 

For the Architect, Engineer, and Mechanic. Giving Rules for the Delineation 
and Application of various Geometrical Lines, Figures, and Curves. By 

E. W. Tarn, M.A., Architect. 8vo, cloth 9/0 

" No book with the same objects in view has ever been published in which the cleanwM of 
the rules laid down and the illustrative diagrams have been so satisfactory."— <S^a<!»Mai*. 



14 CROSBY LOCKWOOD <5- SON'S CATALOGUE. 

THE GEOMETRY OF C0MPA55E5. 

Or, Problems Resolved by the mere Description of Circles and the Use of 
Coloured Diagrams and Symbols. By Oliver Byrne. Coloured Plates. 
Crown 8vo, cloth 3/8 

WEIGHTS OF WROUGHT IRON & STEEL GIRDERS. 

A Graphic Table for Facilitating the Computation of the Weights of Wrought 
Iron and Steel Girders, &c., for Parliamentary and other Estimates, By 
J. H.Watson Buck, M.Inst. C.E. On a Sheet 2/6 

HANDY BOOK FOR THE CALCULATION OP STRAINS 

In Girders and Similar Structures and their Strength. Consisting of Formulas 
and Corresponding Diagrams, with numerous details for Practical Applica- 
tion, &c. By William Humber, A. M. Inst. C.E., &c. Fifth Edition. 
Crown 8vo, with nearly loo Woodcuts and 3 Plates, cloth . . . 7/6 

"The fonnulae are neatlv expressed, and the diaerams good."— A thenaum. 

" We heartily commend this really handy book to our engineer and architect readers."— 
En^Hsh Mechanic. 

TRUSSES OF WOOD AND IRON. 

Practical Applications of Science in Determining the Stresses, Breaking 
Weights, Safe Loads, Scantlings, and Details of Construction. With Complete 
Working Drawings. By William Griffiths, Surveyor, Assistant Master, 
Tranmere School of Science and Art. Oblong 8vo, cloth . . . 4/6 
"This handy little book enters so minutely into every detail connected with the con- 
' a of roof trusses that no student need be ignorant of these max\er%."— Practical Engrineer. 



THE STRAINS ON STRUCTURES OF IRONWORK. 

With Practical Remarks on Iron Constniction. By F. W. Sheilds, M.I.C.E. 
8vo, cloth 6/0 

A TREATISE ON THE STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. 

With Rules for Application in Architecture, the Construction of Suspension 
Bridges, Railways, &c. By Peter Barlow, F.R.S. A new Edition, revised 
by hw Sons, P. W. Barlow, F.R.S., and W. H. Barlow, F.R.S. ; to which 
are added. Experiments b^ Hodgkinson, Fairbairn, and Kirkaldy *, and 
Formulae for calculating Girders, &c. Arranged and Edited by Wm. Humber, 
A. M. Inst. C.E. Demy 8vo, 400 pp., with 19 large Plates and numerous 
Woodcuts, cloth 1 8/0 

•• Valuable alike to the student, tyro, and the experienced practitioner, it will always raxtk 
n future as it has hitherto done, as the standard treatise on that particuLir subject."— ^MWMe«r 

"As a scientific work of the first class, it deserves a foremost place on the bookshelves of 
ereiy dvil engineer and practical mechanic."— fn^/tjA Mechanic. 

STRENGTH OF CAST IRON AND OTHER METALS. 

By Thomas Tredgold, C.E. Fifth Edition, including Hodgkinson's Experi- 
mental Researches. 8vo, cloth .1 2/0 

SAFE RAILWAY WORKING. 

i A Treatise on Railway Accidents, their Cause and Prevention ; with a De- 

» scription of Modern Appliances and Systems. By Clement E. Stretton, 

4 C.E., Vice-President and Consulting Engineer, Amalgamated Societjr of 

1 Railway Servants. With Illustrations and Coloured Plates. Third Edition, 

Enlarged. Crown 8vo, cloth 3/6 

A book for the engineer, the directors, the managers; and, in short, all who wish for 
itton on railway matters will find a perfect encyclopaedia in 'Safe Railway Working.' "— 
Rmtlwfay Review. 

"We commend the remarks on railway signalhng to all railway managers, especially where 
1 1 a nnilbnn code and practice is advocated."— /r^rtr/a/A'x ^at/way youmat. 

I ) EXPANSION OF STRUCTURES BY HEAT, 

By John Keily, C.E., late of the Indian Public Works Department. Crown 

: 1' 8vo, cloth 3/6 

'■'■'■' " The aim the author has set before him, viz., to show the effects of heat upon metallic and 

1 other structures, is a laudable one, for this is a branch of physics upon which the engineer or 

architect can find but little reliable and comprehensive data in boo\iis."—Bui/der 



CIVIL ENGINEERING, SURVEYING, S^c. 15 

RECORD OF THE PROGRESS OF MODERN 
ENQINBERINQ. 

Complete in Four Volumes, imperial 410, half-morocco, price £12 12s. 

Each volume sold separatelj^, as follows : — 
First Series, Comprising Civil, Mechanical, Marine, Hydraulic, Railway, 
Bridge, and other Engmeering Works, &c. By William Humber, 
A. M. Inst. C.E.,&c. Imp. 410, with 36 Double Plates, drawn to a large scale, 
Photographic Portrait of John Hawkshaw, C.E., F.R.S., &c., and copious 
descriptive Letterpress, Specifications, &c. Half-morocco . . JB3 3», 

List of the Plates and Diagrams. 
Victoria Station and roof, L. b. & S, C. R. (8 plates) ; Southport Pier 

(2 PLATES) ; VICTORIA STATION AND ROOF, L. C. & D. AND G. W. R. (6 PLATES) ; ROOF 

OF Cremorne Music Hall; Bridge over g. N. Railway; Roof of Station, 
Dutch Rhenish rail. (2 plates): Bridge over the Thames, West London 
Extension Railway (s plates) ; armour Plates : suspension Bridge, Thames 
(4 plates) ; The Allen Engine ; Suspension Bridge, Avon (3 plates) ; Under- 
ground Railway (3 plates*. 

HUMBER'S PROGRESS OF MODERN ENQINEERINQ. 

Second Series. Imp. 4to, with 3 Double Plates, Photographic Portrait of 
Robert Stephenson, C.E., M.P., F.R.S., &c., and copious descriptive Letter- 
press, Specifications, &c. Half-morocco JB3 Ss. 

List of the Plates and Diagrams. 

Birkenhead Docks, Low Water Basin (15 plates) ; Charing Cross Station 
Roof, C. C. railway (3 plates); Digswhll Viaduct, Great Northern Railway; 
Robbery wood Viaduci', Great Northern Railway; Iron permanent Way; 
Clydach Viaduct, merthyr, Tredegar, and Abergavenny Railway ; Ebbw 
Viaduct, Merthyr, Tredegar, and Abergavenny Railway; College wood 
Viaduct, Cornwall Railway; Dublin winter Palace Roof (3 plates); Bridge 
over the Thames, L. C. ik D. Railway (6 plates); Albert Harbour, Greenock 

(4 PLATES). 

HUMBER'S PROGRESS OF MODERN ENQINEERINQ. 

Third Series. Imp. 4to, with 40 Double Plates, Photographic Portrait of 
J. R. M 'Clean, late Pres. Inst. C.E., and copious descriptive Letterpress, 
Specifications, &c. Half-morocco JB3 3«. 

List of the Plates and Diagrams. 

Main Drainage, Metropolis.— A'i^r/A 5»rff.— Map showing Interception of 
Sewers ; Middle Level Sewer {2 plates) ; Outfall Sewer, bridge over River 

Lea (3 PLATES) ; OUTFALL SEWER, BRIDGE OVER MARSH LANE, NORTH WOOLWICH 

Railway, and Bow and barking Railway Junction; Outfall Sewer, Bridge over 
Bow AND Barking Railway (3 plates) ; Outfall Sewer, Bridge over East London 
Water-works' Feeder (2 plates) ; Outfall Sewer Reservoir (2 plates) ; Outfall 
Sewer, Tumbling Bay and Outlet; outfall sewer, penstocks. South Side.— 
Outfall Sewer, Bermondsey Branch (2 plates) ; outfall Sewer, Reservoir and 
Outlet (4 plates) ; outfall Sewer. Filth Hoist; Sections of Sewers (North and 
South Sides). 

Thames Embankment.— Section of River Wall; Steamboat Pier, West- 
minster (2 PLATES) ; Landing Stairs between Charing Cross and Waterloo 
Bridges ; York Gate (2 plates) ; Overflow and Outlet at Savoy Street Sewer 
(3 plates); Steamboat Pier, Waterloo Bridge (3 plates); Junction of Sewers, 
plans and Sf.ctions : Gillies, Plans and Sections ; Rolling Stock ; Granite 
AND Iron Forts. 

HUMBER'S PROQRESS OF MODERN ENQINEERINQ. 

Fourth Series. Imp. 410, with 36 Double Plates, Photographic Portrait of 
John Fowler, late Pres. Inst. C.E., and copious descriptive Letterpress, Speci- 
fications, &c. Half-morocco £S Ss. 

List of the Plates and Diagrams. 

abbey Mills Pumping Station, Main Drainage, metropolis (4 plates); 
Barrow Docks (5 plates); Manquis Viaduct, Santiago and Valparaiso Railway, 
(2 PLATES) ; Adam's locomotive, St. Helen's Canal Railway (2 platks) : Cannon 
STREET Station Roof, Charing Cross Railway (3 plates); Road Bridge over 
THE River Moka (2 plates) ; Telegraphic Apparatus for Mesopotamia : Viaduct 
OVER the River wye. Midland railway (3 plates); St. Germans Viaduct, 
Cornwall Railway (2 plates); wrought-Iron Cylinder for Diving Bell; 
Millwall Docks (6 platf.s); Milroys Patent Excavator ; metropolitan Dis- 
trict railway (6 plates) ; HARBOURS. PORTS, AND BREAKWATERS (3 PLAIKS). 



1 6 CROSBY LOCK WOOD S- SON'S CATALOGUE. 

THE POPULAR WORKS OF MICHAEL REYNOLDS. 
LOCOMOTIVE ENGINE DRIVING. 

A Practical Manual for Engineers in Charge of I^ocomotive Engines. By 
Michael Reynolds, Member of the Sojciety of Engineers, formerly Loco- 
motive Inspector, L. B. & S. C. R. Ninth Edition. Including a Kev to 
THE Locomotive Engine. With Illustrations and Portrait of Author. 

Crown 8vo, cloth ^-/G 

" Mr. Reynolds has supplied a want, and has supplied it well. We can confidently recom- 
mend the book not only to the practical driver, but to everyone who takes an interest in the 
performance of locomotive engines."— TTi* Engirteer. 

" Mr. Reynolds has opened a new chapter in the literature of the day. This admirable 
practical treatise, of the practical utility of which we have to speak in terms of warm commendation. " 
—Atfufueunt. 

" Evidently the work of one who knows his Subject thorou^iy. "—Xaihuay Service Gaxetie. 
" Were the cautions and rules given in the book to become .part of the every-day worldnsr 
of our engine-drivers, we might have fewer distressing accidents to deplore. "-^roi^fwiaw. 

STATIONARY ENGINE DRIVING. 

A Practical Manual for Engineers in Charge of Stationary Engines. By 
Michael Reynolds. Fifth Edition, Enlarged. With Plates and Woodcuts. 

Crown 8vo, cloth 4-/6 

" The author is thoroughly acquainted with his subjects, and his advice on the various points 
treated is clear and practical ... He has produced a manual which is an exceedingly useful 
one for the class for whom it is specially intended."— ^«Pt'««n'«je'. 

" Our author leaves no stone unturned. He is determined that his readers shall not only 
know something about the stationary engine, but all about it." — Engineer. 

"An engineman who has mastered the contents of Mr. Reynolds's book will require but 
little actual experience with boilers and engines before he can be trusted to look after them." — 
English Mechanic. 

THE MODEL LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEER, 

Fireman, and Engine-Boy. Comprising a Historical Notice of the Pioneer 

Locomotive Engines and their Inventors. By Michael Reynolds. Second 

Edition, with Revi.sed Appendix. With numerous Illustrations, and Portrait 

of George Stephenson. Crown 8vo, cloth. [Just Published. 4./6 

" From the technical knowledge of the author, it will appeal to the railway man of to<lay 

more forcibly than anything written by Dr. Smiles. . . . The volume contains mformation of a 

technical kind, and facts that every driver should be familiar with." — English Mechanic. 

" We should be glad to see this book in the possession of everyone in the kingdom who has 
ever laid, or is to lay, hands on a locomotive engine."— /r<7«. 

CONTINUOUS RAILWAY BRAKES. 

A Practical Treatise on the several Systems in Use in the United Kingdom : 

their Construction and Performance. With copious Illustrations and numerous 

Tables. By Michael Reynolds. Large crown 8vo, cloth . . . 9/0 

" A popular explanation of the different brakes. It will be of great assistance in formin? 

Siblic opinion, and will be studied with benefit by those who take an interest in the hrake."— English 
echanic. 

" Written with sufficient technical detail to enable the principal and relative connection of the 
various parts of each particular brake to be readily grasped, —Mechanical It'orld. 

ENGINE-DRIVING LIFE. 

Stirring Adventures and Incidents in the Lives of Locomotive Engine* 

Drivers. By Michael Reynolds. Third Edition. Crown 8 vo, cloth .1/6 

" From first to List perfectly fascinatine. Wilkie Collins's most thrilling conceptions are 

thrown into the shade by true incidents, endless in their variety, related in every page."— A'i^rt* 

BriHsh Mail. 

"Anyone who wishes to get a real insight into railway life cannot do better than read 
' Engine-Driving Life ' for himself; and if he once takes it up he will find that the author's enthu- 
dasm and real love of the engine-driving profession will carry him on until he has read every page." 
^Saturday Review. 

THE ENGINEMAN'S POCKET COMPANION, 

And Practical Educator for Enginemen, Boiler Attendants, and Mechanics 

By Michael Reynolds. With 45 Illustrations and numerous Diagrams. 

Third Edition, Revised. Royal i8mo, strongly bound for pocket wear . 3/6 

"This admirable work is well suited to accomplish its object, being the honest workmanship 

of a competent engineer." — Glasgow Herald. 

" A most meritorious work, giving in a succinct and practical form all the information an 
engine-minder desirous of mastering the scientific principles of his daily calling would require."*— 
T%€ Miller. 

*' A boon to those who are striving to become efficient mechanics."— ZXm'()' CkronicU, 



MARINE ENGINEERING, NAVIGATION, S^. 17 



MARINE ENGINEERING, SHIPBUILDING, 
NAVIGATION, &c. 



THE NAVAL ARCHITECT'S AND SHIPBUILDER'S 

POCKET-BOOK of Formulae, Rules, and Tables, and Marine Engineer's and 
Surveyor's Handy Book of Reference. By Clement Mackrow, M.I.N. A. 
Sixth Edition, Revised, 700 pp., with 300 Illustrations. Fcap., leather. 1 2/6 

SUMMARY OF CONTENTS :— SIGNS AND SYMBOLS, DECIMAL FRACTIONS.— TRIGONO- 

MHTRY.— Practical Geometry.— Mensuration.— Centres and Moments of Figures. 
—Moments of inertia and Radii of Gyration.— Algebraical Expressions for 
Simpson's rules.— Mechanical Principles.— Centre of Gravity.— Laws of motion. 
—Displacement, Centre of Buoyancy.— Centre of Gravity of Ship's hull.^ 
Stability Curves and metacentres.— Sea and Shallow-water waves.— Rolling 
OF Ships.— Propulsion and Resistance of Vessels.— Speed Trials.— Sailing, 
Centre of Effort.— Distances down Rivers, Coast Lines.— Steering and 
Rudders of Vessels.— Launching Calculations and Velocities.— weight of 
material and gear.— gun particulars and weight.— standard gauges.— 
Riveted Joints and Riveting.— Strength and Tests of Materials.— Binding 
AND Shearing Stresses, &c. — Strength of Shafting, Pillars, Wheels, &c. 
—Hydraulic Data, &c. — Conic Sections, Catenarian Curves. — mechanical 
Powers, Work.— Board of Trade Regulations for Boilers and engines.— Board 
of Trade Regulations for Ships.— Lloyd's rules for Boilers.— Lloyds weight 
OF Chains.— LLOYD'S Scantlings for Ships.— Data of Engines and Vessels.— 
SHIPS' Fittings and Tests.— Seasoning Preserving Timber.— measurement of 
Timber.— Alloys, Paints, Varnishes.— Data for Stowage.— Admiralty Trans- 
port regulations. — Rules for horse-power. Screw Propellers. &c.— Per- 
centages FOR Butt straps. &c.— Particulars of Yachts.— Masting and Rigging 
Vessels.— Distances of Foreign ports.— Tonnage Tables.— vocabulary of 
French and English terms. — English weights and measures. — Foreign 
Weights and measures.— Decimal Equivalents.— Foreign Money.- Discount 
AND Wages Tables.— Useful Numbers and Ready Reckoners.— tables of 
Circular measures.— Tables of areas of and Circumferences of Circles.— 
Tables of Areas of Segments of Circles.— Tables of Squares and Cubes and 
Roots of Numbers.— Tables of Logarithms of Numbers.— Tables of hyper- 
bolic Logarithms.— Tables of Natural Sines, Tangents, &c.— Tables of 
logarithmic sines. tangents, &c. 

" In these days of advanced knowledge a work like this is of the greatest value. It contains 
a vast amount of information. We unheatatingly say that it is the most valuable compilation for its 
specific purpose that has ever been printed. No naval architect, engfineer. surveyor, or seaman, 
wood or uon shipbuilder, can afford to be without this work."— JVauticai Magazine. 

" Should be used by all who are eagagcA in the construction or desien of vessels. . . . Will 
be found to contain the most useful tables and formulae required by shipbuilders, carefully collected 
from the best authorities, and put together in a popular and simple form. The book is one of 
exceptional merit."— ^m^^'m^^t. 

" The professional shipbuilder has now, in a convenient and accessible form, reliable data for 
solving many of the numerous problems that present themselves in the course of his work."— /ron. 

" There is no doubt that a pocket-book of this description must be a necessity in the ship- 
building trade. . . . The volume contains a mass of useful information clearly expressed and 
presented in a handy form." — Marine Engineer. 

WANNAN'5 MARINE ENaiNEER'5 GUIDE 

To Board of Trade Examinations for Certificates of Competency. Containing 
all Latest Questions to Date, with Simple, Clear, and Correct Solutions; 
Elementary and Verbal Questions and Answers ; complete Set of Drawings 
with Statements completed. By A. C. Wannan, C.E., and E. W. I. Wannan, 
M.I.M.E. Illustrated with numerous Engravings. Crown 8vo, 370 pages, 
cloth. [Just Puilished. BIQ 

WANNAN'S MARINE ENGINEER'S POCKET-BOOK. 

Containing the Latest Board of Trade Rules and Data for Marine Engineers. 
By A. C. Wannan. Second Edition, carefully Revised. Square i8mo, with 
thumb Index, leather. [Juit Published. 5/O 

MARINE ENGINE5 AND 5TEAM VB55BL5. ^ 

A Treatise on. By Robert Murray, C.E. Eighth Edition, thoroughly 

Revised, with considerable Additions by the Author and by Gborgb 

Carlisle, C.E., Senior Surveyor to the Board of Trade. lamo, cloth . 4/6 

" Well adapted to give the young steamship engineer or marine engine and boiler maker a 

general mtroductton into his practical yioxk."— Mechanical World. 

" We feel sure that this thoroughly revised edition will continue to be as popular in the future 
as It has been in the past, as, for its size, it contains more useful infonnation than any similar 
treatiw."— /M<«tf«rfer. 



i8 CROSBY LOCKWOOD «• SON'S CATALOGUE. 

5EA TERM5, PHRA5B5, AND W0RD5 

(Technical Dictionary of) used in the English and French Languages 
(English- French, French-English). For the Use of Seamen, Engineers, Pilots, 
Shipbuilders, Shipowners, and Ship-brokers. Compiled by W. Pirrib, late of 
the African Steamship Company. Fcap. 8vo, cloth limp. . . . 5/0 
"This v*lume will be highly appreciated by seamen, engineers, pilots, shipbuilders and ship- 
owners. It will be found wonaenully accurate and coxaplatc"— Scotsman. 

" A very useful dictionary, which has lone been wanted by French and English engineers, 
masters, officers and othen."—SMi/;^i*i£ IVorli. 

ELECTRIC 5H1P LIGHTING. 

A Handbook on the Practical Fitting and Running of Ships' Electrical Plant, 
for the Use of Shipowners and Builders, Marine Electricians and Sea-^oing 
Engineers in Charge. By J. W. Urquhart, Author of "Electric Light," 
" Dynamo Construction," &c. Crown 8vo, cloth T/6 

MARINE ENGINEER'5 POCKET-BOOK. 

Consisting of useful Tables and Formulae. By Frank Proctor, A.LN.A. 

Third Edition. Royal 32mo, leather, gilt edges, with strap . . . 4/0 
" We recommend it to our readers as going far to supply a long-felt want"— A^ava/ Science. 
" A most useful companion to all marine engineers."— l/ntted Service Gcuiette. 

ELEMENTARY ENGINEERING. 

A Manual for Young Marine Engineers and Apprentices. ^ In the Form^ of 
Questions and Answers on Metals, Alloys, Strength of Materials, Construction 
and Management of Marine Engines and Boilers, Geometry, &c., &c. With 
an Appendix of Useful Tables. By J. S. Brewer. Crown 8vo, cloth . 1/6 
" Contains much valuable information for the class for whom it is intended, especially in the 
chapters on the management of boilers and engines."— Nautical Magazine. 

PRACTICAL NAVIGATION. 

Consisting of The Sailor's Sea-Book, by James Greenwood and W. H. 
RossER ; together with the exquisite Mathematical and Nautical Tables for 
the Working of the Problems, by Henry Law, C.E., and Professor J. R. 
Young. Illustrated. i2mo, strongly half-bound 7/0 

MARINE ENGINEER'5 DRAWING-BOOK. 

Adapted to the Requirements of the Board of Trade Examinations. By John 
LocKiE, C.E. With 22 Plates, Drawn to Scale. Royal 8vo, cloth . 3/6 

THE ART AND SCIENCE OF 5AILMAKING. 

By Samuel B. Sadler, Practical Sailmaker, late in the employment ot 
Messrs. Ratsey and Lapthome, of Cowes and Gosport. With Plates and 

other Illustrations. Small 4to, cloth 1 2/6 

•* This extremely practical work gives a complete education in all the branches of the manu- 
facture, cutting out, roping, seaming, and goring. It is copiously illustrated, and will form a first- 
rate text-book and gyxide.— Portsmouth Times. 

CHAIN CABLES AND CHAINS. 

Comprising Sizes and Curves of Links, Studs, &c.. Iron for Cables and Chains, 
Chain Cable and Chain Making, Forming and Welding Links^ Strength of 
Cables and Chains, Certificates for Cables, Marking Cables, Prices of Chain 
Cables and Chains, Historical Notes, Acts of Parliament, Statutonr Tests, 
Charges for Testing, List of Manufacturers of Cables, &c., &c By 
Thomas W. Traill, F.E.R.N., M.Inst.C.E., Engineer-Surveyor-in-Chief, 
Board of Trade, Inspector of Chain Cable and Anchor Proving Establishments, 
and General Supenntendent Lloyd's Committee on Proving Establishments. 
With numerous Tables, Illustrations, and Lithographic Drawings. Folio, 

cloth, bevelled boards . £2 2s. 

" It contains a vast amount of valuable information. Nothing seems to be wanting to make it 
a complete and standard work of reference on the sab^tct."—NauliceUMagmMine. 



MINING AND METALLURGY, 19 



MINING AND METALLURGY. 



COLLIERY WORKING AND MANAQEMENT. 

Comprising the Duties of a Colliery Manager, the Oversight and Arrange- 
ment of labour and Wages, and the different Systems of Working Coal 
Seams. By H. F. Bulman and R. A. S. Redmayne. 350 pp., with 
28 Plates and other Illustrations, including Undergroimd Photographs. 
Medium 3vo, cloth. [Just Published. 1 6/0 

" This is, indeed, an admirable Handbook for Colliery Managrers, in fact it is an indispensable 
adjunct to a Colliery Manager's education, as well as beingf a most useful and interesting work 
on the subject for all who in any way have to do with coal mining. The underground photographs 
are an attractive feature of the work, being very lifelike and necessarily true representations of the 
scenes they depict."— CoZ/j^ry Gttardian. 

" Mr. Bulman and Mr. Redmayne, who are both experienced Colliery Managers of great 
literary ability, are to be congratulated on having supplied an authoritative work dealing with a side 
of the subject of coal mining which has hitherto received but scant treatment. The authors 
elucidate their text by no woodcuts and 38 plates, most of the latter being admirable reproductions 
of photographs taken underground with the aid of the magnesium flash-light. These illustrations 
are exceUent "—//a/Mre. 

INFLAMMABLE QAS AND VAPOUR IN THE AIR 

(The Detection and Measurement of). By Frank Clowes, D.Sc, Lond., 
F. I.e., Prof, of Chemistry in the University College, Nottingham. With a 
Chapter on The Detection and Measurement of Petroleum Vapour 
by Boverton Redwood, F.R.S.E., Consulting Adviser to the Corporation 
of London under the Petroleum Acts. Crown 8vo, cloth. 

[Just Published. Net. QIQ 
" Professor Clowes has given us a volume on a subject of much industrial importance . . . 
Those interested in these matters may be recommended to study this book, which is easy of compre- 
hension and contains many good things."— T'A* Engineer. 

" A convenient summary of the work on which Professor Clowes has been engaged for some 
considerable time. . . . It is hardly necessary to say that any work on these subjects with these 
names on the title-pa^e must be a valuable one, and one that no mining engineer— certainly no coal 
miner— can afford t« ignore or to leave unread."— J/tnt«^ youmal. 

MACHINERY FOR METALLIFEROUS MINE5. 

A Practical Treatise for Mining Engineers, Metallurgists, and Managers of 

Mines. By E. Henry Davies, M.E., F.G.S. Crown 8vo, 580 pp., with 

upwards of 300 Illustrations, cloth. [Just Publvshed. 12/6 

" Mr. Davies, in this handsome volume, has done the advanced student and the manager of 

mines good service. Almost every kind of machinery in actual use is carefully described, and the 

woodcuts and plates are sood."—Ath€naum. 

" From cover to cover the work exhibits all the same characteristics which excite the confi- 
dence and attract the attention of the student as he peruses the first page. The work may safely 
be recommended. By its publication the literature connected with the industry will be enriched 
and the reputation of its author enhanced."— Minin£' journal. 

METALLIFEROUS MINERALS AND MINING. 

By D. C. Davies, F.G.S., Mining Engineer, &c., Author of "A Treatise on 
Slate and Slate Quarrying." Fifth Edition, thoroughly Revised and much 
Enlarged by his Son, E. Henry Davies, M.E., F.G.S. With about 150 

Illustrations. Crown 8vo, cloth . "12/6 

" Neither the practical miner nor the general reader, interested in mines, can have a bette. 
book for his companion and his guide."— i1/t«t«^ journal. 

" We are doing our readers a service in calling their attention to this valuable work."— 
Mining World. 

''^As a history of the present state of mining throughout the world this book has a real value, 
and it supplies an actucil •<M2ixA."—Athenauni. 

EARTHY AND OTHER MINERALS AND MINING. 

By D. C. Davies, F.G.S., Author of " Metalliferous Minerals," &c. Third 
Edition, Revised and Enlarged by his Son, E. Henry Davies, M.E., F.G.S. 

With about 100 Illustrations. Crown 8vo, cloth 1 2/6 

" We do not remember to have met with any English work on mining matters that contains 
the same amount of information packed in equally convenient iaim."—AceuUfny. 

" We should be inclined to rank it as amonc; the very best of the handy technical and trades 
manuals which have lecendy appeared."— ^fiMfA Quarttrfy Rtview. 



CROSBY LOCKWOOD «• SON'S CATALOGUE, 



BRITISH MINING. 

A Treatise on the History, Discovery, Practical Development, and Future 

Prospects of Metalliferous Mines in the United Kingdom. By Robert 

Hunt, F.R.S., late Keeper of Mining Records. Upwards of 950 pp., with 

330 Illustrations. Second Edition, Revised. Super-royal 8vo, cloth £2 2sa 

" The book is a treasure-house of statistical information on mining' subjects, and we know of 

no other work embodying- so great a mass of matter of this kind. Were this the only merit of 

Mr. Hunt's volume it would be sufficient to render it indispensable in the library of every one 

nterested in the development of the mining and metallurgical industries of this country." — 

Atkenaum. 

" A mass of information not elsewhere available, and of the greatest value to those who may 
be interested in our great mineral industries."— EftjsiM<«r. 

MINE DRAINAGE. 

A Complete and Practical Treatise on Direct-Acting Underground Steam 
Pumping Machinery, with a Description of a large number of the best known 
Engines, their General Utility and the Special Sphere of their Action, the 
Mode of their Application, and their merits compared with other forms of 
Pumping Machinery. By Stephen Michell. 8vo, cloth . . "| 5/O 
•• Will be highly esteemed by colliery owners and lessees, mining engineers, and students 

generally who require to be acquainted with the best means of securing the drainage of mines. 

It is a most valuable work, and stands almost alone in the literature of steam pumping machinery." 

— Colliery Guardian. 

" Much valuable information is given, so that the book is thoroughly worthy of an extensive 

circulation amongst practical men and purchasers of msucYan&ry."—MiHtn£ journal. 

THE PROSPECTOR'S HANDBOOK. 

A Guide for the Prospector and Traveller in search of Metal-Bearing or other 
Valuable Minerals. By J. W.^ Anderson, M.A. (Camb.), F.R.G.S., Author 
of "Fiji and New Caledonia." Seventh Edition, thoroughly Revised and 
much Enlarged. Small crown 8vo, cloth, 3/6 » or, leather, pocket-book form, 
with tuck. [Just Published. 4/6 

" Will supply a much-felt want, especially among Colonists, in whose way are so often thrown 
many mineralogical spechnens the value of which it is difficult to determine."— Engineer. 

" How to find commercial minerals, and how to identify them when thev are found, are the 
leading points to which attention is directed. The author has managed to pack as much practical 
detail mto his passes as would supply material for a book three times its size. —Mining- yourTtal. 

N0TE5 AND FORMULAE FOR MINING STUDENTS. 

By ToHN Herman Merivale, M.A., Late Professor of Mining in the Durham 
College of Science, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Fourth Edition, Revised and 
Enlarged. By H. F. Bulman, A.M. Inst. C.E. Small crown 8vo, cloth. 

[Just Published. 2/6 

•• The author has done his work in a creditable manner, and has produced a book that will 

be of service to students and those who are practically engaged in mining operations."— £'n^'»/rr. 

THE MINER'S HANDBOOK. 

A Handy Book of Reference on the subjects of Mineral Deposits, Mining 
Operations, Ore Dressing, &c. For the Use of Students and others interested 
in Mining Matters. By John Milne, F.R.S., Professor of Mining in the 
Imperial University of Japan. Revised Edition. Fcap. 8vo, leather . 7/6 
*• Professor Mihie's handbook is sure to be received with favour by all connected with 
mining, and will be extremely popular among students."— A tkenaum. 

POCKET-BOOK FOR MINERS AND METALLURGISTS. 

Comprising Rules, Formulae, Tables, and Notes for Use in Field and Office 
Work. By F. Dan vers Power, F.G.S., M.E. Fcap. 8vo, leather . 9/0 
' This excellent book is an admirable example of its kind, and ought to find a large sale 
amongst English-speaking prospectors and mming ensvaeers."— Engineering. 

MINERAL SURVEYOR AND VALUER'S GUIDE. 

Comprising a Treatise on Improved Mining Surveying and the Valuation of 
Mining Properties, with New Traverse Tables. By Wm. Lintbrn. Fourth 
Edition, Enlarged, zamo, cloth 3/6 



MINING AND METALLURGY. 21 

THE COLLIERY MANAQER'5 HANDBOOK. 

A Comprehensive Treatise on the Laying*out and Working of Collieries, 
Designed as a Book of Reference for Colliery Managers, and for the Use of Coal 
Mining Students preparing for First-class Certificates. By Caleb Pambly, 
Mining Engineer and Surveyor ; Member of the North of England Institute of 
Mining and Mechanical Engineers ; and Member of the South Wales Institute 
of Mining Engineers. With 700 Plans, Diagrams, and other Illustrations. 
Fourth Edition, Revised and Enlarged, medium 8vo, over 900 pp. 
Strongly bound £1 5s. 

Summary of Contents :— Geology.— Search for Coal.— mineral leases 
and other holdings.— shaft sinking.— fitting up the shaft and surface 
arrangements.— steam boilers and their fittings.— timbering and walling.— 
Narrow work and Methods of Working. — Underground conveyance. — 
DRAINAGE.— The Gases met with in Mines; Ventilation.— on the Friction of 
Air in Mines.— The priestman Oil Engine; Petroleum and Natural Gas.— 
Surveying and Planning.— Safety Lamps and Firedamp Detectors.— Sundry 
and incidental operations and appliances.— Colliery explosions.— Miscel- 
laneous Questions and answers.— ^/><»rfir.- Summary of Report of H.M. 
Commissioners on accidents in Mines. 

" Mr. Pamely has not only given us a comprehensive reference book of a verv high order, 
suitable to the requirements of mmln^ en^neers and colliery managers, but has also provided 
mining students with a class-book that is as mteresting as it is instructive."— Coilierv Manager. 

" Mr. Pamcly's work is eminently suited to the purpose for which it is intended, being clear, 
interesting, exhaustive, rich in detail, and up to date, giving descriptions of the'latest machines in 
every department. A mining engineer could scarcely go wrong who followed this work." — Colliery 
Guardian. 

"This is the most complete 'all-round' work on coal-mining published in the English 
language. ... No library of coal-mining books is complete without it."— Colliery Engineer 
(Scranton, Pa.. U.S.A.;. 

COAL & IRON INDUSTRIES of the UNITED KINGDOM. 

Comprising a Description of the Coal Fields, and of the Principal Seams of 
Coal, with Returns of their Produce and its Distribution, and Analyses of 
Special Varieties. Also, an Account of the Occurrence of Iron Ores in Veins or 
Seams ; Analyses of each Variety ; and a History of the Rise and Progress of 
Pig Iron Manufacture. By Richard Meade. 8vo, cloth . . £1 8«. 
** Of this book we may unreservedly say that it is the best of its class which we have ever 

met. ... A book of reference which no one engaged in the iron or coal trades should omit from 

his library."— /rvn and Coal Trades Review. 

COAL AND COAL MINING. 

By the late Sir Warington W. Smyth, M.A., F.R.S., &c.. Chief Inspector 
of the Mines of the Crown. Seventh Edition, Revised and Enlarged. With 

numerous Illustrations, lamo, cloth 3/6 

" As an outline is given of eveiv known coal-field in this and other countries, as well as of the 

principal methods of working, the book will doubtless interest a very large number of readers."— 

Mining journal. 

ASBE5T05 AND A5BE5T1C. 

Their Properties, Occurrence, and Use. By Robert H. Jones, F.S.A., 
Mineralogist, Hon. Mem. Asbestos Club, Black Lake, Canada. With Ten 
Collotype Plates and other Illustrations. Demy 8vo, cloth. [Just Published. 1 6/0 
" An interesting and invaluable -worli."— Colliery Guardian. 

SUBTERRANEOUS SURVEYING 

(Elementary and Practical Treatise on), with and without the Magnetic Needle. 
By Thomas Fenwick, Surveyor of Mines, and Thomas Baker, C.E. Illus- 
trate xamo, cloth 2/6 

GRANITES AND OUR GRANITE INDUSTRIES. 

By George F. Harris. F.G.S., Membre de la Soci6t6 Beige de G^ologie, 
Lecturer on Economic Geology at the Birkbeck Institution, &c. With Illus- 
trations. Crown 8vo, cloth 2/6 

A dear^ and well-wxltten manual for penons engaged or interested In the granite industry." 



22 CROSBY LOCKWOOD «• SON'S CATALOGUE. 

THE METALLURGY OF GOLD. 

A Practical Treatise on the Metallurgical Treatment of Gold-bearing Ores. 
Including the Processes of Concentration, Chlorination, and Extraction by 
Cyanide, and the Assaying, Melting, and Refining of Gold. By M. Eissler, 
Mining Engineer and MetallurgicaT Chemist, formerly Assistant Assayer of the 
U.S. Mint, San Francisco. Fourth Edition, Enlarged. With about 250 Illus- 
trations and numerous Folding Plates and Working Drawings. Large crown 
8vo, cloth. [Just Published, 1 6/0 

" This book thoroughly deserves its title of a ' Practical Treatise.' The whole process of gold 
tnillingr, from the breaking of the quartz to the assay of the bullion, is described in clear and or<ferly 
narrative and with much, but not too much, fulness of detail."— Sart^rrf^ry Review. 

" The work is a storehouse of information and valuable data, and we strongly recommend it 
to all professional men engaged in the gold-mining industry."— Aftntn^ journal. 

THE CYANIDE PR0CE55 OF GOLD EXTRACTION. 

Including its Practical Application on the Witwatersrand Gold Fields in South 
Africa. By M. Eissler, M.E., Author of "The Metallurgy of Gold," &c. 
With Diagrams and Working Drawings. Second Edition, Revised and En- 
larged. 8vo, cloth. [Just Published. TIQ 

"This book is just what was needed to acquaint mining men with the actual working of a 
process which is not only the most popular, but is, as a general rule, the most successful for the 
extraction of gold from tailing. "—Aft«t«^ journal. 

" The work will prove mvaluable to all interested in gold mining, whether metallurgists or as 
investors."— CA«««ra/ News. 

THE METALLURGY OF SILVER. 

A Practical Treatise on the Amalgamation, Roasting, and Lixiviation of Silver 
Ores. Including the Assaying, Melting, and Refining of Silver Bullion. By 
M. Eissler, Author of ^*The Metallurgy of Gold," &c. Third Edition. 
Crown 8vo, cloth 1 0/6 

" A practical treatise, and a technical work which we are convinced will supply a long-felt 
want amongst practical men, and at the same time be of value to students and others indirectly 
connected with the industries."— Af»«»«^ youmal. 

" From first to last the book is thoroughly sound and reliable."— Co/AVry Guardian. 

" For chemists, practical miners, assayers, and investors alike we do not know of any work 
on the subject so hanay and yet so comprehensive."— G/ajr^<7w Herald. 

THE METALLURGY OF ARGENTIFEROUS LEAD. 

A Practical Treatise on the Smelting of Silver-Lead Ores and the Refining of 
Lead Bullion. Including Reports on various Smelting Establishments and 
Descriptions of Modem Smelting Furnaces and Plants in Europe and America. 
By M. Eissler, M.E., Author of " The Metallurgy of Gold," &c. Crown 8vo, 
400 pp., with 183 Illustrations, cloth 1 2/6 

" The numerous metallurgical processes, which are fiilly and extensively treated of, embrace 
all the stages experienced in the passage of the lead from the various natural states to its issue from 
the refinery as an article of commerce."— Practical Engineer. 

" The present volume fully maintains the reputation of the author. Those who wish to obtain 
a thorough insight into the present state of this industry cannot do better than read this volume, and 
all mining engineers cannot fail to find many useful hints and suggestions in it."— Industries. 

METALLURGY OF IRON. 

By H. Bauerman, F.G.S., A.R.S.M. Sixth Edition, Revised and Enlarged. 
i2mo, cloth 5/0 

THE IRON ORES of GREAT BRITAIN and IRELAND. 

Their Mode of Occurrence, Age and Origin, and the Methods of Searching for 
and Working Them. With a Notice of some of the Iron Ores of Spain. By 
J. D. Kendall, F.G.S., Mining Engineer. Crown 8vo, cloth . . 1 6/0 

" The author has a thorough practical knowledge of his subject, and has supplemented a 
careful study of the available literature by unpublished information derived from his own observa- 
tions The result is a very useful volume, which cannot faU to be of value to all interested in the 
iron industry of the coaxAxv."— Industries. 



ELECTRICITY, ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING, *«. 23 

ELECTRICITY, ELECTRICAL 
ENGINEERING, &c. 



SUBMARINE TELEQRAPHS. 

Their History, Construction, and Working. Founded in part on Wunschen- 
dorff's " Traits de T6l6graphie Sous-Marine," and Compiled from Authorita- 
tive and Exclusive Sources. By Charles Bright, F.R.S.E. Super-royal 
8vo, about 780 pp., fully Illustrated, including Maps and Folding Plates. 

[/usi Published. Net. £3 3,. 

" There are few, if any, persons more fitted to write a treatise on submarine telegraphy than 

Mr. Charles Bright. The author has done his work admirably, and has written in a way which will 

appeal as much to the layman as to the engineer. This admirable volume must, for many years to 

come, hold the position of the English classic on submarine telegraphy."— £ffW»«fr. 

" This book is full of information. It makes a book of reference which should be in every 
engineer's library." — Nature. 

" Mr. Bright's interestingly written and admirably illustrated book will meet with a welcome 
reception from cable mext."— Electrician. 

" The author deals with his subject from all points of view— political and strategical as well as 
scientific. The work will be of interest, not only to men of science, but to the general public. We 
can strongly recommend it."— ^ thenitum. 

" The work contains a great store of technical information concerning the making and work- 
ing of submarine telegraphs. In bringing together the most valuable results relating to the evolu- 
tion of the telegraph, the author has rendered a service that will be very widely appreciated."— 
Morning- Post. 

THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER'S POCKET-BOOK. 

Consisting of Modem Rules, Formulae, Tables, and Data. By H. R. Kempe, 
M.Inst.E.E., A.M.Inst.C.E., Technical Officer Postal Telegraphs^ Author of 
"A Handbook of Electrical Testing," " The Engineer's Year-Book," &c. 
Second Edition, thoroughly Revised, with Additions. With numerous Illus- 
trations. Royal 32mo, oblong, leather 5/0 

" It is the best book of its kind."— Electricai Engineer. 

" The Electrical Engineer's Pocket-Book is a good aa^."— Electrician. 

" Strongly recommended to those engaged in the electrical industries."— £/ifr/tnVa/ Review. 

ELECTRIC LIGHT FITTING. 

A Handbook for Working Electrical Engineers, embodying Practical Notes on 
Installation Management. By J. W. Urquhart, Electrician, Author of 
" Electric Light," &c. With numerous Illustrations. • Third Edition, 
Revised, with Additions. Crown Svo, cloth. [Just Published. 5/0 

" This volume deals with what may be termed the mechanics of electric lighting, and is 

addressed to men who are already engaged in the work, or are training for it. The work traverses 

a pnreat deal of ground, and may be read as a sequel to the same author's useful work on ' Electric 

Light. ' "—Electrician. 

" Eminently practical and useful. . . . Ought to be in the hands of every one in charge of an 

electric light plant."— Electrical Engineer. 

ELECTRIC LIGHT. 

Its Production and Use, Embodying Plain Directions for the Treatment of 
Dynamo-Electric Machines, Batteries, Accumulators, and Electric Lamps. 
By J. W. Urquhart, C.E. Sixth Edition, Revised, with Additions and 145 
Illustrations. Crown Svo, cloth. [/«s^ Published. 7/6 

"The whole ground of electric lighting is more or less covered and explained in a very clear 
and concise manner."— Electrical Reinew. 

" A vade-mecum of the salient facts connected with the science of electric lighting."— 
Electrician. 

"You cannot for your purpose have a better book than 'Electric Light' by Urquhart."— 
Engifuer. 

DYNAMO CONSTRUCTION. 

A Practical Handbook for the Use of Enp^ineer-Constructors and Electricians- 
in-Charge. Embracing Framework Building, Field Magnet and Armature 
Winding and Grouping, Compounding, &c. With Examples of leading 
English, American, and Contmental Dynamos and Motors. By J. W. 
Urquhart, Author of " Electric Light," &c. Second Edition, Enlarged. 

With 1x4 Illustrations. Crown Svo, cloth 7/6 

" Mr. Urquhart's book is the first one which deals with these matters in such a way that the 
engineering student can understand them. The book is very readable, and the author leads his 
readers up to difficult subjects by reasonably simple tvs^&:'—Enginuring Review. 
" A book for which a demaxul has long vaaoeA."— Mechanical World, 



24 CROSBY LOCK WOOD <5- SON'S CATALOGUE. 

THE MANAGEMENT OF DYNAMOS. 

A Handy Book of Theory and Practice for the Use of Mechanics, Engineers, 
Students, and others in Charge of Dynamos. By G. W. Lummis Paterson. 

With numerous Illustrations. Crown 8vo, cloth 3/6 

" An example which deserves to be taken as a model by other authors. The subject is treated 
in a manner whicn any intelligent man who is fit to be entrusted with charge of an engine should 
be able to understand. It is a useful book to all who make, tend, or employ electric machinery." 
—j4rchite£t. 

THE STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY. 

' A Popular Encyclopaedia of Words and Terms Used in the Practice of Electrical 
Engineering. By T. O'Conor Sloane, A.M., Ph.D. Second Edition, 
with Appendix to date. Crown 8vo, 680 pp., 300 Illustrations, cloth. 

[/ust Published. 7/6 

*• The work has mfay attractive features in it, and is, beyond doubt, a well put together and 
useful publication. The amount of ground covered may be gathered from the fact that in the index 
about 5,600 references will be found."— BleOrical Review. 

ELECTRIC SHIP-LIQHTINQ. 

A Handbook on the Practical Fitting and Running of Ships' Electrical Plant. 
For the Use of Shipowners and Builders, Marine Electricians, and Seagoing 
Engineers-in-Charge. By J. W. Urquhart, C.E. With 88 Illustrations, 

Crown 8vo, cloth 7/6 

"The subject of ship electric lighting is one of vast importance, and Mr. Urquhart is to be 

highly complimented for placing such a valuable work at the service of marine electncians."— 7'A« 

Steamshif. 

ELECTRIC LIGHT FOR COUNTRY HOUSES. 

A Practical Handbook on the Erection and Running of Small Installations, 

with Particulars of the Cost of Plant and Working. By J. H. Knight. 

Second Edition, Revised. Crown 8vo, wrapper. [Just Published. 1 /O 

" The book contains excellent advice and many practical hints for the help of those who wish 

to light their own houses."— Builditti^ News. 

ELEMENTARY PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRIC LIQHTINQ. 

By Alan A. .Campbell Swinton, Associate I.E.E. Third Edition, Enlarged 
and Revised. With 16 Illustrations. Crown 8vo, cloth . . . .1/6 
" Any one who desires a short and thoroughly clear exposition of the elementary principles of 
electric lighting cannot do better than read this uttfe work."— Bra^/ord Observer. 

DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM. 

By Philip Atkinson, A.M., Ph.D., Author of "Elements of Static 
Electricity," &c. Crown 8vo, 417 pp., with lao Illustrations, cloth . 10/6 

THE ELECTRIC TRANSFORMATION OF POWER. 

With its Application by the Electric Motor, including Electric Railway 
Construction. By P. Atkinson, A.M., Ph.D. With 96 Illustrations. 
Crown 8vo, cloth 7/6 

HOW TO MAKE A DYNAMO. 

A Practical Treatise for Amateurs. Containing numerous Illustrations and 
Detailed Instructions for Constructing a Small Dynamo to Produce the 
Electric Light. By Alfred Crofts. Fifth Edition, Revised and Enlarged. 
Crown 8vo, cloth. [/»s< Published. 2/0 

" The instructions given in this unpretentious little book are sufficiently clear and explicit to 

enable any amateur mechanic possessed of average skill and the usual tools to be found in an 

amateur's workshop to build a practical dynamo machine."— £/«*rWa«. 

Digitized by CjOQQIC 

THE STUDENT'S TEXT-BOOK OF ELECTRICITY. 

By H. M. NoAD, F.R.S. Cheaper Edition. 650 pp., with 470 Illustrations. 
Crown 8vo, cloth 9/0 



ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING, S'C. 25 

ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING, &c. 



PRACTIC\L BUILDING CONSTRUCTION. 

A Handbook for Students Preparing for Examinations, and a Book of 

Reference for Persons Engaged in Building. By John Parnell Allen, 

Surveyor, Lecturer on Building Construction at the Durham College of 

Science, Newcastle-on-Tyne. Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged. 

Medilun 8vo, 450 pp., with 1,000 Illustrations, cloth. [Jmt Published. 7/6 

" The most complete exposition of building: construction we have seen. It contains all that is 

necessary to prepare students for the various examinations in building construction."— i^Kt^tM;^ 

News. 

" The author depends nearly as much on his diagrams as on his type. The paees suggest 
the hand of a man of experience in building operations — and the volume must be a olessing to 
many teachers as well as to students."— 77(« Architect 

" The work is sure to prove a formidable rival to great and small competitors alike, and 
bids fair to take a permanent place as a favourite student's text-book. The large number of illus- 
trations deserve particular mention for the great merit they possess for purposes of reference in 
exactly corresponding to convenient scales."— ^/oumalo/' the Koyal Institute o/ British Architects. 

PRACTICAL MA50NRY. 

A Guide to the Art of Stone Cutting. Comprising the Construction, Setting 
Out, and Working of Stairs, Circular Work, Arches, Niches, Domes, Penden- 
tives. Vaults, Tracery Windows, &c., &c. For the Use of Students, Masons, 
and other Workmen. By William R. Purchase, Building Inspector to the 
Borough of Hove. Second Edition, with Glossary of Terms. Royal 8vOj 142 pp. , 
with 53 Lithographic Plates, comprising nearly 400 separate Diagrams, 

cloth 7/6 

" Mr. Purchase's ' Practical Masonrv ' will undoubtedly be found useful to all interested in 
this important subject, whether theoretically or practically. Most of the examples given are from 
actual work carried out, the diagrams being carefully drawn. The book is a practical treatise on 
the subject, the author himself having commenced as an operative mason, and afterwards acted as 
foreman mason on many laige andlmportant building prior to the attainment of his present 
position. It should be found of general utility to architectural students and others, as well as to 
those to whom it is specially aA6xcsaied."—youmal of the Royal Institute of British Architects. 

CONCRETE: IT5 NATURE AND USE5. 

A Book for Architects, Builders, Contractors, and Clerks of Works. By 
George L. Sutclipfe, A.R.I.B.A. 350 pp., with numerous Illustrations. 

Crown 8vo, cloth 7/6 

" The author treats a difficult subject in a lucid manner. The manual fills a long-felt gap. 

It is careful and exhaustive ; equally useful as a student's guide and an architect^ book of 

reference."— journal o^the RoyeU InstittUe 0/ British Architects. 

" There is room tor this new book, which wi" — '^ '^' ' ' 

on the subject for a builder's ^Mvpose."— Glasgow 

THE MECHANICS OF ARCHITECTURE. 

A Treatise on Applied Mechanics, especially Adapted to the Use of Architects. 

By E. W. Tarn, M.A.. Author of '^ The Science of Building," &c. Second 

Edition, Enlarged. Illustrated with 125 Diagrams. Crown 8vo, cloth 7/6 

"The book is a very useful and helpful manual of architectural mechanics, and really contains 

sufficient to enable a careful and painstaking student to grasp the principles bearing upon the 

majority of building problems. . . . Mr. Tarn has added, by this volume, to the debt of 

gratitude which is owing to him by architectural students for the many valuable works which he has 

produced for their use.' — rA« Builder. 

LOCKWOOD'S BUILDER'5 PRICE BOOK for 1899. 

A Comprehensive Handbook of the Latest Prices and Data for Builders. 
Architects, Engineers, and Contractors. Re-constructed, Re-written, ana 
Greatly Enlarged, By Francis T. W. Miller. 800 closely-printed pages, 

crown 8vo, cloth 4/0 

" This book is a very useful one, and should find a place in every English office connected 
with the building and engineering itrofesAons."— Industries. 
"An excellent book of reference."— ^r<A»te</. 

" In its new and revised form this Price Book is what a work of this kind should be— compre- 
hensive, reliable, well arranged, legible, and well bound."— JPrMrA ArchUtd. 

THE DECORATIVE PART OF CIVIL ARCHITECTURE. 

By Sir William Chambers, F.R.S. With Portrait, Illustrations, Notes, and 
an Examination ok Grecian Architecture, by Joseph Gwilt, F.S.A. 
Revised and Edited by W. H. Leeds. 66 Plates, 4to, cloth . . 21/0 



There is room for this new book, which will probably be for some time the standard work 
■ • "• Herald. 



26 CROSBY LOCKWOOD «• SON'S CATALOGUE. 
A HANDY BOOK OF VILLA ARCHITECTURE. 

Being; a Series of Designs for Villa Residences in various Styles. With 
Outline Speciiications and Estimates. By C. Wickbs, Architect, Author of 
" The Spires and Towers of England," &c. 6i Plates, 4to, half-morocco, gUt 
edges £1 11s. 6d. 

" The whole of the desipis bear evidence of their being the work of an artistic architect, and 
they will prove very valuable and saggcsX.\v^"—Bu%idine- News. 

THE ARCHITECT'S GUIDE. 

Being a Text-book of Useful Information for Architects, Engineers, Surveyors, 
Contractors, Clerks of Works, &c., &c. By Frederick Rogers, Architect. 

Third Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth 3/6 

•* As a text-book of useful information for architects, engineers, surveyors, &c., it would bo 
hard to find a handier or more complete little volxxme."— Standard. 

ARCHITECTURAL PERSPECTIVE. 

The whole Course and Operations of the Draughtsman in Drawing a Large 

House in Linear Perspective. Illu3trated by 43 Folding Plates. By F. O. 

Ferguson. Second Edition, Enlarged. 8vo, boards .... 3/6 

" It is the most intelligible of the treatises on this ill-treated subject that I have met with."— 

E. INGRESS BELL, ESQ., in the RJ.B.A. Journal, 

PRACTICAL RULES ON DRAWING. 

For the Operative Builder and Young Student in Architecture. By George 
PvNE. T4 Plates, 4to, boards 7/6 

MEASURING AND VALUING ARTIFICER'S WORK 

S'he Student's Guide to the Practice oO- Containing Directions for taking 
imensions. Abstracting the same, and bringing the Quantities into Bill, with 
Tables of Constants for Valuation of Labour, and for the Calculation of Areas 
and Solidities. Originally edited by E. Dobson, Architect. With Additions 
by E. W. Tarn, M.A. Sixth Edition. With 8 Plates and 63 Woodcuts. 

Crown 8vo, cloth 7/6 

" This edition will be found the most complete treatise on the principles of measuring^ and 
valuing; artificer's work that has yet been published."— ^w«/tf«>i^A'«a/x. 

TECHNICAL GUIDE, MEASURER, AND ESTIMATOR. 

For Builders and Surveyors. Containing Technical Directions for Measuring 
Work in all the Building Trades, Complete Specifications for Houses, Roads, 
and Drains, and an Easy Method of Estimating the parts of a Building 
collectively. By A. C. Beaton. Eighth Edition. Waistcoat-pocket size, 

gilt edges 1/6 

"No builder, architect, surveyor, or valuer should be without his ' Beaton.'"— JTm/A/^mj^ 
News, 

CONSTRUCTIONAL IRON AND STEEL WORK. 

As Applied to Public, Private, and Domestic Buildings. A Practical Treatise 
for Architects, Students, and Builders. By F. Camfin. Crown Bvo, cloth. 

[Just Published. 3/6 

*• Any one who wants a book on ironwork, as employed in buildings for stanchions, columns, 
and beams, will find the present volume to be suitable. The author has had long and varied 
experience in designing this class of work. The illustrations have the character of working 
drawings. This practical book may be counted a most valuaUe wotli."— British Architect. 

SPECIFICATIONS FOR PRACTICAL ARCHITECTURE. 

A Guide to the Architect, Engineer, Surveyor, and Builder. With an E^ay 
on the Structure and Science of Modern iBuildin^s. Upon the Basis of the 
Work by Alfred Bartholomew, thoroughly Revised, Corrected, and greatly 
added to by Frederick Rogers, Architect. Third Edition, Revised. 8vo, 

cloth 16/0 

" The work is teo well known to need any recommendation from us. It is one of the books 
with which every young architect must be ^^vAp^d."— Architect. 

THE HOUSE-OWNER'S ESTIMATOR. 

Or, What will it Cost to Build, Alter, or Repair ? A Price Book for Un- 
professional People as well as the Architecturm Surveyor and Builder. By 
J. D. Simon. Edited by F. T. W. Miller, A.R.I.B.A. Fourth Edition. 

Crown 8vo, cloth 3/6 

" In two years it will repay its cost a hundred times over."— Field. 



SANITATION AND WATER SUPPLY. 27 

SANITATION AND WATER SUPPLY. 



THE PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 

Being a Brief Account of the Scientific Principles of Sewage Purification, and 

their Practical Application. By Sidney Barwise, M.D. (Lond.)* M.R.C.S., 

D.P.H. (Camb.), Fellow of the Sanitary Institute. Medical Officer of Health 

to the Derbyshire County Council. Crown 8vo, cloth, [/usi pt^lished. 6/0 

*• * What process shall we adopt to purify our sewagfe t ' This question has rarely been treated 

from so many points of view in one book. This volume teems with practical hints, which show the 

intimate knowledge the author has ofTiis subject.' —77»* Engineer. 

"We know of no book of the same size which gives so complete and accurate an account of 
the principles of sewage purification."— 77(« Builder. 

WATER AND ITS PURIFICATION. 

A Handbook for the Use of Local Authorities, Sanitary Officers, and others 

interested in Water Supply. By S. Rideal, D.Sc Lond., F.I.C. With 

numerous Illustrations and Tables. Crown 8vo, cloth. \]usi Published. 7/6 

•' Dr. Rideal's book is both interesting and accurate, and contains a most useful r/sum/ of 

the latest knowledge upon the subject of which it treats. It ought to be of great service to all who 

are connected ¥nth the suppljr of water for domestic or manufacturing purposes." — The En^neer. 

" Dealing as clearly as it does with the various ramifications of such an important suDJect as 
water and its purification it may be warmly recommended. Local authorities and all engaged in 
sanitary affairs, and others interested in water supply, will read its pages with pxoht."— Lancet. 

RURAL WATER SUPPLY. 

A Practical Handbook on the Supply of Water and Construction of Water- 
works for Small Country Districts. By Allan Grkenwell, A.M.I.C.E., 
andW. T. Curry, A.A1.I.C.E. Revised Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth 6/0 
" We conscientiously recommend it as a very useful book for those concerned in obtahiing 
water for small districts, giving a great deal of practical information in a small compass."— BuiUer. 

THE WATER SUPPLY OF CITIES AND T0WN5. 

By William Humber, A.M. Inst. C.E., and M.Inst. M.E. Imp. 410, half- 
bound morocco. (See page 10.) ' J^ei £6 68. 

THE WATER SUPPLY OF TOWNS AND THE CON- 
STRUCTION OF water-works; 

By Professor W. K. Burton, A.M. Inst. C.E. Second Editioa, Revised 
and Extended. Royal 8vo, cloth. (See page 9) 25/0 

THE HEALTH OFFICER'S POCKET-BOOK. 

A Guide to Sanitary Practice and Law. For Medical OflScers of Health, 

Sanitary Inspectors, Members of Sanitary Authorities, &c. By Edward 

F. WiLLOUGHBY, M.D. (Lond.), &c. Fcap. 8vo, cloth .... 7/6 

'* A mine of condensed information of a pertinent and useful kind on the various subjects of 

which it treats. The matter seems to have been carefully compiled and arranged for facility of 

reference, and it is well illustrated by diagrams and woodcuts. The different subjects are 

succinctly but fully and scientifically dealt with."— TA^ Lancet. 

SANITARY ARRANGEMENT OF DWELLING-HOUSES. 

A Handbook for Householders and Owners of Houses. By A. J. Wallis. 

Tayler, A.M.Inst.C.E. Crown 8vo, cloth 2/6 

" This book will be largely read ; it will be of considerable service to the public. It is well 
arranged, easily read, and for the most part devoid of technical texms."— Lancet. 

VENTILATION. 

A Text-book to the Practice of the Art of Ventilating Buildings. By W. P. 
BucHAN, R.P. Crown 8vo, cloth 3/6 

PLUMBING. 

A Text-book to the Practice of the Art or Craft of the Plumber. By W. P. 
BucHAN, R.P. Seventh Edition, Enlarged. Crown 8vo, cloth . . 3/6 

WATER ENGINEERING. 

A Practical Treatise on the Measurement, Storage, Conveyance, and Utilisa 
tion of Water for the Supply of Towns, for Mill Power, and for other Purposes. 
By C. Slagg, A.M. Inst. C.E. Second Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth . 7/6 

SANITARY WORK IN SMALL TOWNS AND VILLAGES. 

By Charlbs Slagg, A. M. Inst. C.E. Crown Svo, cloth . . 3/0 



30 CROSBY LOCKWOOD ^ SON'S CATALOGUE. 



DECORATIVE ARTS, &c. 



S^: 



SCHOOL OF PAINTING FOR THE IMITATION OF 

WOODS AND MARBLES. 

As Taught and Practised by A. R. Van der Burg and P. Van der Burg, 
Directors of the Rotterdam Painting Institution. Royal folio, i8j by 12^ in., 
Illustrated with 24 full-size Coloured Plates ; also 12 plain Plates, comprising 
154 Figures. Second and Cheaper Edition .... £1 11s. 6d. 

List of plates :— 1. Various Tools Required for wood Painting.— 2, 3. Walnut ; 
preliminary stages of graining and finished specimen.— 4. tools used for 
Marble painting and Method of Manipulation.- 5, 6. St. Remi Marble; 
EARLIER Operations and Finished Specimen. — 7. Methods of Sketching 
Different Grains, knots, &c.— «, 9. Ash: Preliminary Stages and Finished 
Specimen.— 10. Methods of Sketching Marble Grains.— h, 12. Breche Marble ; 
Preliminary Stages of working and Finished Specimen.— 13. maple ; methods 

OF producing the DIFFERENT GRAINS.— 14, 15. BIRD'S-EYE MAPLE ; PRELIMINARY 

Stages and Finished specimen,- i6. methods of Sketching the Different 
Species of White Marble.— 17, 18. White Marble ; preliminary Stages of 
process and Finished Specimen.— 19. Mahogany ; Specimens of Various Grains 
and methods of manipulation. —20, 21. mahogany ; earlier stages and 
Finished Specimen.— 22, 23, 24, Sienna Marble ; Varieties of Grain, Preliminary 
Stages and Finished Specimen.— 25, 26, 27. Juniper wood; Methods of Pro- 
ducing Grain, &c. ; Preliminary Stages and finished Specimen.— 38, 29, 30. Vert 
DE mer Marble; Varieties of Grain and Methods of Working, unfinished 
AND Finished Specimens.- 31, 32, 33. Oak ; Varieties of Grain, Tools Employed 
AND Methods of Manipulation, Preliminary Stages and Finished Specijaen.— 
36. Waulsort Marble; Varieties of grain, Unfinished and Finished 
ipecimens. 

" Those who desire to attain skill in the art of paintings woods and marbles will find advantage 
in consulting this book. . . . Some of the Working Men's Clubs should give their young men 
the opportunity to study it."— Builder. 

" A comprehensive guide to the art. The explanations of the processes, the manipulation 
and management of the colours, and the beautifully executed plates will not be the least valuable to 
the student who aims at making his work a faithful transcript of natutB."— Building' News. 

" Students and novices are fortunate who are able to become the possessors of so noble a 
work."— TVte Architect. 

ELEMENTARY DECORATION. 

A Guide to the Simpler Forms of Everyday Art. Together with PRACTICAL 
HOUSE DECORATION. By James W. Facey. With numerous Illus- 
trations. In One Vol., strongly haJf-bound 5/0 

HOUSE PAINTING, GRAINING, MARBLING, AND 
SIQN WRITINQ. 

A Practical Manual of. By Ellis A. Davidson. Seventh Edition. With 
Coloured Plates and Wood Engravings, lamo, cloth boards . . 6/0 

" A mass of information of use to the amateur and of value to the practical man."— English 
Mechanic. 

THE DECORATOR'S ASSISTANT. 

A Modem Guide for Decorative Artists and Amateurs, Painters, Writers, 
Gilders, &c. Containing upwards of 600 Receipts, Rules, and Instructions ; 
with a variety of Information for General Work connected with every Class of 
Interior and Exterior Decorations, &c. Seventh Edition. 152 pp., cr. 8vo. 1 /O 
" Full of receipts of value to decorators, painters, gilders, &c. The book contains the gist of 

larger treatises on colour and technical processes. It would be difficult to meet with a work so full 

of varied information on the painter's axV—BttUding News. 

MARBLE DECORATION 

And the Terminology of British and Foreign Marbles. A Handbook for 
Students. By George H. Blagrove, Author of " Shoring and its Applica- 
tion," &c. With 28 Illustrations. Crown Svo, cloth .... 3/6 

" This most useful and much wanted handbook ^ould be in the hands of every architect and 
\»iMKt."—BtHUUng^ fFbrld. 

" A carefully and usefiUly writtea treatise ; the werk Is essentially practical "—jr^v^rmaM. 



DECORATIVE ARTS, S^. 31 

DELAMOTTE'S WORKS ON ALPHABETS AND 
ILLUMINATION. 



ORNAMENTAL ALPHABETS, ANCIENT & MEDliCVAL. 

From the Eighth Century, with Numerals; including Gothic, Church-Text, 
large and small, German, Italian. Arabesque, Initials for Illumination, 
Monograms, Crosses, &c., &c., for the use of Architectural and Engineering 
Draughtsmen, Missal Painters, Masons, Decorative Painters, Lithographers, 
Engravers, Carvers, &c., &c. Collected and Engraved by F. Delamotte, and 
printed in Colours. New and Cheaper Edition. Royal 8vo, oblong, 

ornamental boards 2/6 

" For those who insert enamelled sentences round j^ilded chalices, who blazon shop legends 

over shop-doors, who letter church walls with pithy sentences from the Deccilog^e, this book will be 

usiefaL"—AtMeHigum. 

MODERN ALPHABETS, PLAIN AND ORNAMENTAL. 

Including German, Old English, Saxon, Italic, Perspective, Greek, Hebrew, 
Court Hand, Enp^ossing^ Tuscan, Riband, Gothic, Rustic, and Arabesque ; 
with several Original Designs, and an Analysis of the Roman and Old English 
Alphabets, large and small, and Numerals, for the use of Draughtsmen, 
Surveyors, Masons, Decorative Painters, Lithographers, Engravers, Carvers, 
&c. Collected and Engraved by F. Delamotte, and printed in Colours. 
New and Cheaper Edition. Royal 8vo, oblong, ornament^ boards . 2/6 
" There is comprised in it every possible shape into which the letters of the alphabet and 

numerals can be formed, and the talent which has been expended in the conception of the various 

plain and ornamental letters is wonderful"— Stamiard. 

MEDI/EVAL ALPHABETS AND INITIALS FOR 

ILLUMINATORS. 

By F. G. Delamotte. Containing 21 Plates and Illuminated Title, printed 

in Gold and Colours. With an Introduction by J. Willis Brooks. Fourth 

and Cheaper Edition. Small 4to, ornamental boards .... 4/0 

"A volume in which the letters of .the alphabet come forth s^ionfied in gilding' and all the 

colours of the prism interwoven and intertwined and intermingled."— 5m». 

A PRIMER OF THE ART OF ILLUMINATION. 

For the Use of Beginners ; with a Rudimentary Treatise on the Art, Practical 
Directions for its Exercise, and Examples taken from Illuminated MSS., 
printed in Gold and Colours. By F. Delamotte. New and Cheaper 

Edition. Small 4to, ornamental boards 6/0 

" The examples of ancient MSS. recommended to the student, which, with much good sense, 

the author chooses from collections accessible to all, are selected with judgment and knowledge as 

well as taste."— AiJunaufn. 

THE EMBROIDERER'S BOOK OF DESIGN. 

Containing Initials, Emblems, Cyphers, Monograms, Ornamental Borders, 
Ecclesiastical Devices, Mediaeval and Modern Alphabets, and National 
Emblems. Collected by F. Delamotte, and printed in Colours. Oblong 

royal 8vo, ornamental wrapper 1/6 

' " The book will be of great assistance to ladies and young children who are endowed with 
the art of plying the needle in this most ornamental and useful pretty vior)ii."—East Ang^iian Times. 

INSTRUCTIONS IN WOOD-CARVINQ FOR AMATEURS. 

With Hints on Design. Bv A Lady. With 10 Plates. New and Cheaper 

Edition. Crovai 8vo, in emblematic wrapper 2/0 

" The handicraft of the wood-carver, so well as a book can impart it, may be learnt from • A 
Lady's ' publication."— ^M^n^Mm. 

PAINTING POPULARLY EXPLAINED. 

By Thomas John Gullick, Painter, and John Times, F.S.A. Including 
Fresco, Oil, Mosaic, Water-Colour, Water-Glass, Tempera, Encaustic, 
Miniature, Painting on Ivory, Vellum, Pottery, Enamel, Glass, &c. Fifth 
Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth 5/O 

*«* Adopted as a Prize Book at South Kensington. 

" Much mnr be learned, even by those who fancy they do not require to be taught, from tk« 
carenil perusal of this unpretwidtng but comprehensive tx9atis»."—Art yottmai. 



32 CROSBY LOCKWOOD ^ SON'S CATALOG JE. 



NATURAL SCIENCE, &c. 
THE VISIBLE UNIVERSE. 

Chapters on the Origin and Construction of the Heavens. By J. E. Gore 
F.R.A.S., Author of" Star Groups," &c. Illustrated by 6 Stellar Photographs 
and 12 Plates. Demy 8vo, cloth 1 6/0 

" A valuable and lucid summary of recent astronomical theory, rendered more valuable and 
attractive by a series of stellar photographs and other illustrations."— T^A^ Times. 

" In presenting a clear and concise account of the present state of our knowledge Mr. Gore 
has made a valuable addition to the literature of the subject."— A'a/wr*. 

"Mr. Gore's * Visible Universe* is one of the finest works on astronomical science that have 
recently appeared in our language. In spirit and in method it is scientific from cover to cover, but 
the style is so clear and attractive that it will be as acceptable and as readable to those who make 
no scientific pretensions as to those who devote themselves specially to matters astronomical "— 
Lteds Mercury. 

STAR GROUPS. 

A Student's Guide to the Constellations. By J. Ellard Gore, F.R.A.S., 
M.R.I.A., &c., Author of "The Visible Universe," "The Scenery of the 

Heavens," &c. With 30 Maps. Small 4to, cloth 6/0 

" The volume contains thirty maps showing stars of the sixth magnitude— the usual naked-eye 
limit— and each is accompanied by a brief commentary adapt^ed to facilitate recognition and bring 
to notice objects of special interest. For the purpose of a preliminary survey of the * midnight 
pomp ' of the heavens nothing' could be better than a set of delineations averaging scarcely twenty 
square inches in area and including nothing that cannot at once be identified."— 5a/Mntov Review. 

AN ASTRONOMICAL GLOSSARY. 

Or, Dictionary of Terms used in Astronomy. With Tables of Data and Lists 
of Remarkable and Interesting Celestial Objects. By J. Ellard Gore, 
F.R.A.S., Author of " The Visible Universe," &c. Small crown 8vo, cloth. 

2/6 

"A very useful little work for beginners in astronomy, and not to be despised by more 
advanced students."— TTt* Times. 

" A very handy book . . . the utility of which is much increased by its valuable tables of 
astronomical datA."—j4thenaunt. 

THE MICROSCOPE. 

Its Construction and Management. Including Technique, Photo-micrography, 
and the Past and Future of the Microscope. By Dr. Henri van Heurck. 
Re-Edited and Augmented from the F*ourth French Edition, and Translated 
by Wynne E. Baxter, F.G.S. 400 pp., with upwards of 250 Woodcuts, 
imp. 8vo, cloth 1 8/0 

" A translation of a well-known work, at once popular and comprehensive."— Ttmex. 

" The translation is as felicitous as it is accurate. —A'aA^r^. 

ASTRONOMY. 

By the late Rev. Robert Main, M.A., F.R.S. Third Edition, Revised by 
William Thynne Lynn, B.A., F.R.A.S., formerly of the Royal Observatory, 

Greenwich. i2mo, cloth . . 2/0 

" A sound and simple treatise, very carefully edited, and a capital book for b^finners."— 
ITHcwlet^e. 

"Accurately brought down to the requirements of the present time by Mr. Lynn."— • 
Educational Times. 

A MANUAL OF THE MOLLUSCA. 

A Treatise on Recent and Fossil Shells. By S. P. Woodward, A.L.S., 
F.G.S. With an Appendix on Recent and Fossil Conchological 
Discoveries, by Ralph Tate, A.L.S., F.G.S. With 23 Plates and 
upwards of 300 Woodcuts. Reprint of Fourth Edition (x88o). Crown 8vo, 

cloth 7/6 

" A most valuable storehouse of conchological and geological information."— SMmc; Gossif^. 



THE TWIN RECORDS OF CREATION. 

Or, Geology and Genesis, their Perfect Harmony and Wonderful Concord 

By G. W. V. LE Vaux. 8vo, cloth 6/0 

" A valuable contribution to the evidences of Revelation, and disposes very conclusively is 
the arguments of those who would set God's Works against God's Word. No real difficulty is 
shirked, and no sophistry is left unexposed."— 7^ Rock, 



NATURAL SCIENCE, S-c. 33 



HANDBOOK OF MECHANICS. 

By Dr. Lardner. Enlarged and re-written by Benjamin Loewy, F.R.A.S. 
378 Illustrations. Post 8vo, cloth 6/0 

• The perspicuity of the original has been retained, and chapters which had become^ obsolete 

he 



have been replaced by others of more modem character. The explanations throujrhout are 
studiously popular, and care has been taken to show the application of the various branches of 
physics to the industrial arts, and to the practical business of life."— il/i«»«^ yournal. 

HANDBOOK OF HYDROSTATICS AND PNEUMATICS. 

By Dr. Lardner. New Edition, Revised and Enlarged by Benjamin Loewy, 
F.R.A.S. With 236 Illustrations. Post 8vo, cloth .... 6/0 
'* For those ' who desire to attain an accurate knowledge of physical science without the 
profound methods of mathematical investigation,' this work is well adapted." — Chemical News. 

HANDBOOK OF HEAT. 

By Dr. Lardner. Edited and re-written by Benjamin Loewy, F.R.A.S., &c. 

117 Illustrations. Post 8vo, cloth 6/0 

"The style is always clear and precise, and conveys instruction without leaving any cloudiness 
or lurking doubts behind." — Engineering. 

HANDBOOK OF OPTICS. 

By Dr. Lardner. New Edition. Edited by T. Olver Harding, B.A. Lend. 

With 298 Illustrations. Small 8vo, 448 pp., cloth 5/0 

" Written by one of the ablest English scientific writers, beautifully and elaborately illustrated. " 
—Mechanics' Magazine. 

ELECTRICITY, MAGNETISM, AND ACOUSTICS. 

By Dr. Lardner. Edited by Geo. Carey Foster, B.A., F.C.S. With 
400 Illustrations. Small 8vo, cloth 6/0 

" The book could not have been entrusted to any one better calculated to preserve the terse 
and lucid style of Lardner, while correcting his errors and brii^ng up his work to the present 
state of scientific knowledge."— /"o/w/ar Science Review. 

HANDBOOK OF ASTRONOMY. 

By Dr. Lardner. Fourth Edition. Revised and Edited by Edwin Dunkin, 
F.R.A.S., Royal Observatory, Greenwich. With 38 Plates and upwards of 
100 Woodcuts. 8vo, cloth 9/6 

"Probably no other book contains the same amount of information in so compendious and 
well arranged a form— certainly none at the price at which this is offered to the Y>ub\ic"—Athenaum. 

" We can do no other than pronounce this work a most valuable manual of astronomy, and 
we strongly recommend it to all who wish to acquire a general— but at the same time correct- 
acquaintance with this sublime science."— Quarier/y Journal of Science. 

MUSEUM OF SCIENCE AND ART. 

Edited by Dr. Lardner. With upwards of 1,200 Engravings on Wood. In 
Six Double Volumes, £1 1 ». in a new and elegant cloth binding ; or hand- 
somely bound in half-morocco £1 Us. 60 



" A cheap and interesting publication, alike informinr and attractive. The papers combine 
ibjects of importance and great scientific knowledge, consider ' ' • ' ■ ' ' 

Style of treatment."— 5;^*cto/or. 



subjects of importance and great scientific knowledge, considerable inductive p*wers, and a popular 



Common Thinsfs Explained. 5s. 
The Microscope. 2s. cloth. 
Popular Qeology. 25. td. cloth. 
Popular Physics. 25. td. cloth. 



Separate books formed from the above. 



Steam and its Uses. 35. cloth. 
Popular Astronomy. 4s. 6d. cloth. 
The Bee and White Ants. 25. cloth 
The Electric Teles:raph. is. 6d. 



NATURAL PHILOSOPHY FOR SCHOOLS. 

By Dr. Lardner. Fcap. 8vo 3/6 

" A very convenient class book for junior students in private ic)\oo\&." —British Quarterly 
Review. 

ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY FOR 5CH00L5. 

By Dr. Lardner. Fcap. 8vo 3 '6 

" Clearly written, well arranged, and excellently \l\\xs,txaXti±"— Gardener's Chronicle. 

THE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. 

By Dr. Lardner. RevLsed by E. B. Bright, F.R.A.S. Fcap. 8vo. . 2/6 
"One of the most readable books extant on the Electric Telegraph."— £H^/».rA Mechanic. 
L. C 



34 CROSBY LOCKWOOD * SON'S CATALOGUE. 

CHEMICAL MANUFACTURES, 
CHEMISTRY, &c. 



THE aA5 ENQINEER'S POCKET-BOOK. 

Comi>rising Tables, Notes and Memoranda relating to the Manufacture, 
Distribution and Use of Coal Gas and the Construction of Gas Works. By 
H. O'Connor, A.M.Inst.C.E., 450 pp., crown 8vo, fully Illustrated, leather. 

[Just Published. 10/6 

"The book contains a vast amount of information. The author eoes consecutively througrh 

the engineeringf details and practical methods involved in each of the ai£fierent processes or parts 

of a gas-works. He has certainlv succeeded in making a compilation of hard matters of fact 

absolutely interesting to read.**— Gax World. 

" A useful work of reference for the ^s engineer and all interested in lighting or heating by 
gas, while the analyses of the various descriptions of gas will be of value to the technical chemist. 
All matter in ^ny way connected with the manufacture and use of gas is dealt with. The book has 
evidently been carefully compiled, and certainly constitutes a useful addition to gas literature." — 
Builder. 

" The volume contains a great quantity of specialised information, compiled, we believe, from 
trustworthy sources, which should make it of considerable value to those for whom it is specifically 
produced. —£Hgineer. 

LIGHTING BY ACETYLENE 

Generators, Burners, and Electric Furnaces. By William E. Gibbs, M.E. 
With 66 Illustrations. Crown 8vo, cloth. [/«*^ PudlisAed. 7/6 

ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY. 

A Practical Treatise for the Use of Analytical Chemists, Engineers, Iron 

Masters, Iron Founders, Students and others. Comprising Methods of Analysis 

and Valuation of the Principal Materials used in Engmeering Work, with 

Analyses, Examples and Suggestions. By H. J. Phillips, F.I.C, F.C.S. 

Second Edition, Enlarged. Crown 8vo, 400 pp., with Illustrations, cloth 1 0/6 

" In this work the author has rendered no small service to a numerous body of practical 

men. . . . The analytical methods may be pronounced most satisfactory, being as accurate as the 

despatch required of engineering chemists permit&."—CJiemtcal News. 

" Full of good things. As a handbook of technical analysis, it is very yrelceme."— Builder. 
" The analytical methods given are, as a whole, such as are likely to give rapid and trust" 
worthy results in experienced hands. . . . There is much excellent descriptive matter in the work, 
the chapter on ' Oils and Lubrication ' being specially noticeable in this respect."— BtieiHeer. 

NITRO-EXPLOSIVES. 

A Practical Treatise concerning the Properties, Manufacture, and Analysis 
of Nitrated Substances, includmg the Fulminates, Smokeless Powders, aod 
Celluloid. By P. G. Sanford, F.I.C, Consulting Chemist to the Cotton Powder 
Company, &c With Illustrations. Crown Svo, cloth. [Just Published. 9/0 
" Any one having the requisite apparatus and materials could maJce nitro-glycerine or gun- 
cotton, to say nothing of other explosives, by the aid of the instructions m this volume. Tus is 
one of the very few text-books in which can be found Just what is wanted. Mr. Sanford goes 
through the whole list of explosives commonly used, names any given explosive, and tells us of what 
it is composed and how it is manufactured. The book is excellent throughout."— Engineer. 

A HANDBOOK ON MODERN EXPLOSIVES. 

A Practical Treatise on the Manufacture and Use of Dynamite, Gun-Cotton, 
Nitro-Glycerine and other Explosive Compounds, including Collodion-Cotton. 
With Chapters on Explosives in Practical Application. By M. Eissler, 
Mining Engineer and Metallurgical Chemist. Second Edition, Enlaiged. 
With 150 Illustrations. Crown Svo, cloth. [Jttst Published. 1 2/6 

" Useful not only to the miner, but also to officers of both services to whom blasting and the 
use of explosives generally may at any time became a necessary auxiliary."— JVo/MfV. 

DANGEROUS GOODS. 

Their Sources and Properties, Modes of Storage and Transport. With Notes 
and Comments on Accidents arising therefrom, together witn the Government 
and Railway Classifications, Acts of Parliament, &c. A Guide for the Use of 
Government and Railway Mcials, Steamship Owners, Insurance Companies 
and Manufacturers, and Users of Explosives and Dangerous Goods. By 
H. Joshua Phillips, F.I.C, F.C.S. Crown Svo, 374 pp., cloth . . 9/0 
" Merits a wide circulation, and an intelligent, appreciative study."— CA«m^h»/ News. 



CHEMICAL MANUFACTURES. CHEMISTRY, S<. 35 
A MANUAL OP THE ALKALI TRADE. 

Including the Manufacture of Sulphuric Acid, Sulphate of Soda, and Bleaching 
Powder. By John Lomas, Alkali Manufacturer, Newcastle-upon-Tyne and 
London. 390 pp. of Text. With 232 Illustrations and Working Drawings, 
Second Edition, with Additions. Super-royal 8vo, cloth . £1 1 0«. 

" This book is written by a manufacturer for manufacturers. The worldne details of the most 
approved forms of apparatus are given, and these are accompanied by no less than 233 wood 
engravings, ail of which may be used for the purposes of construction. Every step in the manu- 
facture is very fully described in this manual, and each improvement explained. —^/A«mrwm. 

" We bnd not merely a sound and luminous explanation of the chemical principles of the 
trade, but a notice of numerous matters which have a most important bearing^ on the successftil 
conduct of alkali works, but which are generally overlooked by even experienced technological 
authors."— CAemi^/ Review. 

THE BLOWPIPE IN CHEMISTRY, MINERALOGY, AND 
QBOLOQY. 

Containing all known Methods of Anhydrous Analysis, many Working 
Examples, and Instructions for Making Apparatus. By Lieut. -Colonel W. A. 
Ross, R.A., F.G.S. With 120 Illustrations. Second Edition, Enlarged. 
Crown 8vo, cloth 5/O 

" The student who goes conscientiously througrh the course of experimentation here laid down 
will gain a better insight into inorganic chemistry and mineralogy than if he had 'g^ot up ' any of the 
best text-boolcs of the day, and passed any number of examinations in their contents. —CA^mMs/ 
News. 

COMMERCIAL HANDBOOK OF CHEMICAL ANALYSIS. 

Or, Practical Instructions for the Determination of the Intrinsic or Commercial 
Value of Substances used in Manufactures, in Trades, and in the Arts. By 
A. Normandy. New Edition by H. M. Noad, Ph.D., F.R.S. Crown 8vo, 
cloth 12/6 

" We strong^Iy recommend this book to oar readers as a guide, alike indispensable to the 
housewife as to the pharmaceutical practitioner."— A/«<^»ea/ Timts. 

THE MANUAL OF COLOURS AND DYE-WARES. 

Their Properties, Applications, Valuations, Impurities and Sophistications. 

For the Use of Dyers, Printers, Drysalters, Brokers, &c. By J. W. Slater. 

Second Edition, Revised and greatly Enlarged. Crown 8vo, cloth . 7/6 

" A complete encyclopaedia of the materia Httctoria. The information ^ven respecting^ each 

article is full and precise, and the methods of determining the value of articles such as these, so 

liable to sophistication, are given with clearness, and are practical as well as valuable."— CA^mtr/ 

andDn^n^t. 

" There is no other work which covers precisely the same ground. To students preparing 
for examinatiens in dyeing and printing it will prove exceedingly useAiL"— CAemilac/ News. 

A HANDY BOOK FOR BREWERS. 

Beinz a Practical Guide to the Art of Brewing and Malting. Embracing the 

Conclusions of Modern Research which bear upon the Practice of Brewing. 

By Hbrbert Edwards Wright, M.A. Second Edition, Enlarged. Crown 

8vo, 530 pp., cloth. [Just Published. 1 2/6 

" May be consulted with advantage by the student who is preparing himself for examinational 

tests, while the scientific brewer will find in it a r^umd of all the most important discoveries of 

modem times. The work is written throughout in a clear and concise manner, and the author 

takes great care to discriminate between vague theories and well-established iaxXs"— Brewers' 

youmal. 

" We have great pleasure in recommending this handy book, and have no hesitation in saying 
that it is one of the best— if not the best— which has yet been written on the subject of beer-brewing 
in this countay ; it should have a place on the shelves of every brewer's Mhnxy."— Brewers' 
Guardian. 

" Although the requirements of the student are primarily considered, an acquaintance of half- 
an-hour's duration cannot fail to impress the practical brewer with the sense of having found a 
trustworthy guide and piactical counsellor in brewery matters."— CA«m^ka/ Trade youmal. 

FUELS: SOLID, LIQUID, AND GASEOUS. 

Their Analysis and Valuation. For the Use of Chemists and Engineers. By 

H. J. Phillips. F.C.S., formerly Analytical and Consulting Chemist to the 

G.E. Rlwy. Third Edition, Revised and Enlarged. Crown 8vo, cloth 2/0 

" Ought to have its place in the laberatory of evexy metaUuigical establishment and wherever 

fdelisusedonalaI|ttscaIa/^--CA<»»•k»/Arflvx. OOOTC 

c9 



36 CROSBY LOCKWOOD &» SON'S CATALOGUE. 



THE ARTI5T5' MANUAL OF PIGMENTS. 

Showing their Composition, Conditions of Permanency, Non-Permanency, and 
Adulterations ; Efiects in Combination with Each Other and with Vehicles ; 
and the most Reliable Tests of Purity. By H. C. Standage. Third Edition, 

crown 8vo, cloth 2/6 

" This work is indeed multum-in-parvo, and we can, with sfood conscience, recommend it to 
all who come in contact with pigments, whether as makers, dealers, or users." — Chemical Review. 

A POCKET-BOOK OF MENSURATION AND QAUQINQ. 

Containing Tables, Rules, and Memoranda for Revenue Officers, Brewers, 
Spirit Merchants, &c. By J. B. Mant, Inland Revenue. Second Edition, 

Revised. i8mo, leather 4/0 

" This handy and useful book is adapted to the requirements of the Inland Revenue Depart- 
ment, and will be a favourite book of reference. The range of subjects is comprehensive, ana the 
arrangement simple and Q\eAx"— Civilian, 

, " Should be in the hands of every practical brewer."— ^rmwerj' youmal. 



INDUSTRIAL ARTS, TRADES, AND 
MANUFACTURES. 



MODERN CYCLES. 

A Practical Handbook on their Construction and Repair. By A. J. Wallis- 

Tayler, a. M. Inst. C. E. Author of " Refrigerating Machinery," &c. With 

upwards of 300 Illustrations. Crown 8vo, cloth. [Just Published. 1 0/6 

" The large trade that is done in the component parts of bicycles has placed in the way of 

men mechanically inclined extraordinary facilities for builmng bicycles for their own use. . . The 

book will prove a valuable guide for all those who aspire to the manufacture or repair of their own 

machines.' —rA* Field. 

"A most comprehensive and up-to-date treatise."— rA^ Cycle. 

" A very useful book, which is quite entitled to rank as a standard work for students of cycle 
construction. ' — JV?ieeliHgr. 

TEA PLANTING AND MANUFACTURE 

(A Text Book oO- Comprising Chapters on the History and Development of 
the Industry, the Cultivation of the Plant, the Preparation of the Leaf for the 
Market, the Botany and Chemistry of Tea, &c. With some Account of the 
Laws affecting Labour in Tea Gardens in Assam and elsewhere. By David 
Crole, late of the Jokai Tea Company, &c. With Plates and other Illustra- 
tions. Medium 8vo, cloth. [Just Published. 16/0 
" The author writes as an expert, and g^ves the result of his personal experiences. The work 

can hardly £ail to be of practical mterest to tea growers and tea manufacturers."— ^rM^A TratU 

youmal. 

COTTON MANUFACTURE. 

A Manual of Practical Instruction of the Processes of Opening, Carding, 
Combing, Drawing, Doubling and Spinning of Cotton, the Methods of 
Dyeing, &c. For the Use of Operatives, Overlookers, and Manufacturers. 
By John Lister, Technical Instructor, Pendleton. 8vo, cloth . . 7/6 

"This invaluable volume is a distinct advance in the literature of cotton manufkcture."— 
Machinef^. 

" It is thoroughly reliable, fulfilling nearly all the requirements desired." — Glas£^ow Herald. 

FLOUR MANUFACTURE. 

A Treatise on Milling Science and Practice. By Friedrich Kick, Imperial 
Regierungsrath, Professor of Mechanical Technology in the Imperial German 
Po^echnic Institute, Prague. Translated from xht Second Enlarged and 
Revised Edition with Supplement. By H. H. P. Powles, Assoc. Memb. 
Institution of Civil Engineers. Nearly 400 pp. Illustrated with 28 Folding 

Plates, and 167 Woodcuts. Royal 8vo, cloth £1 6« 

" This valuable work is, and will remain, the standard authority on the science of milling. . . . 
The miller who has read and digested this work will have laid the foundation, so to speaJc, of a 
successful career ; he will have acquired a number of general principles which he can proceed to 
apply. In this handsome volume we at last have the accepted text-book of modem milling in good, 
sound English, which has litUe, if any, trace of the German idiom."— rA« Miller. 

" The appearance of this celebrated work in English is very opportune, and British mUlers 
win. we are suie, not be slow in availing themselvos of its pages."— JT^ferx' GoMttU. 



INDUSTRIAL AND USEFUL ARTS. 37 

CEMENTS, PASTE5, QLUE5, AND QUM5. 

A Practical Guide to the Manufacture and Application of the various Aggluti* 
nants required in the Building, Metal-Working, Wood-Working, and Leather- 
Working Trades, and for Workshop, Laboratory or Office Use. With upwards 
of 900 Recipes and Formulae. By H. C. Standage, Chemist. Third Edition. 
Crown 8vo, cloth. [Just Published. 2/0 

"We have pleasure in speakingf favourably of this volume. So far as we have had 
experience, which is not Inconsiderable, this manual is tnLStwoTt\iy."~Atheneeum. 

" As a revelation of what are considered trade secrets, this book will arouse an amount of 
curiosity among the largre number of industries it touches." — Daily Chronicle, 

THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. 

A Practical Handbook of the Manufacture of Hard and Soft Soaps, Toilet 
Soaps, &c. Including many New Processes, and a Chapter on the Recovery of 
Glycerine from Waste Leys. By Alx. Watt. Fifth Edition, Revised, with 
an Appendix on Modern Candlemaking. Crown 8vo, cloth . . . 7/6 
"The work will prove very useful, not merely to^ the technological student, but to the 
practical soap boiler who wishes to understand the theory of his art." — Chemical News. 

*• A thoroughly practical treatise on an art which nas almost no literature in our langfuas^e. 
We congratulate the author on the success of his endeavour to fill a void in English techmcal 
literature. "—Nature 

PRACTICAL PAPER-MAKING. 

A Manual for Paper-Makers and Owners and Managers of Paper-Mills. With 
Tables, Calculations, &c. By G. Clapperton, Paper-Maker. With Illus- 
trations of Fibres from Micro-Photographs. Crown 8vo, cloth . . 6/0 
" The author caters for the requirements of responsible mill hands, apprentices, &c., whilst 
his manual will be found of great service to students of technology, as well as to veteran ^per- 
makers and mill owners. The illustrations form an excellent feature."— /%« World's Paper Trade 
Review. 

" We recommend everybody interested in the trade to get a copy of this thoroughly practical 
book. ' '—Pafer Making 

THE ART OF PAPER-MAKING. 

A Practical Handbook of the Manufacture of Paper from Rags, Esparto, 
Straw, and other Fibrous Materials. Including the Manufacture of Pulp from 
Wood Fibre, with a Description of the Machinery and Appliances u-sed. To 
which are added Details of Processes for Recovering Soda from Waste Liquors. 
By Alexander Watt, Author of " The Art of Soap- Making." With Illus- 
trations. Crown Svo, cloth 7/Q 

"It may be regarded as the standard work on the subject. The book is full of valuable 
information. The ' Art of Paper-Making ' is in every respect a model of a text-book, either for a 
technical class, or for the private student."— /^a/^r and Printing Trades Journal. 

A TREATISE ON PAPER 

For Printers and Stationers. With an Outline of Paper Manufacture ; Complete 
Tables of Sizes, and Specimens of Different Kinds of Paper. By Richard 
Parkinson, late of the Manchester Technical School. Demy Svo, cloth. 

U^st Published, 3/6 

THE ART OF LEATHER MANUFACTURE. 

Being a Practical Handbook, in which the Operations of Tanning, Currying, 
and Leather Dressing are fully Described, and the Principles of Tanning 
Explained, and many Recent Processes Introduced ; as also Methods for the 
Estimation of Tannin, and a Description of the Arts of Glue Boiling, Gut 
Dressing, &c. By Alexander Watt, Author of " Soap-Making," &c. 

Fourth Edition. Crown Svo, cloth 9/0 

" A sound, comprehensive treatise on tannincr and its accessories. The book is an eminently 

valuable production, which redounds to the credit of both author and publishers "—Chemical 

Review. 

THE ART OF BOOT AND SHOE MAKING. 

A Practical Handbook, including Measurement, Last- Fitting, Cutting-Out, 
Closing and Making, with a Description of the most approved Machinery 
Employed. By John B. Leno, late Editor of St. Crispin^ and The Boot or 
Shoi-Maker. xamo, cloth . . , f 



38 CROSBY LOCKWOOD «. SON'S CATALOGUE. 

WOOD ENQRAVINQ. 

A Practical and Easy Introduction to the Study of the Art. By W. N. Brown. 

lamo, cloth 1/6 

" The book is clear and complete, and will be useful to any one wanting to understand the 
first elements of the beautiful art or wood vuetavvag"— Graphic. 

MODERN HOROLOQY, IN THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

Translated from the French of Claudius Saunier, ex-Director of the School 
of Horology at Macon, by Julien Tripplin, F.R.A.S., Besancon Watch 
Manufacturer, and Edward Rigg, M.A., Assayer in the Royal Mint. With 
Seventy-eight Woodcuts and Twenty-two Coloured Copper Plates. Second 
Edition. Super-royal 8vo, cloth, £2 2«. ; half-calf . . £2 1 0s. 

" There is no horological work in the English language at all to be compared to this produc- 
tion of M. Saunier's for clearness and completeness. It is alike good as a guide for the student and 
as a reference for the experienced horol<^:ist and skilled ■woT)anan."—Horoi«gical youmal. 

" The latest, the most complete, and the most reliable of those literary productions to which 
continental watchmakers are inaebted for the mechanical superiority orer their English brethren 
—in fact, the Book of Books, is M. Saunier's ' Treatise.'"— fVatchmaJber, yewelltr, and Silversmith. 

THE WATCH ADJUSTER'S MANUAL. 

A Practical Guide for the Watch and Chronometer Adjuster in Making, 
Springing, Timing and Adjusting for Isochronism, Positions and Temperatures. 
By C. E. Fritts. 370 pp., with Illustrations, 8vo, cloth . . . 16/0 

THE WATCHMAKER'S HANDBOOK. 

Intended as a Workshop Companion for those eng^ed in Watchmaking and 
the Allied Mechanical Arts. Translated from the French of Claudius 
Saunier, and enlarged by Julien Tripplin, F.R.A.S., and Edward 
Rigg, M.A., Assayer m the Royal Mint. Third Edition. 8vo, cloth. 9/0 
" Each part is truly a treatise in itself. The arrangement is good and the language is clear 
and concise. It is an admirable guide for the young watchmaker."— £>fW»«n">^r 

" It is impossible to speak too highly of its excellence. It fulfils every requirement in a 
handbook intended for the use of a workman. Should be found in every workshop. '—ff^Af A and 
Clockmaker. 

A HISTORY OF WATCHES & OTHER TIMEKEEPERS. 

By James F. Kendal, M.B.H. Inst. Boards, 1/6; or cloth, gilt . 2/6 
" The best which has yet appeared on this subject in the English Xaxi'g^me."— Industries. 
" Open the book where you may, there is interesting matter in it concerning the ingenious 
devices ot the ancient or modem horologer. "—5a/Mr<£ay Review. 

ELECTRO-DEPOSITION. 

A Practical Treatise on the Electrolysis of Gold, Silver, Copper, Nickel, and 
other Metals and Alloys. With Descriptions of Voltaic Batteries, Magneto 
and Dynamo-Electric Machint's, Thermopiles, and of the Materials and 
Processes used in every Department of the Art, and several Chapters on 
Electro-Metallurgy. By Alexander Watt, Author of " Electro- 
Metallurgy," &c. Third Edition, Revised. Crown 8vo, cloth . . 9/0 
"Eminently a book for the practical worker in electro-deposition. It contains practical 

descriptions of methods, processes and materials, as actually pursued and used in the workshop." — 

Engineer. 

ELECTRO-METALLURGY. 

Practically Treated. By Alexander Watt. Tenth Edition, including the 

most recent Processes. lamo, cloth 3/6 

" From this book both amateur and artisan may learn everything necessary for the successful 
prosecution of electroplating. "--/r*«. 



JEWELLER'S ASSISTANT IN WORKING IN GOLD. 

A Practical Treatise for Masters and Workmen, Compiled from the Experience 
of Thirty Years' Workshop Practice. By George E. Gee, Author of " The 

Goldsmith's Handbook," &c. Crown 8vo, cloth 7/6 

" This manual of technical education is apparently destined to be a valuable auxiUary to a 



INDUSTRIAL AND USEFUL ARTS, 39 



ELECTROPLATINQ. 

A Practical Handbook on the Deposition of Copper, Silver, Nickel, Gold, 
Aluminium, Brass, Platinum, &c., &c. By J. W. Urquhart, C.E. Third 
Edition, Revised. Crown 8vo, cloth 5/0 

" An excellent practical manual"— fif^'n^rn'M^. 

" An excellent work, giving the newest information.— ^oro/ofvVa/ yournal, 

ELECTROTYPINQ. 

The Reproduction and Multiplication of Printing Surfaces and Works of Art 
by the Klectro-Deposition of Metals. By J. W. Urquhart, C.E. Crown 8vo, 

cloth 6/0 

" The book is thorougrhly practical ; the reader is, therefore, conducted throug^h the leading: 

laws of electricity, then through the metals used by electrotypers, the apparatus, and the depositing 

processes, up to the final preparation of the work— ^rr ymtmal. 

GOLDSMITH'S HANDBOOK. 

By George E. Gee, Jeweller, &c. Fifth Edition. 12 no, cloth . . 3/0 
"A good, sound educator, and will be generally accepted ds an authority."— /T^rfl/o^Va/ 
y<mrHal, 

SILVERSMITH'S HANDBOOK. 

By George E. Gee, Jeweller, &c. Third Edition, with numerous Illustra* 

tions. lamo, cloth 3/0 

"The chief merit of the work is its practical character. . . . The workers in the trade will 
speedily discover its merits when they sit down to study it '—English Mechanic. 

*^* The about two works together, strongly half-bound, price 7s. 

SHEET METAL WORKER'S INSTRUCTOR. 

Comprising a Selection of Geometrical Problems and Practical Rules for 
Describing the Various Patterns Required by Zinc, Sheet-Iron, Copper, and 
Tin-Plate Workers. By Reuben Henry Warn. New Edition, Revised and 
greatly Enlarged by Joseph G. Horner, A.M.I.M.E. Crown 8vo, 254 pp., 
vrith 430 Illustrations, cloth. [/«5^ Published. "flQ 

BREAD & BISCUIT BAKER'S & SUQAR-BOILER'S 

ASSISTANT 

Including a large variety of Modern Recipes. With Remarks on the Art of 

Bread-making. By Robert Wells. Third Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth . 2/0 

" A larsfe number of wrinkles for the ordinary cook, as well as the baker."— 5a/Mr</ay Review, 

PASTRYCOOK & CONFECTIONER'S GUIDE. 

For Hotels. Restaurants, and the Trade in general, adapted also for Family 
Use. By R. Wells, Author of " The Bread and Biscuit Baker." Crown 8vo, 

cloth 2/0 

" We cannot speak too hifhly of this really excellent work. In these days •( keen cempetition 
our readers cannot do better than purchase this hook."— BaAers' Times. 

ORNAMENTAL CONFECTIONERY. 

A Guide for Bakers, Confectioners and Pastrycooks ; including a variety of 

Modem Recipes, and Remarks on Decorative and Coloured Work. With lao 

Original Designs. By Robert Wells. Second Edition. Crown 8vo . 6/0 

" A valuable work, practical, and should be in the hands of every baker and cenfectiener. 

The illustrative desipis are alone worth treble the amount chars^ed for the whole work."— Bakers' 

Times. 

THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER, WHOLESALE 

AND RETAIL. 

Containing a large Collection of Recipes or Cheap Cakes, Biscuits, &c. With 

remarks on the Ingredients Used in their Manufacture. By Robert Wells, 

Author of " The Bread and Biscuit Baker," &c. Crown 8vo, cloth . 2/0 

" The work is of a decidedly practical character, and in every recipe regard is had to economica 

working."— North British Daiy Mai^ 

RUBBER HAND STAMPS 

And the Manipulation of Rubher. A Practical Treatise on the Manufacture of 
Indiarubber Hand Stamps, Small Articles of Indiarubber, The Hektograph, 
Special Inks, Cements, and Allied Subjects. By T. O'Conor Sloane, A.M.. 
Pd.D. With numerous Illustrations. Square 8vo, cloth . . . S'^ 



40 CROSBY LOCKWOOD «• SON'S CATALOGUE. 



HANDYB00K8 FOR HANDICRAFTS. 

BY PAUL N. HASLUCK. 
Editor of " Work " (New Series), Author of " Lathe Work," " Milling Machines," &c. 
Crown 8vo, 144 pp., price is. each. 
These Handybooks have been written to supply information for Workmen, 
Students, and Amateurs in the several Handicrafts, on the actual Practice of 
the Workshop, and are intended to convey in plain language Technical Know- 
ledge of the several Crafts. In describing the processes employed, and the manipu- 
lation of material, workshop terms are used ; workshop practice is fully explained ; 
and the text is freely illustrated with drawings of modern tools, appliances, and 
processes. 

THE METAL TURNER'S HANDYBOOK. 

A Practical Manual for Workers at the Foot-Lathe. With over 100 Illus- 
trations. 1/0 

" The book will be of service alike to the amateur and the artisan turner. It displays 
thorough knowledge of the subject." —Scotsman. 

THE WOOD TURNER'S HANDYBOOK. 

A Practical Manual for Workers at the Lathe. With over 100 Illustrations. 

1/0 

" We recommend the book to young turners and amateurs. A multitude of workmen have 
hitherto sought in vain for a manual of this special industry."— MechaHtca/ JVorld. 

THE WATCH JOBBER'S HANDYBOOK. 

A Practical Manual on Cleaning, Repairing, and Adjusting. With upwards of 
100 Illustrations I/O 

" We strongly advise all young persons connected with the watch trade to acquire and study 
this inexpensive ■<ffoxk."—ClerkenweU Chronicle. 

THE PATTERN MAKER'S HANDYBOOK. 

A Practical Manual on the Construction of Patterns for Founders. With 

upwards of 100 Illustrations I/O 

•* A most valuable, if not indispensable manual for the pattern xaSk\i&c."—KnarwUdsre. 

THE MECHANIC'S WORKSHOP HANDYBOOK. 

A Practical Manual on Mechanical Manipulation, embracing Information 
on various Handicraft Processes. With Useful Notes and Miscellaneous 

Memoranda. Comprising about 200 Subjects "I/O 

"A very clever and useful book, which should oe found in every workshop ; and it should 
certainly find a place in all technical v:.\iOQ\s." —Saturday Review. 

THE MODEL ENGINEER'S HANDYBOOK. 

A Practical Manual on the Construction of Model Steam Engines. With 

upwards of 100 Illustrations. I/O 

" Mr. Hasluck has produced a very good little hook."— Builder. 

THE CLOCK JOBBER'S HANDYBOOK. 

A Practical Manual on Cleaning, Repairing, and Adjusting. With upwards of 

100 Illustrations I/O 

" It is of inestimable service to those commencing the trade." — Coventry Standard. 

THE CABINET MAKER'S HANDYBOOK. 

A Practical Manual on the Tools, Materials, Appliances, and Processes 
employed in Cabinet Work. With upwards of 100 Illustrations . .I/O 
" Mr. Hasluck's thorough-going little Handybook is amongst the most practical guides we 
have seen for beginners in cabinet-work."— 5art«rday Review. 

THE WOODWORKER'S HANDYBOOK OF MANUAL 
INSTRUCTION. 

Embracing Information on the Tools, Materials, Appliances and Processes 

Employed in Woodworking. With 104 Illustrations I/O 

Opinions of the Press. 
" Written by a man who knows, not only how work ought to be done, but how to do it, and 
how to convey his knowledge to others." — Engineenne. 

" Mr. Hasluck writes admirably, and gives complete instructions."— £»^>t«^. 
" Mr. Hasluck combines the experience of a practical teacher with the manipulative skill and 
scientific knowledge of processes of the trained mechanician, and the manuals are marvels of what 
can be produced at a popular price." — Schoolmaster. 

" Helpful to workmen of all ages and degrees of experience. " — Daily Chronicle, 
"Practical, sensible, and remarkably cheap."— youmal 0/ Education. 
" Concise, clear, and \>T9,c\XcaL" —Saturday Review. 



COMMERCE. COUNTING-HOUSE WORK. TABLES. *e. 41 

COMMERCE, COUNTING-HOUSE WORK, 
TABLES, &c. 



Le5S0N5 IN COMMERCE. 

By Professor- R. Gambaro, of the Royal High Commercial School at Genoa. 

Edited and Revised by James Gault, Professor of Commerce and Commercial 

Law in King's College, London. Second Edition, Revised. Crown 8vo . 3/6 

" The publishers of this work have rendered considerable service to the cause of commercial 

education by the opportune production of this volume. . . . The work is peculiarly acceptable to 

English readers and an admirable addition to existing class books. In a phrase, we think the work 

attains its object in furnishing a brief account of those laws and customs of British trade with which 

the commercial man interested therein should be familiar." — Chamber of Commerce youmal. 

" An invaluable guide in the hands of those who are preparing for a commercial career, and, 
fact, the information it contains on matters of business should be impressed on everyone."— 
Counting House. 

THE FOREIGN COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENT. 

Being Aids to Commercial Correspondence in Five Languages — English, 
French, German, Italian, and Spanish. By Conrad E. Baker. Second 

Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth \ . . . 3/6 

" Whoever wishes to correspond in all the languages mentioned by Mr. Baker cannot do 
better than study this work, the materials of which are excellent and conveniently arranged. They 
consist not of entire specimen letters, but— what are far more useftil— short passages, sentences, or 
phrases expressing the same general idea in various {oxTD&,"—Athenctum^. 

" A careful examination has convinced us that it is unusually complete, well arranged and 
reliable. The book is a thoroughly good oae."—ScAoolmaster. 

FACTORY ACCOUNTS: their PRINCIPLES & PRACTICE. 

A Handbook for Accountants and Manufacturers, with Appendices on the 
Nomenclature of Machine Details; the Income Tax Acts; the Ratine of 
Factories ; Fire and Boiler Insurance ; the Factory and Workshop Acts, &c., 
including also a Glossary of Terms and a large number of Specimen Rulings. 
By Emile Garcke and J. M. Fells. Fourth Edition, Revised and Enlarged. 

Demy 8vo, 250 pp., strongly bound 6/0 

"A very interesting description of the requirements of Factory Accounts. . . . Tl»e principle 

of assimilating the Factory Accounts to the general commercial books is one which we thoroughly 

agree ynth."—u4ccountanis' youmal. 

" Characterised by extreme thoroughaess. There are few owners of factories who would not 

derive great benefit firem the perusal of this most admirable yroxlu."— Local Government Chronicle. 

MODERN METROLOGY. 

A Manual of the Metrical Units and Systems of the present Century. With 
an Appendix containing a proposed English System. By Lewis D. A. 
Jackson, A. M. Inst. C. E., Author of " Aid to Survey Practice," &c. Large 

crown 8vo, cloth 1 2/6 

"We recommend the work to all interested in the practical reform of our weights and 
measures. "—Nature. 

A SERIES OF METRIC TABLES. 

In which the British Standard Meastu-es and Weights are compared with those 
of the Metric System at present in Use on the Continent. ByC. H. Dowling, 

C.E. 8 vo, strongly bound 10/6 

" Mr. Dowiing's Tables are well put together as a ready reckoner for the conversion of one 
system into the ot'biet."—Atheneeum. 

THE IRON AND METAL TRADES' COMPANION. 

For Expeditiously Ascertaining the Value of any Goods bought or sold by 
Weight, from is. per cwt. to 1x25. per cwt., and from one farthing per pound to 
one shilling per potmd. By Thomas Downie. 396 pp., leather . . 9/0 
" A most useful set of tables, nothing like them before e]AsX.ed."—Buildingr News. 
" Although specially adapted to the iron and metal trades, the tables wiD be found usefi'* 
every other business in which merchandise is bought and sold by weight."— i?a«Vwajy News. 



42 CROSBY LOCKWOOD &> SON'S CATALOGUE, 



NUMBER, WEIGHT, AND FRACTIONAL CALCULATOR. 

Containing upwards of 250,000 Separate Calculations, showing at a Glance the 
Value at 423 Different Rates, ranguig from rljth of a Penny to 205. each, or per 
cwt., and ;C2o per ton, of any number of articles consecutively, from 1 to 470. 
Any number of cwts., ors., and lbs., from 1 cwt. to 470 cwts. Any number of 
tons, cwts., qrs., and lbs., from i to 1,000 tons. By William Chadwick, 
Public Accountant. Third Edition, Revised. 8vo, strongly bound . 1 8/G 

"It is as easy of reference for any answer or any number of answers as a dictionary. For 
makings up accounts or estimates the book must prove invaluable to all who have any considerable 
quantity of calculations involvingf price and measure in any combination to do."— Engineer. 

"The most perfect work of the kind yet prepared." — Glasgow Herald. 

THE WEIGHT CALCULATOR. 

Being a Series of Tables upon a New and Comprehensive Plan, exhibiting at 
one Reference the exact Value of any Weight from i lb. to 15 tons, at 300 
Progressive Rates, from id. to 1685. per cwt., and containing 186,000 Direct 
Answers, which, with their Combinations, consisting of a single addition 
(mostly to be performed at sight), will afford an aggregate of 10,266,000 
Answers ; the whole being calculated and designed to ensure correctness and 
promote despatch. By Henry Harben, Accotuitant. Fifth Edition, carefully 
Corrected. Royal Svo, strongly half-bound £1 gs. 

" A practical and useful work of reference for men of business gesiBrany."— Ironmonger. 

"Of priceless value to business men. It is a necessary book in all mercantile offices. "— 
Shiffleid Independent. 

THE DISCOUNT GUIDE. 

Comprising several Series of Tables for the Use of Merchants, ManufJacturers, 
Ironmongers, and Others, by which maybe ascertained the Exact Profit arising 
from any mode of using Discounts, either in the Purchase or Sale of Goods, and 
the method of either Altering a Rate of Discount, or Advancing a Price, so as 
to produce, by one operation, a sum that will realise any required Profit after 
allowing one or more Discounts : to ^hich are added TaUes of Profit or 
Advance from li to 90 ^r cent., Tables of Discoiuit from ij to 98I per cent., 
and Tables of Commission, &c., from | to 10 per cent. By Henry Harbbn, 
Accountant. New Edition, Corrected. Demy Svo, half-bound . £1 6«. 
" A book such as this can only be appreciated by business men, to whom the savii^ of time 

f means savmfif of money. The work must prove of great value to merchants, manufacturers, and 

geaexsXtizdeK."— British Trade youmal. 

I 

I TABLES OF WAGES. 

! At 54, 52, 50 and 48 Hours per Week. Showing the Amounts of Wages from 

I One quarter of an hour to Sixty-four hours, in each case at Rates of Wages 

advancing by One Shilling from 45. to 55s. per week. By Thos. Garbutt, 

Accountant. Square crown Svo, half-boimd 6/0 

I IRON-PLATE WEIGHT TABLES. 

I For Iron Shipbuilders, Engineers, and Iron Merchants. Contiuning the 
* Calculated Weights of upwards of 150,000 different sizes of Iron Plates from 
I I foot by 6 in. by J in. to 10 feet by 5 feet by i in. Worked out on the Basis of 
40 lbs. to the square foot of Iron of i inch in thickness. By H. Burlinson 
! and W. H. Simpson. 4to, half-bound £1 6s. 

MATHEMATICAL TABLES (ACTUARIAL). 

Comprising Commutation and Conversion Tables, Logarithms, Cologarithms, 
Antilogarithms and Reciprocals. By J. W. Gordon. Royal 8vo, mounted 
on canvas, in cloth case. [/ms^ Published. 5/0 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



AGRICULTURE, FARMING, GARDENING, S-c. 43 



AGRICULTURE, FARMING, 
GARDENING, &c. 

THE COMPLETE GRAZIER AND FARMER'S AND 
CATTLE BRBBDBR'S ASSISTANT. 

•A Compendium of Husbandry. Originally Written by William Youatt, 
Thirteenth Edition, entirely Re-written, considerably Enlarged, and brought 
up to the Present Requirements of Agricultural Practice, by William 
Fream, LL.D., Steven Lecturer in the University of Edinburgh, Author of 
" The Elements of Agriculture," &c. Royal 8vo, 1,100 wp., with over 
450 Illustrations, strongly and handsomely bound . . . ^1 lis. 6d. 
Summary of contents. 



BOOK I. ON THE Varieties, Breeding, 
Rearing, Fattening and Manage- 
ment OF Cattle. 

Book ii. On the Economy and Man- 
agement OF THE Dairy. 

Book III. On the Breeding, Rearing, 
AND Management of Horses. 

Book IV. on the Breeding, Rearing, 
AND Fattening of Sheep. 

Book v. on the Breeding, Rearing, 
AND Fattening of Swine. 

Book vi. on the Diseases of Live 



Book Vll. On the Breeding, rearing, 
AND Management of poultry. 

Book VIII. on farm Offices and 
Implements of Husbandry. 

Book IX. On the Culture and Man- 
agement OF Grass Lands. 

book X. ON THE CULTIVATION AND 

APPLICATION OF Grasses, Pulse and 
roots. 
Book XI. On Manures and their 
APPLICATION to Grass Land and 
Crops. 



Stock. i book xil. Monthly Calendars of 

' Farmwork. 

%* Opinions of the Press on the New Edition. 

" Dr. Fream is to be consfratulated on the successful attempt he has made to give us a work 
which will at once become the standard classic of the farm practice of the country. We believe 
that it will be found that it has no compeer among the many works at present in existence. . . . 
The illustrations are* admirable, while the frontispiece, which represents the well-known bull, 
New Year's Gift, bred by the Queen, is a work of art."— Tht Times. 

" The book must oe recognised as occupjring the proud position of the most exhaustive work 
of reference in the English language on the subject with which it d9a\s.''—Athenaum. 

" The most comprehensive guide to modem farm practice that exists in the English language 
to-day. . . . The Doek is one that ought to be on every farm and in the library of every land 
owner."— Af«rift Lane Express. 

" In point of exhaustiveness and accuracy the work will certainly hold a pre-eminent and 
unique position among books dealing with scientific agricultural practice. It is, in fact, an agricul- 
tural library of itseH'— North British Agrriculturist. 

" A compendium of authoritative and well-ordered knowledge on every conceivable "branch of 
the work of the live stock farmer; probably without an equal in this or any other country."— 
Yorkshire Post. 

FARM LIVE STOCK OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

By Robert Wallacb, F.L.S., F.R.S.E.. &c., Professor of Agriculture and 

Rural Economy in the University of Edinburgh. Third Edition, thoroughly 

Revised and considerably Enl^-ged. With over lao Phototypes of Prize 

Stodc. Demy 8vo, 384 pp., with 79 Plates and Maps, cloth. . . 1 2/6 

" A redly complete work on the history, bree^, and managenent of the farm stock of Great 

Britain, and one which is likely to find its way t« the shelves of every country gentleman's library." 

—The Times. 

"The latest edition ef ' Farm Live Stock of Great Britain ' is a production to be proud of, and 
its issue not the least of the services which its author has rendered to agricultural science."— 
Scottish Farmer. 

"The book is very attractive, . . . and we can scarcely imagine the existence of a 
farmer who would not like to have a copy of this beautiful and useful work. —Arar>fe Lane Express. 

NOTE-BOOK OF AGRICULTURAL FACTS & FIGURES 
FOR FARMERS AND FARM STUDENTS. 

By Primrose McCqnnbll, B.Sc, Fellow of the Highland and Agricultural 

Society, Author of " Elements of Farming." Sixth Edition, Re-written, Revised, 

and greatly Enlarged. Fcap. Svo, 480 pp., leather. \_ Just Published. 6/0 

Summary of Contents : Surveying and Levelling. — Weights and 

Measures. — Machinery and Buildings. — Labour. — Operations. — Draining. — 

Embanking.— Geological memoranda.— Soils.— Manures.— Cropping.— Crops.— 

rotations. — WEEDS.— FEEDING. — DAIRYING.— LIVE STOCK. — HORSES. — CATTLE. — 

Sheep.— Pigs.— POULTRY.— FORESTRY.— HORTICULTURE.— Miscellaneous. 

" No farmer, and certainly no agricultural student, ought to be without this multum-in-parvo 
manual of all subjects connected with the ivcoi."— North British Agriculturist. 

" This little pocket-book contains a large amount of useful information upon all kinds of agri> 
cultural subjects. Something of the kind has long been wanted."— Aforl Lane Express. 

" The amount of infonnation it contains is most surprising ; the arrangement of the matter is 
so methodical— although so compressed— as to be inteUisible to everyone who takes a glance through 
its pages. They teem with tnfonnatloii."— Farm mnd Hmts. 



44 CROSBY LOCKWOOD &- SON'S CATALOGUE. 



BRITISH DAIRYING. 

A Handy Volume on the Work of the Dairy-Fann. For the Use of Technical 
Instruction Classes, Students in Agricultural Colleges and the Working Dairy* 
Farmer. By Prof. J. P. Sheldon. With Illustrations. Second Edition, 
Revised. Crown 8vo, cloth. [ Just Published. 2/6 

" Confidently recommended as a useful text-book on dairy farming."— ^,f?ru:w//Mra/ Gazette. 

"Probably tne best half-crown manual on dairy work that has yet been produced."— A'l^r/A 
British Aericulturist. 

" It IS the soundest little work we have yet seen on the subject."— TA* Times. • 

MILK, CHEESE, AND BUTTER. 

A Practical Handbook on their Properties and the Processes of their Produc- 
tion. Including a Chapter on Cream and the Methods of its Separation from 
Milk. By John Oliver, late Principal of the^ Western Dairy Institute, 
Berkeley. With Coloured Plates and 200 Illustrations. Crown 8vo, cloth. 

7/6 

" An exhaustive and masterly production. It ruy be cordially recommended to all students 
and practitioners of dairy science.' —North British Agriculturist. 

" We recommend this very comprehensive and carefully-written book to dairy-farmers and 
students of dairying. It is a distinct acquisition to the library of the agriculturist."— ^^r»CM/^fa/ 
Gazette. 

SYSTEMATIC SMALL FARMING. 

Or, The Lessons of My Farm. Being an Introduction to Modem Farm 
Practice for Small Farmers. By R. Scott Burn, Author of "Outlines of 

Modern Farming," &c. Crown 8vo, cloth 6/0 

" This is the completest book of its class we have seen, and one which every amateur farmer 
will read with pleasure, and accept as a guide." — Field. 

OUTLINES OF MODERN FARMING. 

By R. Scott Burn. Soils, Manures, and Crops — Farming and Farming 
Economy— Cattle, Sheep, and Horses — Management of Dairy,^ Pigs, and 
Poultry — Utilisation of Town-Sewage, Irrigation, &c. Sixth Edition. In One 
Vol., 1,250 pp., half-bound, profusely Illustrated 1 2/0 

FARM ENQINEERINQ, The COMPLETE TEXT-BOOK of. 

Comprising Draining and Embanking ; Irrigation and Water Supply ; Farm 
Roads, Fences and Gates ; Farm Buildings ; Barn Implements and Machines ; 
Field Implements and Machines ; Agricultural Surveying, &c. By Professor 
John Scott. In One Vol., 1,150 pp., half-bound, with over 600 Illustrations. 

12/0 
" Written with great care, as well as with knowledge and ability. The author has done his 
work well ; we have found him a very trustworthy guide wherever we have tested his statements. 
The volume will be of great value to agricultural students."— iWar>fe Lane Express. 

THE FIELDS OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

A Text-Book of Agriculture. Adapted to the Syllabus of the Science and 
Art Department. For Elementary and Advanced Students. By Hugh 
Clements (Board of Trade). Second Edition, Revised, with Additions. 

i8mo, cloth 2/6 

" It is a long time since we have seen a book which has pleased us more, or which contains 
such a vast and useful fund oi)aioyfleAge."— Educational Times. 

TABLES and MEMORANDA for FARMERS, GRAZIERS, 

AGRICULTURAL 5TUDENT5, SURVEYORS, LAND AGENTS, 
AUCTIONEERS, &c. 

With a New System of Farm Book-keeping. By Sidney Francis. Fourth 
Edition. 272 pp., waistcoat-pocket size, limp leather . . . -1/6 
" Weighiivg less than i oz., and occupying no more space than a match-box, it contains a mass 
of facts and calculations which has never before, in such handy form, been obtainable. Every 
operation on the farm is dealt with. The work may be taken as thoroughly accurate, the whole of 
the tables having been revised by Dr. Fream. We cordially recommend it."— Bell's JVeekly 
Messenger. 

THE ROTHAMSTED EXPERIMENTS AND THEIR 

PRACTICAL LESSONS FOR FARMERS. 

Part I. Stock. Part IL Crops. By C. J. R. Tipper. Crown 8vo, cloth. 

[Just Published. 3/6 
" We have no doubt that the book will be welcomed by a largfe class of fanners and others 
interested in agriculture."— 50ndiartf. 



AGRICULTURE, FARMING, GARDENING, S^. 45 
FBRTILISERS AND FEEDING STUFFS. 

A Handbook for the Practical Farmer. By Bernard Dyer, D.Sc. (Lond.). 

With the Text of the Fertilisers and Feeding Stuffs Act of 1893. &c. Third 

Edition, Revised. Crown 8vo, cloth. [Just Published. 1 /O 

"This little book is precisely what it professes to be — *A Handbook for the Practical 

Farmer.' Dr. Dyer has done fanners good service in placing at their disposal so much useful 

information in so mtelligible a form."— TA* Tinus 



BEES FOR PLEASURE AND PROFIT. 

A Guide to the Manipulation of Bees, the Production of Honey, and the 
General Management of the Apiary. By G. Gordon Samson. With 
numerous Illustrations. Crown 8vo, cloth I/O 



BOOK-KEEPING for FARMERS and ESTATE OWNERS. 

A Practical Treatise, presenting, in Three Plans, a System adapted for all 
Classes of Farms. By Johnson M. Woodman, Chartered Accountant. 
Second Edition, Revised. Crown 8vo, cloth hoards, 3/6 ; or, cloth limp, 2/6 
" The volume is a capital study of a most important subject."— ^^ru:w//«r«/ Gazette. 

WOODMAN'S YEARLY FARM ACCOUNT BOOK. 

Giving Weekly Labour Account and Diary, and showing the Income and 
Expenditure under each Department of Crops, Live Stock, Dairy, &c., &c. 
With Valuation, Profit and Loss Account, and Balance Sheet at the End of the 
Year. By Tohnson M. Woodman, Chartered Accountant. Second Edition. 

Folio, half-bound Net 7/6 

"Contains every requisite form for keeping farm accounts readily and accurately."— 
A£:ricuUur€. 

THE FORCING GARDEN. 

Or, How to Grow Early Fruits, Flowers and Vegetables. With Plans and 
Estimates for Building Glasshouses, Pits and Frames. With Illustrations. 

By Samuel Wood. Crown 8vo, cloth 3/6 

"A good book, containing a great deal of valuable teaching."— Gardeners' Magaxine. 

A PLAIN GUIDE TO GOOD GARDENING. 

Or, How to Grow Vegetables, Fruits, and Flowers. By S. Wood. Fourth 
Edition, with considerable Additions, and numerous Illustrations. Crown 

8vo, cloth 3/6 

" A very good book, and one to be highly recommended as a practical guide. The practical 
directions are excellent."— ^/A«fM?Mm. 

MULTUM-IN-PARVO GARDENING. 

Or, How to Make One Acre of Land produce £jbio a year, by the Cultivation 
of Fruits and Vegetables ; also, How to Grow Flowers in Three Glass Houses, 
so as to realise £\nt per annum clear Profit. By Samuel Wood, Author of 
'• Good Gardening,'' &c. Fifth and Cheaper Edition, Revised, with Additions. 

Crown 8vo, sewed I/O 

"We are bound to recommend it as not only suited to the case of the amateur and gentle- 
man's gardener, but to the market grower."— Gardeners' Magazine. 

THE LADIES' MULTUM-IN-PARVO FLOWER GARDEN. 

And Amateur's Complete Guide. By S. Wood. Crown 8vo, cloth . 3/6 
" Full of shrewd hints and useful instrurtions, based on a lifetime of experience."— 5tfo/ir»«a«. 

POTATOES: HOW TO GROW AND SHOW THEM. 

A Practical Guide to the Cultivation and General Treatment of the Potato. 
By J. Pink. Crown 8vo 2/0 

MARKET AND KITCHEN GARDENING. 

ByC. W.Shaw, late Editor of G«n&mV///«j/r«/tf<^. Cloth . 3/6 

" The most valuable compendium of kitchen and market-garden work published. "^Azrm«n 



46 CROSBY LOCKWOOD «- SON'S CATALOGUE, 



AUCTIONEERING, VALUING, LAND 
SURVEYING, ESTATE AGENCY, &c. 



THE APPRAISER, AUCTIONEER, BROKER, HOUSE 

AND ESTATE AGENT AND VALUE^'5 POCKET ASSISTANT. 

For the Valuation for Purckase, Sale, or Renewal of Leases, Annuities, and 

Reversions, and of Property generally ; with Prices for Inventories, &c. By 

John Wheeler, Valuer, &c. Sixth Edition. Re-written and greatly Extended 

by C. NoRRis, Surveyor, Valuer, &c. Royal samo, cloth . . 6/0 

" A neat and concise book of reference, containing' an admirable and clearly-arranged list of 

prices for inventories, and a very practical guide to determine the value of furniture, &c. "Standard. 

" Contains a large quantity of varied and useful information as to the valuation for purchase, 

sale, or renewal of leases, annuities and reversions, and of property generally, with prices for 

inventories, and a guide to determine the value of interior fittings and other eSecXs."— Builder. 

AUCTIONEERS: THEIR DUTIES AND LIABILITIES. 

A Manual of Instruction and Counsel for the Young Auctioneer. ^ By Robert 
Squibbs, Auctioneer. Second Edition, Revised and partly Re-written. Demy 

8vo, cloth 1 2/6 

" The standard text-book on the topics of which it tTea.t&"—Athefueutn. 
" The work is one of general excellent character, and gives much information in a com- 
pendious and satisfactory form."— Builder. 

"May be recommended as giving a great deal of information on the law relating to 
auctioneers, in a very readable form. — Z^w youmal. 

" Auctioneers may be congratulated on having so pleasing a writer to minister to their special 
needs."— Solicitors' Youmal. 

INWOOD'S TABLES FOR PURCHASING ESTATES 
AND FOR THE VALUATION OF PROPERTIES, 

Including Advowsons, Assurance Policies, Copyholds, Deferred Annuities, 
Freeholds, Ground Rents, Immediate Annuities, Leaseholds, Life Interests, 
Mortgages, Perpetuities, Renewals of Leases, Reversions, Sinking Funds, 
&c., &c. 25th Edition, Revised and Extended by William Schooling, 
F.R.A.S., with Logarithms of Natural. Numbers and Thoman's Logarithmic 
Interest and Annuity Tables. 336 pp., Demy 8vo, cloth. 

\ Just published. Net 8/0 
" Those interested in the purchase and sale of estates, and in the acyustment of compensation 
cases, as weQ as in transactions in annuities, life insurances, &c., will nnd the present edition of 
eminent siernce"— Engineering. 

" ' Inwood's Tables ' still maintain a most enviable reputation. The new issue has been 
enriched by la^e additional contributions by M. F^dor Thoman, whose carefully arran^fed Tables 
cannot fail to be of the utmost utility."— Af»'««»^ youmal. 

THE AGRICULTURAL VALUER'S ASSISTANT. 

A Practical Handbook on the Valuation of Landed Estates ; including Rule 
and Data for Measuring and Estimating the Contents, Weights and Values of 
Agricultural Produce and Timber, and the Values of Feeding Stuffs, Manures, 
and Labour ; with Forms of Tenant-Right Valuations, Lists -of Local Agricul- 
tural Customs, Scales of Compensation under the Agricultural Holdings Act, 
&c., &c. ByToM Bright, Agricultural Surveyor. Second Edition, Enlarged. 

Crown 8vo, cloth 6/0 

" Full of tables and examples in connection with the valuation of tenant-rigrht, estates, labour, 

contents and weisfhts of timber, and farm produce of all kinds."— ^ij-rfew/ftrfra/ Gazette. 

" An eminently practical handbook, full of practical tables and data of undoubted interest and 

value to surveyors and auctioneers in preparing: valuations of all kinds."— Farw^r. 

POLE PLANTATIONS AND UNDERWOODS. 

A Practical Handbook on Estimating the Cost of Forming, Renovating, 
Improving, and Grubbing Plantations and Underwoods, their Valuation for 
Purposes of Transfer, Rental, Sale or Assessment. By Tom Bright. Crown 
8vo, cloth 3/6 

" To valuers, foresters and agfents it will be a welcome aid."— North British AgricuUurisf. 

" Well calculated to assist the valuer in the discharge of his duties, and of undoubted inteiest 
and use both to surveyors and auctioneers in pr^arinff vahiations of aB Unds."— JITeM/ Herald. 



AUCTIONEERING, VALUING, LAND SURVEYING, S^, 47 
THE AGRICULTURAL SURVEYOR'5 HANDBOOK. 

A Comprehensive Manual of Practical Rules, Formulx, Tables, and Data for 
the Use of Surveyors, Estate Agents, Agriculturists, Landowners, and others 
interested in the Management, Equipment, or Valuation of Landed Estates. 
By Tom Bright, Agricultural Surveyor and Valuer, Author of "The Agri- 
cultural Valuer's Assistant," &c. Pocket-book size. 

[Nearfy Ready. Price about 7/6 

THE LAND VALUER'S BEST ASSISTANT. 

Being Tables on a very much Improved Plan^ for Calculating the Value of 
Estates. With Tables for reducing Scotch, Irish, and Provincial Customary 
Acres to Statute Measure, &c. By R. Hudson, C.E. New Edition. 

Royal 32mo, leather, elastic band 4/0 

"Of incalculable value to the country g^entleman and professional man. "—i^arm«rj'' yournal. 

THE LAND IMPROVER'S POCKET-BOOK. 

Comprising Formulae, Tables, and Memoranda required in any Computation 
relating to the Permanent Improvement of Landed Property. By John Ewart, 
Surveyor. Second Ekiition, Revised. Royal samo, oblong, leather . 4/0 
" A compendious and handy little volume." — Spectator. 

THE LAND VALUER'S COMPLETE POCKET-BOOK. 

Being the above Two Works bound together. Leather .... 7/6 

HANDBOOK OF HOUSE PROPERTY. 

A Popular and Practical Guide to the Purchase, Mortgage, Tenancy, and 
Compulsory Sale of Houses and Land^ including Dilapidations and Fixtures : 
with Examples of all kinds of Valuations, Information on Building and on the 
right use of Decorative Art. By E. L. Tarbuck, Architect and Surveyor. 

Sixth Edition, zamo, cloth 5/0 

"The advice is thoroughly practical." — Law yournal. 

" For all who have dealings with house property, this is an indispensable eidde."—DecoratioM, 
" CarefuUv broaght up to date, and much improved by the addition o7 a division on Fine 
Art. . . . A wea-written and thoughtful work."— Land ^g-enfs Jiec»rd. 



LAW AND MISCELLANEOUS. 



MODERN JOURNALISM. 

A Handbook of Instruction and Coimsel for the Young Journalist. By John 
B. Mackie, Fellow of the Institute of Journalists. Crown 8vo, cloth . 2/0 
" This invaluable guide to journalism is a work which all aspirants o a Journalistic career will 
read Mrith advantage. "—yM^rwa/tx/. 

HANDBOOK FOR SOLICITORS AND ENGINEERS 

Engaged in Promoting Private Acts of Parliament and Provisional Orders for 
the Authorisation of Railways, Tramways^ Gas and Water Works, &c. 
By L. Livingstone Macassey, of the Middle Temple, Barrister-at-Law, 
M. Inst. C.E. 8vo, cloth £1 Ss. 

PATENTS for INVENTIONS, HOW to PROCURE THEM. 

Compiled ft>r the Use of Inventors, Patentees and others. By G. G. M. 
Hardingham, Assoc. Mem. Inst. C.E., &c. Demy 8vo, cloth '1/6 

CONCILIATION & ARBITRATION In LABOUR DISPUTES. 

A Historical Sketch and Brief Statement of the Present Position of the 
Question at Home and Abroad. By T. S. Jeans, Author of " England's 
Supremacy," &c Crow» Svo, «x> pp., cloth . • oig.rzed byGoOgl?/® 



48 CROSBY LOCKWOOD «- SON'S CATALOGUE. 
EVERY MAN'S OWN LAWYER. 

A Handy-Book of the Principles of Law and Equity. With a Concise 
Dictionary of Legal Terms. By A Barrister. Thirty-sixth Edition, care- 
fully Revised, and including New Acts of Parliament of 1898. Comprising 
the Benefices Act^ iSq8; nciv Marriage (Nonconformists) Act^ i8q8; 
Inebriates Act, 1 8^', Criminal Evidence Act, i8g8; Viucination Act, 1808; 
Vagrancy Act, i8g8 ; besides the Workmen s Compensation Act, iSqfJ ; 
Infant Life Protection Act, iSgj ; Land Transfer Act, i8q7, ^'c, <5r»c. 
Judicial Decisions during the year have also been duly noted. Crown 
' 8vo, 750 pp. Price 6/8 (saved at every consultation I), strongly bound in 
cloth. Ui*st Published. 

The Book will be found to comprise {amongst other mattery- 
Tun Rights and wrongs of individuals— Landlord and Tenant— Vendors 
AND Purchasers— Leases and mortgages— Printipal and agent— Partnership 
AND Companies— Masters, Servants and Workmen— Contracts and agreements 
—Borrowers, Lenders and sureties— Sale and purchase of Goods— Cheques, 
Bills and Notes— Bills of Sale— Bankruptcy- Railway and .Shipping Law- 
Life, Fire, and Marine insurance— accident and Fidelity Insurance— Criminal 
Law— Parliamentary elections— County Councils— District Councils— Parish 
Councils- municipal Corporations— Libel and slander— Public Health and 
Nuisances— copyright. Patents, trade Marks— Husband and Wife— Divorce- 
Infancy— Custody OF Children— Trustees and Executors— Clergy, Church- 
wardens &c —Game Laws and Sporting— innkeepers— Horses and Dogs— Taxes 
and Death duties— Forms of Agreements, Wills, Codicils, Notices, &c. 

WF The object of this work is to enable those who consult it to help themsetves to the 
law ; and thereby to dispense, as far as possible, with professional assistance and advice. There 
are many v/ronf^^s and grievances which persons subtnit to from time to titne through not 
knevnng how or where to apply for redress ; and many persons have as great a dread of a 
lawyer's offia as of a lions den. With this book at hand it is believed that many a SiX-AND- 
EiGHTPENCE may be saved; many a wrong redressed ; many a right reclaimed; many a law 
suit avoided; and many an einl abated. The work has established itself as the standard legal 
adviser of all classes, and has also made a reputation for itself as a useful book of reference for 
lawyers residing at a distance from law libraries, who are glad to have at hand a work 
embodying recent decisions and enact?nents. 

Opinions of the Press. 

" It is a complete code of English Law written in plain language, which all can understand. 

. . . Should be in the hands of evety business man, and all who wish to abolish lawyers' bills."— 
fVeekly Times. 

" A useful and concise epitome of the law, compiled yrith considerable care.' —Law Magaxine. 

"A complete digest of the most useful facts which constitute English ^aiv."— Globe. 

"This excellent handbook. . . . Admirably done, admirably arranged, and admirably 
c\itxp." — Leeds Mercury. 

" A concise, cheap, and complete epitome of the English law. So plainly written that he who 
runs may read, and he who reads may understand. "—Figaro. 

" A dictionary of legal facts well put together. The book is a very asefiU otut," —Spectator. 

THE PAWNBROKER'S, FACTOR'S, AND MERCHANT'S 
GUIDE TO THE LAW OF LOANS AND PLEDGES. 

With the Statutes and a Digest of Cases. By H. C Folkard, Barrister-at- 
Law. Cloth 3/6 

LABOUR CONTRACTS. 

A Popular Handbook on the Law of Contracts for Works and Services. By 
David Gibbons. Fourth Edition, with Appendix of Statutes by T. F. Uttlev, 
Solicitor. Fcap. 8vo, cloth 3/6 

SUMMARY OF THE FACTORY AND WORKSHOP ACTS 

(1878- 1891). For the Use of Manufacturers and Managers. By Emile 
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Oonstruction of Roofs. E. W. Tarn . . . . 1/6 

Joints used by Builders. J. W. Christy . 3/- 

Shoring. G. H. Blagrove 1/6 

Timber Importer's & Builder's Guide. R. E. Grandy 2/- 

Plumbing. W. P. Buohan 3/6 

Ventilation of Buildings. W. P. Buohan . . 3/6 

Practical Plasterer. W, Kemp . . . . . 2/- 

House-Painting. E. A. Davidson . . . . S/- 

Elementary Decoration. J. W. Faoey . ... 2/- 

Practical House Decoration. J. W. Facey . . 2/6 

Gas-Fitting. J. Black . . . . . . 2/6 

Warming and Ventilation. C. Tomlinson . 3/- 

Portland Cement for Users. H. Faija . . 2/- 

Limes, Cements, & Mortars. G. R. Burnell . 1/6 

Masonry and Stone Cutting. E. Dobson . . . 2/6 

Arches, Piers, and Buttresses. W. Bland . . 1/6 

Quantities and Measurements. A. C. Beaton . . 1/6 

Complete Measurer. R. Horton .... 4/- 

Light, for use of Architects. E. W. Tarn . . 1/6 

Hints to Young Architects. Wightwick & Guillaumb 3/6 



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